THE TWIN ISSUES OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA WITH PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO ABIA STATE | Ph.D THESIS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
The issue of poverty alleviation, through a coordinated system of food security, is a matter of universal concern. Poverty and food crises are global phenomena, especially with the astronomical rise in world population. This situation is very critical in Africa, Asia and other parts of the developing world. Nigeria out of circumstance of food security issues was classified as one of the 82 low income food deficit countries (World Food Summit 1996). As a follow up of this outcome and in a bid to improve the performance of the agricultural sector, successive governments in Nigeria formulated agricultural policies and implemented a number of programmes and projects to address the related problems of poverty, food insecurity and unemployment. Some of these projects were the Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP) and cassava multiplication programme (CMP) which was successfully completed in 1997.

Over the years, the issue of poverty alleviation, food security and general improvement in the living standard of the population has been a vital element in the socio-economic focus of successive governments in Nigeria at both the federal and local levels. It affects nations and people differently. It afflicts people in various levels and depths and at different phases of existence. No nation or society is absolutely free from poverty and its attendant effects. What matters, however, is the intensity and pervasiveness, that is, the level of poverty within a given ratio of the population. According to the UNDP (2006), poverty entails the absence of the basic requirements essential for the survival, and to an extent, comfort of man.
            Among the most basic needs of man, food and other nutritional components rank among the highest and most vital. Everson (2000) notes that food occupies a central position in the life of the individual, and one’s ability to engage in various activities that shape the condition of the society can only follow a successful and reasonable condition of basic food sufficiency.
            Alcock (1997) echoes this view when he asserts that people live in poverty when resources are not there to obtain the type of simple diet, participate in the activities and have the living condition and amenities which are customary in the society to which they belong.
            Nigeria has one of the greatest development potentials in Africa given the vastness of her resources and above all her human resources endowment. Abia State, in particular, is among the states in Nigeria that has these resource potentials, yet could not meet up with basic household needs of her citizens. The economy is mired by multiple difficulties. On the basis of widespread economic crises, the country is unable to raise the standard of living of its citizens to an appreciable height. Thus, poverty, both in absolute and relative terms, is afflicting most Nigerians. Poverty in Nigeria has been a long standing issue and its reality manifests in worsening incidence and severity over the years. It is multi-dimensional and encompasses issues such as inadequate income, malnutrition, poor social and political status and grossly inadequate health care delivery. Statistically, the poverty level in Nigeria covered about 28 percent of the population between 1960 and 1980. Between 1996 and 2000, it rose to an alarming 66 percent (Aliyu, 2001). Available records show that the last decade has not fared much better.
            According to the UNDP Human Development report (2008-2009) which combined such components as level of inequality, life expectancy at birth, standard of living and access to knowledge and education between 2004 and 2009, poverty in Nigeria has worsened, rising from 0.43 to 0.49. This shows that despite its vast resources, Nigeria ranks among the 25 poorest countries in the world. Thus, in the year 2000, the nationwide special programme for food security (SPFS) was developed by Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) and Food and Agriculture Organisation, (FAO) officials under joint consultative committee. An agreement was signed between FGN and FAO for the SPFS to be executed over a period of five years.
            Then, SPFS became a practical vehicle for extending the application of innovative low-cost approaches, both technical and institutional, to improving the productivity and sustainability of agricultural systems with the ultimate aim of contributing to the livelihoods, reduction in malnutrition and enhancing the income of poor resource farmers.
            In Abia state, the systematic and participative analysis of constraints faced by rural communities in adopting innovative technologies, and comprehensive community need assessment which is central to the SPFS concept, constituted an essential ingredient in the process of formulating improved agricultural and poverty alleviation strategies. Though the climate is always humid all year round, the vegetation is predominantly lowland rain forest. Human activity (bush burning, cultivation and planting) has been so intense that most of the forests have become degraded. The general land use pattern is subsistence cultivation with attendant bush fallow system/land rotation. The average farm holding by each producer is less than one hectare. This situation makes land preparation quite cumbersome and expensive as it is generally done manually with, low opportunity of embarking on mechanical agriculture, and so, production in Abia state is mostly by mixed cropping system involving compatible crops. It is on the basis of the major compatible crops in Abia state that yam, cassava, maize, rice, plantain/banana were approved for Abia State in the SPFS programme, while sheep, goat and poultry are the animals of interest.            
            In the face of the nature and magnitude of poverty situation in Nigeria, successive governments have attempted to grapple with the poverty situation in the country. Regrettably, the lopsided application of capitalist policies and strategies and mismanagement of resources by state officials has not been able to provide reprieve. On the contrary, poverty level has continued to soar instead of diminishing. As Ukpong (1999) noted, the first three National Development Plans, as a means of reducing poverty and enhancing development, placed premium on “the real income of the average citizen, more even distribution of income among individuals and socio-economic groups.” This however did not serve the required purpose due largely to the economic crises of the 1980s.
            In order to confront the problem of poverty in the face of economic difficulties, more concrete programmes were introduced. These include the Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) and the Green Revolution (GR) launched by the regimes of General Obasanjo and Shehu Shagari, respectively, between 1976 and 1980. The Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI), the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), the Better Life Programme (BLP), and the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) were set up by General Ibrahim Babangida’s military administration in the 1980s.
            On assumption of office as a civilian president, Olusegun Obasanjo launched the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in 2001 as a means of lifting the poor out of their deplorable situation. This was followed by the introduction of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) in 2004. This programme was to be duplicated by all the 36 states in Nigeria under the rubric of the State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (SEEDS). The modus here was to encourage all Nigerians to be actively involved in thinking, knowing and contributing to all aspects of development with a view to eradicating poverty in the land.
            In 2007 when Umaru Musa Yar’adua ascended as Nigeria’s president, he left no one in doubt as to his desire to effect a positive socio economic transformation of the country. This, naturally, flowed from his campaign promises entrenched in the manifesto entitled “End Poverty, Develop Nigeria”. He promised Nigerians that he would launch a massive assault on poverty using the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (UN-MDGs) as a guide. Thereupon, he launched his seven point agenda which would serve as a focal point of his vision for the revitalization of the Agricultural sector in order to boost food security in Nigeria among other things.
            Indeed, the issue of poverty alleviation food security and general improvement in the living standard of the population has been a vital element in the socio-economic focus of successive Governments in Nigeria at all levels. The various efforts to democratize are intended to complement economic liberalism in order to touch the blissful state and to satisfy the physiological needs of the people as well as their socio-cultural and political needs.
