Bucher (1979) has the view that administration is concerned with the functions and responsibilities essential to the achievement of established goals through associated effort. It is also concerned with that group of individuals who are responsible for directing, guiding, coordinating, and inspiring the associated efforts of individual members, so that the purposes for which an organization has been established may be accomplished in the most effective and efficient manner possible.
The traditional theories of administrative philosophy have usually had authoritarian, democratic, or Laissez- Faire orientations.
This philosophy usually implies a one-person leadership with decision making imposed by the leader upon group members.
2. Democratic or Equalitarian
This philosophy implies a leader who submits important matters to group discussion and involves group members in lesions a making.
This philosophy implies a leader who gives guidance but leaves decision making to group members.
Organizing refers to the development, whereby the various administrative co-ordinating centres and subdivisions of work are arranged in an integrated manner, with clearly defined lines of authority. The purpose behind this structure is the effective accomplishment of established objectives.
Qualifications of the Health Education Administrator
The qualifications of an administrator are many. Some are discussed as follows:
1. Conceptual Skills: Conceptual skills include the abilities to see the organization as whole, to originate ideas, to sense problems, and to work out solutions to these problems that will benefit the organization and establish the right priorities and organizational direction. It reduces the risk factor to a minimum.
2. Integrity: One of the most important qualifications of any administrator is integrity whether or not a leader can inspire the staff, have their cooperation, and achieve the purposes of the organization will depend to a great degree on his or her integrity. Everyone likes to feel confident than an administrator is honest and sincere, keeps promises, and can be trusted with confidential information. Such confidence cannot emanate from administrator unless they have integrity. Failure to fulfill this the qualification will result in low morale and an inefficient organization.
3. Human Relations Skills: These skills include the administrator’s ability to develop good working relationships among the staff, to get along with people, and to provide a working climate where individuals will not only produce but also grow in the job.
4. Ability to make Decisions: The administrator must be able to make decisions when necessary. This requires the ability to discern what is the best interests of the organization and what has the best chance for success, and then to foresee future developments as a result of the decision.
5. Health and Fitness for the Job: Good health and physical fitness are essentials for the administrator. They often have a bearing on making the right decisions. Vitality and endurance are essential to the administrator. They affect one’s manner, personality, attractiveness and disposition.
6. Willingness to Accept Responsibility: Every administrator must be willing to accept responsibility. There are duties to be performed that influence the welfare of many individuals. Plans have to be fulfilled if the purpose of the organization are to be accomplished. Action is required to ensure production and render services. The person who accepts and administrative job is morally bound to assume the responsibility that goes with that position.
A good administrator will experience a feeling of dissatisfaction whenever he or she fails to meet responsibilities.
7. Understanding of Work: The administrator will benefit from having a thorough understanding of the specialized work in which the organization is engaged. It is necessary to have a knowledge of health and also the part it plays in the total educational process. An administrator will find that detailed knowledge of an organization’s work is invaluable in successfully guiding its operations.
8. Command of Technical Skills: Technical skills in many ways are similar to the first qualification listed- conceptual skills. There is one essential difference. Conceptual skills refer more to the know how and temperament of the individual, whereas technical skills refer to the application of this knowledge and ability. An individual who possess these skills can plan and budget his or her time and effort and also the time and work of others in the most effective way possible. Time is not spent on details when more important work should be done. Tasks are performed in a relaxed, efficient, calm and logical manner.
9. Intellectual Capacity: To be a good administrator one must be intellectually competent. One should be able to think and reason logically, to apply knowledge effectively, to communicate efficiently and to possess other factors that are closely allied to the intellectual process. There have been many so called “brains” who failed miserably as administrators, whereas most good administrators have at least average intellectual capacities.
Major Administrative Duties
1. Planning: Planning is the process of outlining the work that is to be performed in a logical and purposeful manner, together with the methods that are to be used in the performance of this work. The total plan will result in the accomplishment of the purposes for which the organization is established. Of course this requires a clear conception of the aims of the organization. To accomplish this planning the administrator must have vision to look into the future and to prepare for what is seen.
2. Organizing: Organizing refers to the development of the formal structure of the organization, whereby the various administrative co-ordinating centres and subdivisions of work are arranged in an integrated manner, with clearly defined lines of authority. The purpose behind this structure is the effective accomplishment of established objectives.
