RESEARCH METHODS RESULTS: OLUSEGUN OBASANJO ADMINISTRATION 2003-2007 DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

            In this chapter, the method used in analyzing the democratic governance and poverty alleviation programme under President Olusegun Obasanjo administration  2003-2007 will be discussed. For easy understanding, this chapter will be divided into various components or sections viz; Area of study, sources of data collection, population of study and determination of sample size.

3.2 AREA OF STUDY

            Taking into consideration the obvious peculiarity of this work and the need to ensure reliability and proper presentation, this research work is fashioned to cover relevant towns in Nigeria, but was restricted to the staffs of poverty alleviation programme in Ebonyi State   

3.3 SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION

This section is dedicated to basic method and pattern employed by the researcher in gathering data for the purpose of the study. It also demonstrated the step by step procedure of data collection.
            The researcher however, used two major sources to collect the necessary data for the analytical review of the democratic governance and poverty alleviation programme.
            These sources were primary and secondary sources.   

TOPIC
DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMME:
A CASE STUDY OF OLUSEGUN OBASANJO ADMINISTRATION 2003-2007

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES 
 

THIS IS A SAMPLE | WE ARE PROFESSIONALS IN WRITING


3.4 PRIMARY SOURCE OF DATA

            One of the primary sources of data was the administering of the questionnaires. The researcher adopted the method of setting out questionnaire which were designed specifically to fish out useful information for the analysis of democratic governance and poverty alleviation programme under Olusegun Obasanjo regime 2003-2007.
            The questionnaire was set out in simple and direct languages devoid of ambiguity of avoid misunderstanding by the respondents which may lead to incorrect information.
            The information required in the questionnaire includes sex, martial status, education/professional qualification, occupation, length of service, age, grade level etc.
            Another source of primary data collection was through personal interview, which was done orally. The workers were each personal interviewed by the researcher. The advantage of this method was that the researcher was able to get some facts that were not provided in the questionnaire.
            The interview conducted was deliberately designed to checkmate the tendency of questionnaire being filled by other workers different from those that were given the questionnaire    

3.5 SECONDARY SOURCE OF DATA

            The secondary sources of data provided the bulk of the information for the research. This includes presentation at various sensitization workshops on poverty alleviation and democracy governance, government circulars on poverty alleviation, journals, magazines, newspapers and libraries.
            Another source of secondary data was internet. Relevant materials were also collected from websites to complement the information from textbooks and journals   

3.6 POPULATION SIZE

            Because of the diversity of the country, Nigeria, the population of the study is base on Ebonyi State due to the time and finances constraints and non-challent attitude of workers.
            The entire staff of the National poverty alleviation programme (NAPEP) in Ebonyi state numbering about two hundred and ten (210) was used as the population for the study. This comprises sixty (60) senior staffs and one hundred and fifty (150) intermediate and junior staffs. These are the make up of the staffs in the Ebonyi State poverty alleviation programme.   

3.7 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE

The sample size of this research work is determined using Yaro Yamani formula:
Where n=sample size
               N=population of study
               I=constant
               e= minimum error in calculation or margin or error (0.052)
n= N= 210, e2 =0.052