            Unfortunately, evidence suggests that achievement in this regard has been rather disappointing. The question remains - why have successive efforts at poverty alleviation in Nigeria failed?  Why do these efforts go down the drain repeatedly? The indication therefore is that poverty in Nigeria is not just an economic phenomenon. It encompasses socio-cultural and political aspects of life. Though attention has been focused exclusively on economic aspects of poverty, ignoring the non-economic aspects of poverty may prove to be a mistake on the long run because of the interactions among components of the human needs and societal institutions.
Nigeria is endowed with 74 million hectares of arable land and additional 25 million hectares of irrigable land, yet the country has not being able to take comparative advantage of the climate conditions, the large expanse of land and an ever increasing population to make her sufficient in food production. This is despite the fact that variety of crops thrive well with maximum yield in different eco-zones of the country. Fundamentally, the Nigerian environment is characterized by fair to good soils but poor and unreliabe rainfall and low quantity as is the case in arid and semi-arid regions.
Generally, food security is currently constrained for many households in Nigeria. Localized production deficits in the 2007 harvest season occurred as a result of localized poor rainfall and an early end to the rainy season in mid-September. Consequently, prices started rising earlier in the north fuelled by speculative hoarding from traders and high industrial demand for grains. Many poor households have had to turn to the market earlier than normal in the season to purchase food, resulting in moderate food insecurity and localized high food insecurity in the north.
            Trade liberalization stimulated the growth of exports of agricultural commodities in Nigeria. The boost in the agricultural export took a downturn and with the advent of democracy, massive imports of heavy goods began to dominate the economic scene. In essence, over the last 25 years since the SAP programme came into existence, the nation had witnessed a gross neglect of the food production sector. As such, when food prices began to rise significantly in late 2010, our response mechanism were no longer existing, rather, policy makers could only think of food imports as the solution.
The Abia State Agricultural Development Programme (Abia ADP) was established in 1991 to enhance agricultural output and support extension services in rural institutional development. Abia ADP also aims at providing financial support in the areas of training, monitoring and evaluation of technologically related studies. The project was designed to provide funds needed for environmental protection, with focus on agro-forestry, land degradation, soil conservation and horticultural development.
            Some of the questions that agitate the mind revolve around what alternatives we have as well as what pragmatic approaches we can adopt to address the problems of food insecurity. Can we effectively curb the rising cost of food? Is it possible to reverse increasing trends in food prices? Can Nigerians be food secure? Attempts have been made to provide answers to these questions and more during the course of the work.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
            In the area of public development and administration, the basic processes of conception, formulation and administration of public policy are one of the most important processes of governance and societal development in the modern state.
            The issue of whether a household is poor is widely recognized as an important, though crude indicator of the wellbeing of households. This is reflected in the central role the concept of poverty plays in the analysis of poverty reduction.
            Poverty alleviation, food security and human development are major determining variables of national incomes. It has to do with the creation of an environment in which people can develop their full potentials and lead productive lives in accordance with the demands of their interests and needs either as individuals or as groups within the society. In view of this, poverty alleviation and food security improves the quality of life of the people and provides them with the means to achieve and maintain their basic needs but the country remains vulnerable to hunger and poverty. It therefore follows that it is necessary to probe into what makes rural people have different segments in terms of demographic and occupational compositions and characteristics of the community in which the people reside.
            The Nigerian government, at all levels - Federal, State, Local - has over the years placed enormous emphasis on rural development in shaping efforts and strategies aimed at reducing poverty and improved food security and the level of underdevelopment within all phases of the national economy but both theoretical and empirical literature have failed to capture the real factors as to why the poverty rate and food insecurity in the country is still high.
            Kehinde (2005) observes that many countries of Africa today see the eradication of poverty and food insecurity as a decisive aspect of their development programmes. He notes further that every government must contend with the issue of “making life better and more meaningful to the citizenry” irrespective of whether such government is a democracy or military dictatorship.
            Olayinka (2003) similarly holds the view that the ability to sustain a reasonable standard of living for the citizens is what confers legitimacy and relevance on a regime irrespective of the circumstance of its emergence into power. Over the years, successive governments in Nigeria have introduced a number of programmes and policies aimed at alleviating poverty and securing reasonable sufficiency in the area of food production. This was further expected to provide an appreciable environment for the overall enhanced growth and stability of the national economy.
Agriculture contributes 42 percent of the GDP, provides employment for the citizens and constitutes a means of livelihood for more than 60 percent of the productively engaged population. Yet, it receives less than 10 percent of the annual budgetary allocation of the federal government. Under-funding in this regard is central to the crisis of food production and food security in Nigeria.
            The connections among dwindling food production capacity, rising food prices and dependency on food importation are nowhere more clearly demonstrated in recent times than in the Sahel food crisis which also affected about eleven northern states of Nigeria situated in the Sahel belt especially during 2007 and 2008. Compounding the problem is the seeming unresolvable incoherence in government’s policy formulations and implementation strategies. Thus, as a response to the recent food crisis in the country, the federal government through the Federal Ministry of Agriculture facilitated the development of a National Food Crisis Response Programme (NFCRP) and the Food Security Thematic Group (FSTG) in 2009. However, despite the demonstrated effort at building institutions to address poverty situation in the country, no further steps have been taken to consolidate the set agenda.
            Recognizing the threat posed by the endemic food insecurity and related problems in Nigeria, each state in the country was encouraged to embark on campaigns and programmes aimed at creating state-wide agricultural policy frameworks. The Abia State Agricultural Development Programme (Abia ADP) was created to develop and implement measures aimed at realizing the goals of food security in the state.
            To get to the core of this inquiry, there are central questions which must serve as guides in determining the direction and focus of our research. With this in view, the study has addressed the following questions:
(a)   What are the relationship between the Abia ADP guidelines and attainment of food production per annum by Abia farmers?
(b)   What are the programme orientation geared towards poverty reduction and how new farm implements have improved the attainment of food production per annum in the State?
(c)   What are the factors that militated against the adequate food production per annum in the State?
(d)  How do modern technologies increase food production and creation of employment in
The ultimate aim of every socio-economic development programme is to reduce the level of hardship and poverty within a given setting and propel the recipients towards a greater level of well-being and better living standard considered commensurate with life in a modern society.
            Generally, the main objective of this work is to investigate the twin issues of poverty alleviation and food security in Nigeria with particular attention to Abia State. In other words, we will aim to deepen our understanding of how poverty alleviation programmes and food security in Abia State has improved over time and the effects of those strategies and programmes in the state. The success or otherwise of this programme will determine its relevance as a tool for national development and economic growth.