3. Staffing: The administrative duty of staffing refers to the entire personnel function of selection, assignment, training, and providing and maintaining favourable working conditions for all members of the organization. The administrator must have a thorough knowledge of the staff. He or she must select with care and ensure that each subdivision in the organization has a competent leader and that each employee is assigned to the job where he can be of greatest service. Personnel should posses energy, initiative and loyalty. The duties of each position must be clearly outlined. All members of the organization must be encouraged to use their own initiative. They should be rewarded fairly for their services. The mistakes and blunders of employees must be brought to their attention and dealt with accordingly. Vested interests of individual employees must not be allowed to endanger the general interest of all. The conditions of work should be made as pleasant and as nearly ideal as possible. Both physical and social factors should be provided for.
4. Directing: Directing is a responsibility that falls to the administrator as a leader. He or she must direct the operations of the organization. This means distinct and precise decisions must be made and embodied in instructions that will ensure their completion. The administrator must direct the work in an impersonal manner, avoid becoming involved in too many details, and see that the organization’s purpose is fulfilled according to established principles. Executives have a duty to see that the quantity and quality of performance of each employee are maintained. The good administrator must be superior in determination, persistence, endurance, and courage.
5. Coordinating: Coordinating means inter-relating all the various phases of work within an organization. This means that the organization’s structure must clearly provide for close relationships and competent leadership in the coordinating centres of activity. The administrator must meet regularly with chief assistants to make arrangements for unity of effort, so that that obstacles to coordinated work can be eliminated. Coordination can be effective only if there is faith in the enterprise and the need for coordination effort. Faith is the motivating factor that stimulates human beings to continue rendering service so that goals may be accomplished.
6. Reporting: Reporting is the administrative duty of supplying information to administrators or executives higher up on the line of authority or to other groups to whom one is responsible. It also means that subordinates must be kept informed through regular reports, research, and continual observation. In this respect the administrator is a point of inter communication. In addition to accepting the responsibility for reporting to higher authority, he or she must continually know what is going on in the area under his or her jurisdiction. Members of the organization must be informed on many topics of general interests, such as goals to be achieved, progress being made, strong and weak points, and new areas proposed for development, budgeting. Budgeting refers to financial planning and accounting. It is the duty of the administrator to allocate to various subdivisions the general funds allotted to the organizations. This must be done in a manner that is equitable and just. In carrying out this function, he or she must keep the organization’s proposes in mind and apportion the available money to those areas or projects that will help most in achieving these proposes.
Administering School Health Services
School health services should be administered jointly by the ministry of health, the ministry of education and he local government. The school health programme in a local government area should be headed by the corresponding medical officer of health in-charge of the local government area with supervisors representing the major disciplines in primary health care serving as co-ordinators of their respective sections in school health programme.
In conducting a programme, it is important to co-ordinate the school health activities with other health activities in the community in order to avoid duplication and waste of efforts and resources. As any successful and meaningful school health programme must be based on the real problems of the generality of population, it is essential that the professionals involved in school health services should be conversant with the major health problems confronting the population as a whole, and in particular those of school-age children.
To understand the general health status of a population, nothing could be more revealing than a careful study and analysis of the vital and other health statistics of the community. These statistics tell the story of progress and give warning of new dangers. They are an invaluable tool in school health programme, because they suggest places of needed emphasis and indicate at which points services will bring the maximum return. Much information of the health status of children and youth may also be obtained from medical and dental examinations, illness and absence records. Facts of growth and development and daily observations of appearance and behaviour.
A clear understanding of a combination of the above health indices would enable the professionals participating in school health services to tailor their programmes to meet the health needs and interests of their pupils as well as to gear them to help solve the imminent community health problems.
In a joint school health programme involving the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health should be responsible for the medical, dental and nursing areas of the programme while the health instruction should be left for the ministry of education which will normally provide teachers specially trained in school health education.
For effective running of school health programme, should be cooperation and proper coordination of efforts of the groups of professionals involved in the programme. Principals/ headmaster the teachers constituting one professional grouping and physicians, denials, and other health workers making up another, should interact with each other in a very meaningful way in accomplishing the goals of school health services. The activities may, however, lose effectiveness if the health services are considered routine or inconsequential.