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

            For the purpose of this study, the researcher administered questionnaire and oral interview to the residence of Abakaliki and the staffs of the National poverty alleviation programme (NEPEP) in Ebonyi State.
            The data collected from the questionnaire are presented and converted to percentages to achieve the uniformity necessary for comparative analysis. Out of one hundred and two (102) questionnaires distributed, eighty seven (87) were returned, while fifteen (15) were not returned.
Table 4.1 sex distribution of respondents
Sex
Responses
Percentages
Male
60
69
Female
27
31
Total
87
100
 Source: Ogudu 2008 field work
Table 4.1 shows that the researcher ensured that there was justice in distribution of the questionnaire to avoid basis by both sex. The percentage ratio is 69 to 31 respectively. This gave a fair analysis of workers impression about the policy. It is out of place to see male out numbering the female as man dominate the areas.
Table 4.2 Age distribution
Age range
Responses
Percentages
18-25
17
19.5
26-35
49
56.3
36-45
12
14
46-55
9
10.3
Total
87
100
 Source: Ogudu 2008 field work.
            This table shows that the researcher classify according to their ages. This was purpose designed to enhance better assessment of the opinion expressed by the respondents. The age of some senior officers were between 36-45 years, while the intermediate officers were between the ranges of 26-35 who are more favoured by the programme.
            In the above, 10% fall in the ages between 46-55 years. Whereas, 18-25 years are mostly in schools. The beneficiary according to the respondents are the age between 26-35 because most of them are junior staffs.
Table 4.3 Marital Status
Married range
Responses
Percentages
Married
42
48.2
Single
38
43.6
Divorce
7
8
Total
87
100
 Source: Ogudu 2008 field work.
            Table 4.3 shows that 48.2 respondents are married people while 43.6 are single individuals among the interviewed and 7 are divorce.
Table 4.4 qualification distribution of responses
Qualification
Responses
Percentages
GCE/O LEVEL
10
11.4
NCE/OND
26
29.8
BSC/HND
35
40.2
MSC/MBA
16
18.3
PHD
-
-
Total
87
100
 Source: Ogudu 2008 field work.
            Table shows that the highest percentage which is 40.2 is those with BSC     or HND qualification. This gives the confidence to the researcher because of their level of education. While, those with MBA and PHD were few.
            However, those with GCE or O’ level and NCE or OND are far better to those with MBA which they bodies that the issue of poverty concerns them mostly.
Table 4.5 Rank distribution of respondents
Ranks
 Responses
Percentages
Directors
6
6.8
Senior officers
31
35.63
Junior officers
50
57.47
Total
87
100
  Source: Ogudu 2008 field work.
Table 4.5 shows statistical distribution of the respondents by ranks. The highest responses of 57.47 percentage were junior staffs. The responses of directors are 6.8 percentages. With the above analysis, it can be observed that the junior staffs and senior officers are more favourably by this programme because of their positions in the society. While the directors are disfavoured.

SECTION B
Table 4.6. Do you agree that the rich participate more actively in democratic setting than the poor?
Options
Responses
Percentages
Agree
50
58
Strongly agree
-
-
Disagree
27
31
Strongly disagree
10
11
Total
87
100
Source: Ogudu 200 field work.
            Table 4.6.Shows that 50 or 58% of the respondents are of the opinion that rich participate more actively in democratic setting than the poor, 27 or 31% partially disagreed with the notion while 10 or 11% however, rejected the above question.
            From the responses there are no doubt that rich participate more actively in democracy than the poor.

Table 4.7.Is it true that poor masses are used in democratic setting to cause crisis than the rich?
Options
Responses
Percentages
Agree
55
63.2
Strongly agree
29
33.3
Disagree
3
3.44
Strongly disagree
-
-
Total
87
100
 Source: Ogudu 2008 field work.
Table 4.7 shows that 55 respondents agreed that poor are used to cause crisis, 29 of the respondents strongly agreed with the researcher’s question, whereas, 3 respondents rejected the notion.
            With the above analysis, there is believed that the poor are been used to cause crisis during democratic setting.
Table 4.8 Can poverty be addressed through democratic governance?
Options
Responses
Percentages
Agree
40
46
Strongly agree
30
34.5
Disagree
10
11.5
Strongly disagree
7
8
Total
87
100
Source: Ogudu 2008 field work.
            The above table shows that 40 respondents accepted that poverty can be addressed through good democratic governance, 30 percentage strongly agree with the statement, while 10 respondents disagreed with the question, whereas, 7 disagree strongly with this.
            In view of the respondents the poverty level of the citizens can be addressed through adequate democratic governance.
Table 4.9 Democratic setting has done more harm than good to the development of Nigeria society.
Options
Responses
Percentages
Agree
3
3.44
Strongly agree
9
10.3
Disagree
20
22.98
Strongly disagree
55
63.2
Total
87
100
Source: Ogudu 2008 field work.
            Table 4.9 shows that 55 respondents strongly disagreed that democracy has done more harm than good in Nigeria development, while, 20 respondents supported the notion; whereas 3, respondents agreed and 9 also strongly agreed with the question.
            This views that democratic government in Nigeria has not done more harm than good in Nigeria development.
Table 4.10 Do you see any improvement as regards the poor masses since, the introduction of poverty alleviation programme?
Options
Responses
Percentages
Agree
8
9.2
Strongly agree
15
17.2
Disagree
20
23
Strongly disagree
44
50.6
Total
87
100
 Source: Ogudu 200 field work.
            In this table, it shows that 20 respondents and 44 respondents disagreed and strongly disagreed, while 15 respondents strongly agreed whereas, 8 respondents agreed with the question.
            This however, views that the poor masses who are the target group have not benefited from this programme.