More specifically,
1. To examine the relationship between Abia ADP service delivery guidelines and the attainment of food production per annum by Abia farmers.
2. To investigate the programme orientation geared towards poverty reduction and how new farm implements have improved the attainment of food production per annum in the State.
3. To identify factors that militated against the adequate food production in the State.
4. To find out the extent modern technologies have increased food production and creation of employment in the State.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
            Poverty alleviation and self-sufficiency in food production have become a catalyst for development in Africa and other developing countries of the world. Over the years, successive regimes in Nigeria have embarked on various economic programmes aimed at reducing poverty level in Nigeria and opening up the nation’s economic base towards greater responsiveness to growth and development.
            This work is premised on the need to examine the issue of poverty alleviation, food security and related matters that impact critically on the general economic development of the society. We believe therefore, that the outcome of this research will contribute to the field of knowledge and scholarship on the essential issue of enhancement of the living standard of the citizens. We also underline its importance to policy formulation and implementation for governments at all levels in the following ways;
The goal of this research work is to provide a basic tool for research and understanding of the basic framework necessary for the actualization of the basic needs of society required to effect positive outcome in  the living standard of its citizens.
Successive regimes in Nigeria have experimented with one form of policy or the other aimed at reducing poverty and encouraging general economic development. This goal has remained largely elusive over the years. It is hoped that this work will provide ideas and suggestions on how these goals could be pursued for more realistic and result oriented policy objectives and goal attainment. The relevance of policy is determined by the end result.
The rural areas are essentially the areas which lack basic urban facilities in the form of physical structures, modern equipment and distinctive settlement and non-urban environment. Characteristically, rural communities are known to be backward, with low economy, low standard of living, low purchasing power and appalling conditions of living. The rural population is often made up of the very old and the very young because those within the productive range, the active young and the educated, have migrated to the urban areas in search of a better life.
            The findings of this research and the recommendations contained therein will form a robust working material for researchers and government agencies in creating a fountain of knowledge for the experimentation and substantiation of their policies and programmes on food security in the state and the country as a whole.
            The study will help the policy makers to draw a conclusion on where to strengthen the efforts of Abia ADP in areas such as training of farmers, provision of new innovations and better funding of the project.
            The study will extend the frontiers of the exiting literature by emphasizing the roles of the agency in Abia State.  