In order for school health programme to be of value, it must be relevant to pupils needs, and to the school situation. Each contact with the doctor, nurses or any other health professional should have meaning not only in terms of the child’s physical state, but also as an educational experience in which the pupil learns about health care and protection. As members of the team, teachers need to be informed about pupils health and ways in which the school can assist in health improvement.
One of the major responsibilities of the school is discovering health problems that may interfere with the child’s ability to benefit to the maximum from the educational experience. It is also a responsibility to see that these problems are corrected whenever possible. The cease finding activities of the school health worker, thus, becomes meaningful when correction of defects is accomplished. This is an area in which community interest and support should be particularly enlisted. Community resources can be used by the school health workers in following-up activities required for the correction of remediable defects. Parents teacher association and religious groups can be utilized to augment follow-ups and corrective procedures.
Above all, there should be close working relationships between the Ministries of Health and Education in order to develop curriculum guides for health education and to cooperate services, which affect the health of the child.
THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF HEALTH EDUCATION
Communities, schools, colleges, and individuals families have a responsibility to educate your people as well as adults in health- related matters. Society needs to be made aware of new health developments and how they affects us. Research has shown that the healthy person has a better chance to be a success in school and college, to be more productive. In addition to these factors, the school acts in loco parents and, a such, has a legal as well as a moral responsibility to concern itself with the health of the student. Other reasons why a health education program is needed follows:
· Healthful living should be inculcated at an early age so persons may live their lives in the best possible manner.
· Health should be a primary objective of education, health-directed behaviour should be established early in life.
· In our ever-shrinking world, the possibility of contracting disease increases, and health education can help us anticipate and solve this problem.
· Health problems encompass our daily lives, and we should be educated in such areas as drug, alcohol, and tobacco abuse; obesity; heart diseases; nutrition; environmental problems; and accidents.
· Mental health problems increase each year. An important emphasis of health instruction includes mental and emotional well-being.
· Understanding human sexuality, marriage, problems of divorce, and family life education is essential to the well-being of a person growing up in today’s society.
The Four Dimensions of Health within Education:
Health within the educational structure includes health instruction, health services, healthful school and college living and school and community relationship.
Health instruction: In the area of health science instruction, scientific knowledge is imparted and experiences are provided so that students may better understand the importance of developing desirable attitudes and health practices. Information concerning such subjects as nutrition, communicable diseases health quackery, rest, exercise, sanitation, drugs, alcohol, tobacco, environmental pollution, human sexuality, first aid, and safety is presented.
On the elementary level the responsibility for such health education rests primarily with the classroom teacher, although in some school systems trained specialists are provided as resource persons. On the secondary and college levels, individuals who have had special training in heath education should be responsible for concentrated health instruction.
A concentrated course in health education should be required of all students for at least 1 and preferable 2 years at the secondary level. At the college level there should be at least a one-semester health course for all students. Health educators should teach such courses, and these subjects should be given the same credit and tie allotments as other important courses.
Health Services: The health services phase of school and college health programs includes health appraisal, health counseling, correction of defects, provision of the exceptional student, prevention and control of communicable diseases, and emergency care of injuries.
In this phase of the health program, it is important to recognize concern for mental, emotional, social, and physical health. In providing health services that include all these phases of health, several persons in addition to the health educator play prominent roles.
The classroom teacher has an important responsibility in health services. He or she can detect deviations from the normal, provide first aid when necessary, administer certain screening tests, and oversee the general welfare of the child.
The nurse plays a prominent role in the administration of the health program through counseling, acting as a resource person for other staff members, developing close relationships with parents, helping physicians, and other responsibilities peculiar to his or her profession.
The physician has the potential for playing an important part in school and college programs. Through medical examinations, health guidance, protection of students from communicable diseases, development of health policies, and consultations with parents, the physician can be a positive influence on the health of students and parents. The physician often does not realize the educational implications of his or her role in the health program. As a result, he or she does not take advantage of teachable moments that occur whenever a student is being given a medical examination or when conferences are held with parents.
Dentists and dental hygienists play an important role whenever they appraise the dental needs of students. Here again is an unlimited opportunity to educate the student and the parent on the importance of proper oral hygiene.
Psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, guidance counselors, speech therapists, and others are increasingly being brought into school and college health services programs. All have an important contribution to make to the total health of young people.