Table 4.11 Do you agree that the introduction of poverty alleviation programme encourages corruption?
Options
Responses
Percentages
Agree
54
62
Strongly agree
21
24.1
Disagree
8
9.2
Strongly disagree
87
100
 Source: Ogudu 2008 field work.
            Meanwhile, from the table 54 respondents are of the opinion that the introduction of poverty alleviation programme has encourages corruption in the society, while 21 supported or strongly agreed with the above statement. Whereas, 8 respondents disagreed with this view and 4 respondents also strongly disagreed.
            From this analysis, there is no doubt that poverty alleviation programme encourages corruption among the staffs and agents of this programme.   

4.2 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS

            In order to accept or reject the hypothesis designed from the beginning of this study, it is pertinent then that the hypothesis are tested and also analysed.
Hypothesis I: People tend to express their views more in democratic setting than in non-democratic setting. In order to determine the degree of express agreement regarding whether people express their views in democratic setting than non-democratic setting (50) fifty people were sampled.
Table 4.12 People tend to express their views more on democratic setting than in non-democratic setting.
Options
Responses
Percentages
Agree
30
60
Strongly agree
10
20
Disagree
5
10
Strongly disagree
5
10
Total
50
100
            From the table, 30 respondents agree, 10 strongly agreed while 5 respondents disagreed with this, whereas, 5 strongly disagreed.         
            In this analysis, it means that people enjoys freedom of speech in democratic setting than in non-democratic era.
Hypothesis II: The rich participate more actively in democratic setting than the poor ones. To examine the level of agreement (50) fifty respondents were sampled.
            Table 4.13 The rich participate more actively in democratic setting than the poor ones.
Options
Responses
Percentages
Agree
40
80
Strongly agree
7
14
Disagree
3
6
Strongly disagree
-
-
Total
50
100
            The result in the above analysis shows that 40 respondents agreed while, 7 strongly agreed with this agreement whereas, 3 respondents disagreed with it.
            This shows that the majority of rich people participate more actively than the poor ones in democratic governance of a state.
Hypothesis iii: The poor are more likely to be used in democratic setting to perpetuate crisis.
            In order to ascertain this agreement (50) fifty people were used as sample.
Table 4.14 The poor are more likely to be used in democratic setting to perpetuate crisis.
Options
Responses
Percentages
Agree
22
44
Strongly agree
18
36
Disagree
8
16
Strongly disagree
2
4
Total
50
100
            From the above analysis in table 14, 22 respondents agreed to the alternative, while 18 also strongly agreed. And 8 respondents disagreed and 2 of the respondents strongly disagreed with the alternative.
            In the fact that the poor one are used to cause crisis in democratic governance, according to the respondents, this statement is obviously accepted by the researcher and the analysis therefore, the poor one are more used in democracy to cause crisis.
Hypothesis IV. Poverty tends to engulf the rural people more in military regime than in democratic era. To view this, (50) fifty respondents were also sampled.

Table 4.15 Poverty tends to engulf the rural people more in military regime than in democratic era.
Options
Responses
Percentages
Agree
10
20
Strongly agree
30
60
Disagree
-
-
Strongly disagree
10
20
Total
50
100
            From what the respondents observed 10 agreed while 30 respondents strongly disagreed whereas 10 respondents strongly disagreed. Therefore, a large number of our respondents accepted that poverty tends to engulf the rural people more in military regime than in democracy owing to the fact democracy is government of the people.

4.3 DISCUSSIONS OF THE FINDINGS

            It is evident that Nigeria is destined by God to be a great nation with a large population of about one hundred and forty million people with its agricultural potentials, minerals and water re sources evenly distributed throughout the country.
The country is still suffers high dosage of political instability, socio-economic and political backwardness.
            According to the researcher findings, the respondents said that in the democratic setting the rich one participate more actively in government than the poor. It was also strongly believed that participation is aiming at looting public treasury and channels it to their personal usage.
            However, majority of the respondents agreed that the poor masses are used to perpetuate crisis in democratic government.  This therefore, strongly agreed that the poor are used like things in political setting to cause conflict in the country. Most of conflicts in the country are caused by the masses because of their poverty level.
            Also, it was accepted that poverty level in the country can be addressed through democratic governance. The respondents are of the opinion that poverty among the citizens can be addressed when good governance is ensured.
            Meanwhile, many people observed that the politics of today in Nigeria society has not done more harm than good. Again, the option of the people shows that since the introduction of poverty alleviation in the country, the poverty level in the society is still high. Owing to the fact that our politician system has encourages bribery and corruption which makes our leaders not be accountable and responsive to the electorate. This views, that the programme has not achieve the aims and objectives for establish it. 

TOPIC
DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMME:
A CASE STUDY OF OLUSEGUN OBASANJO ADMINISTRATION 2003-2007

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES 
 


THIS IS A SAMPLE | WE ARE PROFESSIONALS IN WRITING
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