1.5       SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
            The study covers the entire Abia State. Special issues concerning each of the administrative zones of Abia ADP namely: Aba, Ohaofia and Umuahia zones were equally noted. The time frame covered the activities of the Abia ADP programme since inception in 1991.  Participants’ attention would focus on the area of food production and related programmes aimed at the development of the rural areas.
            In a study of this nature, it is vital to talk with people, obtain information and assess their views and ideas on the issue in question. In Nigeria, people like to hoard information unnecessarily even when such pieces of information are innocuous and meant for public consumption. As a result, it was difficult to get at certain vital information because those in custody of such information felt that it may be used for purposes other than what they were meant for. The materials needed were therefore scarce or at best, difficult to come by.
At other levels, some of those interviewed were either too naïve in their perceptions and grasp, too unwilling to engage, too reluctant or indifferent or simply too occupied with the pursuits of life to provide the required attention. Unavoidably, these were collectively time consuming and rather frustrating.
Finance constitute great limitations because the researcher hadn’t enough money to carry on the project and the government was not willing to provide any assistance. The University administration did not fare better in this regard. Without adequate finance, the author faces insurmountable problems which ultimately hindered the speed and effectiveness of the work.
            However, in spite of these numerous constraints, we were still able to make reasonable progress. It was possible to meet people who were able and knowledgeable enough to respond competently to the needs of the research. We were able to source credible materials from various sources in their bits and pieces. On the issue of finance we have continued to maximize the little we have and this has enabled us to meet our necessary obligations.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Introduction
            Literature review is one of the most essential aspects of any research work. It enables both the researcher and the reader to make critical incursions into the vital realms of the subject matter. This way, a wider and greater expansion of knowledge is created which facilitates a greater understanding of the issue or issues at hand.
            Literature review helps illuminate the ideas and thoughts of other scholars and researchers and situates their contributions within a given field of study. The nature, scope and extent to which a review is conducted is determined by the researcher’s grasp of knowledge and the materials available on the subject matter. All given, our review shall be selective rather than exhaustive.
            In our effort to review the subject of poverty alleviation and food security vis a vis the activities of Abia ADP, the work shall be organized along the following headings:
1.         The concept of poverty.
2.         Economic Development
3.         Rural Development
4.         Food security in Nigeria
5.         Food security and poverty
6.         Poverty alleviation
7.         Approaches to poverty alleviation
8.         Problems and challenges

2.1.1   THE CONCEPT OF POVERTY
            Poverty and the issues that go with it are very common and they form an integral part of our every day existence. Quite a lot have been said about poverty and the strategies aimed at combating it is a global phenomena. Poverty affects continents, nations and people differently. It affects people in various dimensions and degrees at different phases of their existence. For Ekpo, (2002), poverty is a condition of living whereby income and consumption are excruciatingly low and one’s general existence is riddled with “disease, illiteracy, malnutrition and squalor”, to the extent that the realization of one’s potentials could be seriously imperiled.
            The above view was echoed by Narayan (2000:17) when he asserts that “poverty is a situation of inadequate income, malnutrition, lack of access to social services, lack of social and political status and lack of esteem”. It therefore follows that poverty could exist as a result of inaccessibility to certain goals or amenities required to make life more meaningful. Poverty could also take the form of psychological and socio-political deficiencies.
            Further studies show that poverty could be experienced in terms of wide range of non-material and intangible qualities such as insecurity, lack of dignity and status and denial of opportunities. This is why Oguchi (2011), sees poverty as a state of deprivation ranging from infant mortality, low life expectancy, low educational opportunities to a “lack of active participation in the decision making process”.
            The Central Bank of Nigeria report (2009) views poverty as a state where one is unable to cater for the basic needs of life – food, shelter, clothing and social and economic infrastructure. It also includes the inability to meet social and economic obligations such as gainful employment, skill, assets, self esteem and a limited chance of advancing his or her welfare to the limit of his or her capabilities.
            The non material aspects of poverty further manifest themselves in one’s inability to participate fully in the political process or other socio-cultural activities of his community. Poverty in this sense simply means powerlessness Nuhu, (2000).
            From our different explanations of  poverty, one outstanding fact is that for a given country in a given circumstance, poverty must be conceived, defined and measured in absolute ways that are relevant and valid for purposes of analysis and policy making in a given time and situation such that poverty specifically could become relative when circumstances change.

2.1.2   Economic Development
            Development as a concept has been subjected to various theoretical interpretations and empirical operationalizations. Though it eludes any precise definition, most scholars would agree with the notion that development is a process by which continuous increase in the system’s efficiency produces the conditions which result in general enlistment or advancement (Bello-Iman, 1986).
            From the above standpoint, development, in this context, implies the quantitative and qualitative change, not only in the standard of living of the members of the society but also in what Anyinda and Onitiri (1981) identified as the transformation of the society in all its ramifications, especially at the grassroots levels.
            Edame (2002), further identified the availability of such development indications as high literacy rate, good road network, constant power supply, improved medical facilities, decent housing as well as equitable distribution of income as indicative of a developed society, which according to Nwosu (1995), is a manifestation of the will and capacity to induce social change by the use of labour, power and available resources to improve the living standards of the citizens.
            Okowa (1989), sees development as a determined and conscious effort to concentrate on the overall upliftment of man’s living condition in every part of a given society or polity. On a broader perspective, development seeks to achieve, among other things, improvement in the quality and standard of living of the majority of the people in the society. This is achieved through radical approach aimed at improving the quality, value, nutritional balance of food intake, raising the standard and quality of both rural and urban housing, health standards, creating employment opportunities and enhancing better purchasing power of both rural and urban communities (Odu and Ayinda, 2003).
            Economic development could be seen as a determined attempt to focus on the general upliftment of man’s living condition at the national level in a given polity. It refers to the improvement of the people’s physical socio-economic and cultural condition of living with emphasis on the alleviation of poverty and enhancement of the quality of national life. This can be achieved through the joint efforts of the people and both government and non-governmental agencies aimed at integrating the people into the life of the entire nation and enabling them to contribute fully to national well being.