Healthful School Can College Living: Healthful living is also an important part of the total health program. Both a healthful physical environment and a wholesome emotional environment are important to the health of the student.
The physical environment should provide an attractive, safe, and wholesome place for students to congregate with adequate lighting, ventilation, heating, location, sanitary facilities, play space, and equipment in the buildings and areas that are used for educational purposes. It also means there is proper maintenance by the custodial staff and includes any other factors that influence the physical arrangements of the school or college plant.
The emotional environment is just as important to the student’s health as the physical one. To ensure a wholesome emotional environment, proper rapport must exist between the teacher and pupils and among the pupils themselves; educational practices regarding grades, promotions, assignments, schedules, play periods, attendance, class conduct, and discipline must be sound; and the teachers themselves must be emotionally well adjusted.
School Health Services
Healthful School Living
Health Science Instruction
a. Health appraisal
1. physical environment
Concentrated health teaching
b. Health counseling –advice
Attractive and cheerful
Correlated health teaching
c. Correction of remediable defects
Safe and sanitary
Incidental health teaching
d. Care and education of exceptional children
Hygienic arrangement of school lunch
Health education of parents and other adults emphasis on- health knowledge, attitudes, practices, and skills
e. Communicable disease control
Adequate lighting, ventilation, water supply, waste disposal, etc
Mental emotional, and social environments
Personal health nutrition
Maintenance of health of school personnel
Healthful arrangement of school day
Safety and first aid Driver education
Community health consumer health
Good teacher –pupil and pupil –rapport
Stimulants and depressants
Recognition for individuals differences
Sound administrative practice
Family living education
Ample time for play and recreation
Mental health sanitation
School, home and community Relationship
The health educator should:
(a) Interpret school health programme to families and communities
(b) Develop school – community relationships through parent-teacher associations or other suitable committee mechanisms.
(c) Participate in health and health improvement programmes in the community.
(d) Serve as a resource person to the community in matters of health.
The health team
The school health team includes the following persons:
1. Health Teacher: The health teacher is a key person in an effective health science program. This person needs an understanding of what constitutes a well-rounded health program and the teacher’s part in it. Preparation should include a basic understanding of the various physical, biologic, and behavioural sciences that help explain the importance of health to the optional functioning of the individuals, including understanding of such areas as structure and growth of the human body, nutrition, and mental health. The teacher should possess personal characteristics that exemplify good health, and have the skill to make health education meaningful and interesting. The teacher should be able to organize health teaching units in terms of the health needs and interests of students, motivate them to be well and happy, and perceive the individual differences of the pupils. The teacher should also be able and willing to interpret the school health program to the community and enlist its support in solving health problems.
2. Health Coordinator: The health coordinator has special qualifications that enable him or her to serve as a coordinator, supervisor, teacher, or consultant for health education. He or she is concerned with developing effective working relationships with school, college, and community health programs and coordinating the total school or college health program with the general educational program, integrating health instruction with many subject matter areas. A health coordinator can see that a well rounded health program exists and that health instruction is carefully planned. Resource materials can be provided for the health teachers. School, college, and community relationships can be developed. The total health program can be guided to function as an integrated whole. Each administrator should recognize the impotence of the position of health coordinator and designate a person qualified for such a responsibility.
3. School or College Administrator: The school or college administrator makes important decisions regarding health programs, such as the personnel appointed to teach health courses, the methods of instruction, the topics to be covered, and the budget needed for the necessary equipment and supplies.
4. School or College Physician: The school or college physician can be an effective member of the health team by discussing results of medical examinations with teachers, drawing implications from the medical examinations for health science instruction, stressing to administrators and the community at large the need for health instruction, visiting classes, and periodically being a visiting lecturer in the health classes.
5. Nurse: The nurse works closely with medical personnel on one hand and with students, teachers, and parents on the other. As the person who administers health tests, assists in medical examinations, screens for hearing and vision, holds parent conferences, keeps health records, teaches health classes, helps control communicable disease, and coordinates school, college, and community health efforts, the nurse can play an effective and important role in giving support and direction to the health instruction program. The school nurse can help identify the topics that need to be covered, emphasizing the health needs of the students, and interpreting to administrators the importance of health in the school or college programme.