2.1.3   Rural Development
            As a developing country, the rural communities occupy strategic positions in Nigeria’s national life. According to available records, a greater percentage of Nigerian populations are rural dwellers (Odu and Ogida, 2003).
            Yahaya (1979) believes that the rural dwellers have a vital role to play, not only in the development of the rural area, but also in Urban and national development. He advocates a readiness to meet the basic needs of the local population with greater speed and effectiveness which would serve as a framework for the mobilization of the resources of the rural areas.
            In advocating the effective participation of the rural communities in determining the issues that affect their lives, Laski (1969) argued that all problems are not central in their incidence and that people must be allowed to take decision on issues as it affects their particular locality and with specific reference to their population circumstances.
            Sady (1962) identified effective recognition of the peculiar needs of rural dwellers as the best instrument for rural transformation. He stated that such recognition fosters the principles of democracy and mass mobilization of the people in the process of governance and development.
            Enoch (1991) stated that rural development depends on making conscious efforts to contribute to the overall rate of economic growth and the process of structural and attitudinal transformation of rural areas.
            Todaro (1992) blamed the serious setback to rural development on widespread poverty. The prevailing position is that neither direct farming nor the non farm occupation is vibrant enough to liberate the rural poor from poverty. Seer (1989) sees rural poverty as arising from lack of co-operation and mistrust among rural dwellers. This, in his view makes it impossible for them to pull their resources together and take meaningful steps towards reasonable growth and development under a co-operative arrangement.
For Aguocha (2002) the success of rural development in Nigeria hinges on planning and execution of the policy. Planning in relation to rural development is the act of identifying the problems of the area and the people on the spot and development techniques and methods towards their solution at the level of the people affected.
Ezekiel (2006) listed a catalogue of woes which must be tackled if the issues of rural development in Nigeria must become a reality. These include inadequate access to goods and services produced/provided by the rural poor, inadequate access to market for such goods and services and inadequate access to education, health, sanitation and water services. These pitfalls lead to inequitable social services delivery which consequently results in the inability to live healthy and active life. It also denies them the capacity to take full advantage of employment and other related opportunities.

2.1.4   Food Security in Nigeria
Several administrations in the past have made ambitious moves at eradicating poverty among Nigerians with each setting up its own agencies or programmes to tackle the ugly phenomenon but very little have been achieved.
Usman and Lemo (2007) in their recent estimates put the number of hungry people in Nigeria at over 53 million, which is about 30 percent of the country’s total population of 150 million. The records further show that 52 percent of the population lives below the poverty line. These are matters of grave concern because Nigeria was self sufficient in food production and was indeed a net exporter of food to other regions of the continent in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Things changed dramatically for the worse following the global economic crisis that hit the developing countries beginning from the late 1970’s onwards. The discovery of crude oil and rising revenue from the country’s petroleum sector encouraged official neglect of the agricultural sector and turned Nigeria into a net importer of food.
Akpan (2009) laments that although agriculture contributes 42 percent of the GDP provides employment and a means of livelihood for more than 60 percent of the productively engaged population; it receives less than 10 percent of the annual budgetary allocations. Under-funding in this regard is central to the crisis of food production and food security in Nigeria. It explains the persistence of poverty. The loss of food sovereignty and the dependence on food importation is also making the country quite susceptible to fluctuations in global food crisis. This is why Nigeria was strongly affected by the global food crisis in 2007/2008. Nnoke (2010) the connections among dwindling food production capacity, rising food prices and dependency on food importation are nowhere more clearly demonstrated in recent times than in the Sahel food crisis which also affected many of the eleven Northern states of Nigeria situated in the Sahel belt. The National Emergencies Management Agency (NEMA) says roughly 30 percent of the population in this region are food insecure and have established strong correlation between hunger and the rising trends in poverty. Indeed, those poor lacks the basic access to market and their food are unable to vary or enrich their diets.
Omonona (2010) argued that compounding the problem is the seemingly irresolvable incoherence in government’s policy formulation and implementation strategies. For example, as a response to the recent food crisis in the country, the federal government through its federal ministry of agriculture (FEMA) facilitated the development of a National Food Crisis Response Programme (NFCRP). The Food Security Thematic Group (FSTG) was also established 2009 and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) was invited to provide guidance. Despite demonstrated efforts at building institutions to address hunger and poverty in the country, no further step has since been taken to consolidate set agenda.
Recognizing in general that most African countries are failing to allocate no less than 10 percent of their annual budget commitment to agricultural development and food production, regional organizations on the continent have proceeded on campaigns partly aimed at creating and developing alternative regional and continent wide agriculture policy frameworks. As a matter of fact, the major challenges and solutions to food security in Nigeria may be adumbrated as inadequate investment in agriculture, support for small holder farmers and policy incoherence and inconsistencies (Laderchi, 2003).
2.2.5   Food Security and Poverty
The evidence of poverty and food insecurity has never been so clear and alarming in their proliferation as in the last decades but more worrisome is the conflict in the manifestations. The world food summit secured international commitment, in 1990 to reduce the number of undernourished people by half, by the year 2015. For the first ten years, statistics show that an increasing number of people remained food insecure (World Development Report 2000). Yet this contrasts with the supposed progress being made to reduce by half the world’s populations living in absolute poverty over the same period, which indicates that the international development community is the relatively on track (Meyers, 2001). This implies that different indices are being measured or equally likely than progress in one area is negatively affecting the other. So the issue remains whether hunger or food insecurity is the symptoms of poverty and in what ways are they linked?
The above paradox makes a clear distinction between food production and food access. It is here that poverty comes into the equation of food security. A poor nation may increase its food production, national food self sufficiency and economic growth to lift itself upward in the poverty statistics, but sections of its people may remain food insecure because of other factors that affect their access to food. Suffice it to say, then that development indices that focus on increased production of food alone are inadequate to capture the pattern of its distribution between populations and within populations (Akanji, 2002).
Todero and Smith (2004) poverty characteristics are important in the construction of poverty indicators. Therefore, the relevance of human development indicators (HDI) rather than money-metric or income measures, GDP measures or other macro-economic structures have been seen to be more appropriate. The characteristics of the poor are also contextual and so are the manifestations of poverty in different populations. The need for the voice of the people in poverty assessment and the design of poverty reduction measures remain very valid.
            Akanji (1998) asserts that the gender dimension of poverty is particularly reinforced in agrarian economies where the poor are characterized by landlessness, invariable (inelastic)  supply of labour, likely to live in female-headed households, likely to be farm laborers rather than farm owners remote from development assistance due to time constraint, hunger as well as literacy and health constraints and so on. As a result, the consonance of gender development indicators with other human development measures is necessary condition in poverty assessment.

2.1.6   Poverty Alleviation
            The eradication of poverty at a global level is a central objective of governments, the United Nations, the World Bank, IMF and other related International Development Agencies and partners. However, eradicating poverty has become a debilitating problem whose solution is both elusive and intractable, (Tadoro, 2002). As a result of this difficulty, the Nigerian government feels compelled to pursue poverty alleviation measures as a prelude to the greater goals of total eradication. Past Nigerian governments, military or civilian have initiated one programme or the other to fight poverty.
            According to Aribisala (2002), a global consensus has emerged on the need to alleviate human suffering brought about by poverty in order to achieve reasonable growth among countries of the world. In designing development programmes aimed at alleviating the plight of the poor, Olayinola (1999) insists that conscious efforts must be made to involve the communities who are the target beneficiaries of such programmes. Knowledge of local culture, politics, power structure and other local peculiarities must be considered for adequate community participation in the development process.
            The World Bank has outlined six basic principles that should form the framework for effective action at alleviating poverty in the third world countries. These are as follows:
(a)       Poverty reduction must be at the heart of any economic and social development strategy.
(b)       The political will and commitment by government towards poverty alleviation must be backed up by economic actions.
(c)       The improvement of human capital should be a part of the programme.
(d)       The design and implementation of efforts must be guided by the poor as identified by them.
(e)       Poverty alleviation should be targeted at the women because they are more vulnerable to social and economic burdens.
(f)        Poverty alleviation must be viewed as an environmental issue since it engenders resource degradation and other forms of impoverishment.
            Critics of our system of development hold the view that the rate of development in Nigeria could have been higher if the abundant material resources of the nation were properly co-ordinated and managed. They point out that the improper management of resources with lack of technological skills, as well as the apparent lack of direction in development efforts have accounted for the lack of success in our poverty alleviation efforts, Naraya (2000), Bassey (2005), Uruakpa (1996).
            National Development is a dynamic process especially in new states beset with numerous problems. These may include political instability, cultural disintegration, brain-drain and the evaporation of intellectual capital. In addition, the effect of externally oriented capitalist economy and our elitist political system which have been described as colonial inheritance cannot be overlooked. Nwosu (1995) laments that instead of radical break from colonial structures, the post-independence political leadership maintained the status-quo with even greater enthusiasm than its original formulators. The economic marginalization of the colonial master and the sustenance of this same abnormality by the indigenous rulers have a direct relation to the present pattern of development in Nigeria. This has increased rather than reduced the level of poverty.
2.1.7   Approaches to Poverty Alleviation:
            The strategies for poverty alleviation have been broadly grouped into four. Economic Growth Strategy, Basic Needs Approach, Employment Oriented Approach and the Rural Development Approach, Olayemi (1995), Omale & Moslem (1995), Onah (1996), Ekpenyong (1996) and Ogwumike (1998). Other scholars include Adeyeye (2001) and Obadan (1995) who classified poverty alleviation into sectoral approach and multicultural approach.
i.          Economic Growth Approach:
            Given the low labour absorption capacity of the industrial sector, broad economic growth should be encouraged. This is to focus on capital formation as it relates to stock and human capital. The assumption was that the gains of economic growth will trickle down to the various segments of the society, thereby leading to poverty alleviation. The 1996 World Bank poverty assessment of Nigeria (1996) which states that if there is to be a reduction in the number of people affected, there must be a growth rate of at least five to seven percent per annum, lends credence to this approach.
            Rowntree (1992), for effective poverty reduction, a growing economy is a must but growth in economy does not necessarily translate into reduction in poverty rate. In Nigeria, massive investment in the modern sector through capital intensive system of production to the detriment of agriculture and re-distribution led to the poor in the development process. The recognition of this led to a shift in emphasis from “just growth” to the “pattern of growth” approach.   Instead of focusing on capital formations as it relates to capital stock, human capital was brought to the fore, Streeten (1979). Human capital emphasizes education, health, nutrition, housing etc. The argument here is that investment in human resources improves the quality of labour and hence, its productivity.