6. Physical Educator: Although the physical educator may not be qualified or interested in teaching health courses, he or she can contribute much to the health program. Training in role of directing the physical education program place the importance of learning about health, developing sound health attitudes, and forming desirable health practices. Physical education offers frequent opportunities for correlated health teaching using situations that are closely related to the health and fitness of students.
7. Dentist: The dentist employed to work in conducting dental examinations, giving or supervising oral prophylaxis, and advising on curriculum material in dental hygiene. The health teacher can be helped by the dentist in the selection of curriculum material for classroom teaching, by discovering dental problems of students and by participating in the classroom as a resource person.
8. Dental Hygienist: The dental hygienist usually assists the dentist and does oral prophylaxis. The health teacher can therefore benefit from a close working relationship with this specialist in much the same way as she or he works with the dentist.
9. Custodian: All aspects of the school or college health program must be carefully coordinated- the health instruction program, health services, and healthful living. Therefore, the cleanliness of the building and a healthful physical environment are contributions to the health program. The custodian can be invited to help plan pertinent aspects of the health curriculum that specifically relate to his or her area of responsibility, to have the school or college be a model of cleanliness, and to adhere to lighting, ventilation, and heating standards that promote good health.
10. Nutritionist: The nutritionist can supplement the health science curriculum by contributing nutritional information, speaking about food and nutrition, and discussing nutritional problems of students.
11. Guidance Counselor: An individual on the school staff who is too frequently over-looking as an effective member of the school health team is the guidance counselor. Because many academic problems are health related and because the guidance counselor is interested in helping each student have a successful school experience, the counselor must be concerned with areas of health. He or she can make suggestions for health topics to be discussed in classes and can be an effective guest speaker in health classes to discuss the relationship of health to scholastic and vocational success.
The Health Council: Every school and every school system should have health councils or committees to help ensure a desirable and adequate health program. This means that optimally there should be a health council for each school and one central health council for all the schools in a particular school system. The number of members composing such councils may vary from three or four parsons in a small school. Potential members, of such councils are the school principal, health coordinator, nurse, psychologist, guidance counselor, custodian, dental hygienist, speech therapist, physician, dentist, physical education teacher, science teacher, home economics teacher, classroom teacher, teacher of handicapped persons, nutritionist, students, parents, public health officer, mayor, clergymen, and any other individual who is particularly related to the health of the school or community and has something to contribute.
Health councils are responsible for coordinating the entire health program of the school, including determining curriculum. Resources to use, and experiences to provide: securing a healthful environment for the school: encouraging closer school- parent relationships in respect to such important health procedures as medical examinations, promoting sanitary conditions, providing for the safety of children, and distributing health literature.
Representatives from various community and school groups who are interested in health can accomplish much when sitting around a conference table discussing their problems. A spirit of cooperation and “oneness” will aid in developing procedures and taking action that will promote better health for all.
ORGANIZATIONAL AND CURRICULUM OF HEALTH EDUCATION
Administrative structure and health science instruction: The administration of health science instruction varies with each educational system. In some schools and colleges it is placed in such areas as physical education, science and home economics. In other schools and colleges it is a separate area by itself. Most often health is administratively located in the health and physical education department. In the larger schools especially, and in colleges and universities, there may be a separate health education department with full-time personnel who have been trained in the area of health education. Such an administrative arrangement is conducive to good interrelationships between the school and college and public health agencies, to the development of a health council, and to a well-coordinate and well integrated health program. In smaller and medium –sized schools and colleges, there should also be full-time health educators charged with this important responsibility.
The physical education person many times is assigned such responsibilities as coaching, intramurals, and special events in addition to physical education classes. If the responsibility for health education is given to a teacher of physical education, in addition to these numerous other duties, some responsibility is going to suffer. In many cases, with pressure for winning teams and successful intramural programs, the class instruction program is neglected. School and college administration should recognize that health education is an important part of the curriculum. It should be assigned only to qualified persons and should receive ample time and facilities to make it effective.
Every school and college, regardless of size, should have someone on its staff assigned to coordinate the various aspects of the health program. In larger schools and colleges this might be a full-time position. In smaller ones it could be the principal, chairman of the health department, or some qualified and interested staff member.
The administration of the health education program should also include a health council or committee. Such a group of individuals, regardless of type or size of school, can play an important part in planning and carrying out the health education program.