ii.         Basic Needs Approach
            This approach is concerned with improving the income-earning opportunities of the poor, the public services that reach the poor, flow of goods and services to meet the needs of all members of households and the participation of the poor in the ways in which their needs are met. (Streeten, 1979). The objective of this approach therefore is to increase access to services such as pipe borne water, electricity, satisfactory refuse disposal facilities and other services that constitute the major indicators of level of poverty.

iii.       Rural Development Approach:
            This approach is premised on the fact that majority of the poor in most countries, particularly developing countries, live in rural areas and developing rural areas is central in poverty alleviation efforts. The central pillar in this approach as identified by Idachaba (1998) is the provision of rural infrastructure. He classified this rural infrastructure into three namely: physical, social and institutional infrastructure.
iv.        Employment Oriented Approach
            Appleton’s (1995) employment oriented approach favors the process of directing poverty alleviation programmes to specific groups within the country. This approach includes such programmes as social safety nets, micro-credits and school meal programmes. This identification requires proper identification of the target groups so as to minimize leakages.

2.1.8   Problems and Challenges
            Poverty alleviation efforts in Nigeria have been pursued through the application of orthodox capitalist strategies. In addition, government had on many occasions taken calculated steps to combat poverty through institution building. Some of these capitalist strategies have worsened the level of poverty. Some bourgeoisie scholars attribute this to the fact that many of the programmes either were not well designed, formulated or properly implemented in a co-ordinated manner, Nwosu (2005), Ajakaiye and Olomola (1999).
            Todaro and Smith (2004), the fundamental reasons why government strategies and programmes have not been able to alleviate poverty are rooted in the capitalist economic system which Nigeria operates. Such problems are dominance, dependence and vulnerability of the economies of the third world.
            Omoke (2005) strongly contends that the most crucial factor that accounts for the persistent low level of living, rising unemployment and growing income inequality in the third world is the highly asymmetrical distribution of economic and political power between the rich and poor countries. This situation makes the rich nations to not only control the pattern of international trade but also to dictate the terms whereby technology, foreign aid and private capital are transferred to developing countries. Given the highly unequal distribution of world resources between the north and the south, it is not surprising that the economies of the latter cannot be resilient and self-reliant. Under this situation, poverty alleviation is untenable and cannot be sustained.
            For Oduah, (2008) the problem with the capitalist economic system is that is makes the economies of the third world countries in general, and Nigeria in particular, to be externally oriented. This inhibits the development efforts of these poor nations. Indeed this has been manifested through the transfer of developed world values, attitudes, institutions and standards of behaviour to the poor countries.  For instance, the transfer of inappropriate educational structures, curriculum and school of health services in accordance with the curative rather than preventive model, and the importation of inappropriate structures and procedures for public bureaucratic and administrative system.
            Okoro (2009), the impact of social and economic standards of the salary scales, elite lifestyles and general attitude towards the private accumulation of wealth tends to weaken any meaningful efforts at poverty alleviation. This is so because whether or not there are market friendly policies or a well focused government intervention such attitudes tend to exacerbate the level of corruption and economic plunder by a privileged minority.
            In Nigeria for instance, the federal-accrued revenue in the first eight years of democracy (1999-2007) was N27.7 trillion. This amount unfortunately was not translated into employment generation or the provision of social amenities and infrastructure. This huge amount was dissipated into private pockets which nobody ever accounted for. Yusufu (2010) observed that the roads and power sectors remained in states of total collapse despite the N500 billion which Olusegun Obasanjo claimed was invested in these sectors during his presidency.
            Another fundamental problem of capitalism with respect to poverty reduction is that it enhances the deterioration of the position of the working class. Given the fact that production under capitalist economic framework is geared towards profit maximization, this leads to conditions in which parts of the working population is ousted from production and driven into poverty, (Burkina, 1985).
            In Nigeria, many workers lost their jobs due to the adoption of capital intensive methods of production in some sectors of the economy. Many were laid off due to the rationalization exercise that was adopted during the SAP years. Rather than provide positive results, the SAP which was introduced in Nigeria in 1986 worsened the incidence of poverty in the country. According to Obadan (2001), SAP accentuated socio-economic problems of income inequality and led to unequal access to food, shelter, education, health and other essential materials of life.
            Toyo, (1990) holds the view that capitalism nurtures inequality and deprivation. The more the economy is monetized and capitalist accumulation develops in all sectors, the more the national wealth gets concentrated in capitalist hands and property-less forms. The “occupy” campaign which disrupted business activities in New York, Washington and London, the bastion of the free enterprise regime, in late 2011, is a notice that the average citizens, who are often at the receiving end of capitalist ruthlessness, are no longer willing to accept the status-quo without a fight.
            The accumulation of capital affects the vital interests of all classes of the capitalist society. It makes the rich to become richer while the poor is further impoverished. In absolute terms, it worsens the conditions of the working people. According to Abalkin, Dzarasor and Kulikov (1993), Levy (1991), Moser (1968) and Nkpa (1977), one of the major manifestations of the absolute impoverishment of the working class is the gap between its wants and the real living standard. Given the fact that in spite of the growth of real incomes, the gap between wants and the extent of their satisfaction, is not bridged, the capitalist economic system cannot alleviate poverty. Anyanwu (1984) submits that the problem with poverty is that it tends to destroy the social structure and cohesion of the society thus making it impossible for communal efforts and local networks for local enterprises to thrive.