Development health education curriculum:
The curriculum commission of the school health division of AAHPER has proposed a guide for developing a health curriculum that will meet the needs of individuals associated with schools. The guide was developed by curriculum directors and others responsible for health curriculum development.
The guide proposes certain steps to be taken in developing a curriculum.
1. Preplanning: In order for a program to succeed, it must have community support as well as support form the administration and staff. A written policy should include reference to funds, time allocations, class space, and instructional material.
Two committees should be formed. The first would be an in-school steering committee, consisting of representation from the students, teachers, administrators, parents, school nurses, and special interest or ethnic groups. A second or advisory committee would be out-of-school and consist of community personnel (counselors, lawyers, doctors, health specialist, and others) and representatives from the PTA and other organizations.
The basic considerations necessary in the development of any curriculum include:
(1) meeting all state and local requirements;
(2) identifying behavioural objectives;
(3) meeting the needs of community members, students, and specific community requirements;
(4) developing a health education philosophy;
(5) Considering controversial areas;
(6) Developing a work schedule; and
(7) Exploring full all sources of funding.
2. Program: The status of the present health education program should be evaluated in terms of pupil knowledge and behaivour objective standards as well as staff, policies, budget, and facilities. The conclusions and recommendations should be thoroughly discussed and evaluated.
Broad content Areas: content areas should be based student needs and opinions of the steering and advisory committees. In addition, student health records and absences might also be evaluated.
3. Format: The format of the curriculum guide should include the specific content area, behavioural or instructional objectives, concepts, student learning experiences, student and teacher resources, and evaluation techniques for students and teachers.
4. Field Testing: Field testing should be conducted at a variety of levels. Both novice and experienced teachers should be used as well as all types of students: rural, urban, and disadvantaged. Changes should be made where indicated.
5. Implementation: The plan for implementation should be specific in terms of target date and schedule. Administration approval should be included.
6. Re-Evaluation: All programs should be re-evaluated every 3 to 5 years. Students’ need change over a period of years, and the curriculum must also change to meet these needs.
Content areas for the health science instruction program
There is considerable knowledge and information that may be taught in health education. With all the literature that is available in such forms as textbooks, resource books, pamphlets, and promotional materials, it is important that content be selected with care.
Some basic principles for selecting curriculum experiences in the health science instruction program follow
1. The content of health science instruction should be based on the needs and interests of the students.
Developmental characteristics of children and youth and psychologic needs of students, such as security, approval, success in athletics, appearance, and peer group approval, are considerations in relating teaching to the interests of students.
2. The problems and topics covered must be appropriate to the maturity level of the students.
3. The materials used should be current and scientifically accurate. The course should not be textbook course. Many materials and experiences should be provided.
4. Pupils should be able to identify with the health problems discussed. As such, the problems should be geared to or related to the daily living experiences of the student body.
5. Health should be recognized as a multidisciplinary subject, and, as such, subject matter, projects, and methods of teaching should take cognizance of the new developments. In the related sciences.
6. Health science instruction should be taught in light of a rapidly causing society and knowledge of new ways of affecting the behaviour of human beings.
7. Health teaching should take place in a healthful psychological and physical environment.
8. To be most effective, the health teacher must exemplify good health and be well informed, happy, and successful.
9. The basic concepts in health should be identified and taught.
10. The new technologic methods, and aids should be used to improve visual presentations of health materials to considered.
11. Students previous health experiences should be considered.
12. Planning for health science instruction should be a total school or college endeavour, with students, teachers, specialists, and consultants participating. Furthermore, health instruction should permeate the entire school or college curriculum.
13. Objectives of the school or college health program, including knowledge, attitudes, practices, and skills, need to be reviewed and the program planned intelligently and meaningfully in light of these goals.
14. The community should be involved in health science instruction, including personnel from the public health department, voluntary health associations, medical and dental professions, and other health associations and agencies.
15. School health science instruction should be closely.
16. New methods of organizing for teaching, including the non-graded school, team teaching, individualized instruction, and programmed instruction, should be considered.
17. Constant research and evaluation of the program should take place.
18. Health instruction in general should share the same prestige and respect in the eyes of school or college administrators, teachers, and students as other respect school or college offerings, with time allotments and other considerations receiving equal attention.