2.2       SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW
            We have made some reasonable efforts to articulate the ideas and views of several authors and commentators on the poverty alleviation issue in Nigeria. In the process, several revelations have become quite apparent.
            Poverty in Nigeria is widespread and very severe and despite the number of agencies and programmes that have been put in place by various administrations, poverty appears to be on the increase. These material agencies and programmes are geared towards the provision of universal access to services. The poor is pressured to accept services they do not really want or which have little bearing on their basic issues.
            For poverty alleviation projects to be successful, it requires an implementation agency to establish and maintain an institutional culture that encourages innovative strategies and functional operational approaches as highlighted in our study.

2.3       GAP IN LITERATURE
The large amount of literature we have accumulated dealt on poverty alleviation and food security in the wider Nigerian context. However, a careful and detailed examination reveal that present area of our subject matter which rests on Abia ADP as a case study, is largely bereft of information and attention. In other words, while many scholars have dissipated considerable energy and concern on poverty alleviation and food security issue as a component of its own, none has drawn specific and particular attention to the instrument established by the Abia State government known as Abia ADP since its inception in 1991.
Thus, the study has neglected the ways of improving the service delivery efficiency of these programmes by various levels of government involved in the implementation of the programme. The study have also failed to assess the effectiveness of foreign aid in reducing poverty and food insecurity through its impact on human development indicators and, whether foreign aid reduces government efforts in achieving the much desired goals of food security. The study also fails to investigate the role of International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World bank aid to low income countries, what and how well IMF and World bank has done on aid in sub- Saharan Africa.
In order to fill this gap in literature, efforts were made to close the yawning gap without which our efforts would not achieve the required results. In this respect, we went into a dissection of the objectives, apparatuses and functions of Abia ADP. We examined what Abia ADP has meant to represent since its inception in 1991, the steps that have been taken and the successes and failures so far recorded.
Finally, during the course of this work, drawing from the primary and secondary data available, we have been able to establish the authenticity of Abia ADP situation in the last two decades of its existence.

2.4       HYPOTHESES
1. Abia ADP service delivery guidelines has no significant relationship with increased food production by Abia State farmers per annum
2. Abia ADP programme orientation geared towards poverty reduction and provision of farm implements to Abia farmers has not improved the attainment of food production per annum in the State.
3. Modern technologies provided by Abia ADP to Abia farmers have not led to the attainment of improved food production and creation of employment in the State.
2.5       OPERATIONALISATION OF KEY CONCEPTS:
1.         Poverty:
Poverty is a condition in which an entity is faced with economic, social, cultural and environmental deprivations laced with vulnerability and powerlessness.
2.         Poverty Alleviation:
Poverty alleviation is the process by which the socioeconomic and political statuses of the poor and deprived are seen to have been meaningfully transformed or reasonably improved.
3.         Economic Development:
Economic development is a type of social and economic system that produces higher and improved capability on the peoples’ physical, social and economic condition of living and enhancement of the quality of national life.
4.         Food Security:
            Food security is the ability to provide consequently the food and nutritional needs of the population at a reasonable cost.

5.         Rural Development:
Rural development is the ability to enhance the quality of life in the rural areas/communities through the provision of basic infrastructural, socio-economic conditions.

CHAPTER THREE           
METHODOLOGY
3.1       RESEARCH DESIGN:
            This research study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The essence of adopting this research design was to elicit data from target population through questionnaire and interview instruments. The data generated therefore were subjected to statistical analysis for the purpose of drawing necessary conclusions.
            This research study was carried out on the 17 local government areas in Abia state. Abia state is made up into three senatorial zones – Aba, Ohafia, and Umuahia zones.      Two distinctive local governments were therefore selected from each of the three senatorial zones, one urban and one rural local government. The total number of local governments selected for the study was six which comprises three urban and three rural areas from the three senatorial zones.
            Data for the study were collected from these six local governments. The questionnaire was designed based on the main variables of the hypotheses to get the required information for the study and also for quick data analysis. The items of the questionnaire were carefully structured to avoid diversionary responses from the respondents.
3.2       METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
            Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources.
3.2.1   Primary Source of Data
            Data were obtained from direct responses from interviews with some of the respondents in the local governments under study. Structured and unstructured questionnaire items not only served as supplementary sources of data, but also as means of validating the consistency of the results of the interviews.
            We utilized the questionnaire method extensively in eliciting information for this study. The interview method was also used for its usual in-depth study. Interview is a “data gathering instrument that enables a seeker of information to have in dept investigation, deeper probing and knowledge of an issue of concern through a face-to-face interaction with the provider of such information”. Obasi, (2006:165).

3.2.2   Secondary Sources of Data
            Secondary sources of Data include text books, journals, monographs, articles, and unpublished materials, official documents from Abia State Agricultural Development programme, Abia ADP and internet materials. Secondary sources of data have been considered quite useful in research especially for survey and descriptive purposes. They are relatively cheap in terms of cost and the expressive documents are capable of bringing to the fore the significant variables in a specific problem and suggesting hypotheses embodying these variables.

3.3       Population of the Study
            The population for the study was made up of all the 7,636 staff of All  Farmers Association of Nigeria (AFAN) in the 17 local Government areas in Abia State. (Abia ADP, 2011) and 463 staff of Abia ADP. We used 6 of the 17 Local Government Areas for the study. These were (a) Urban Local governments, comprising Aba North, Umuahia South and Bende. (b) Rural Local governments comprising Ukwa East, Umunneochi and Ugwunagbo. The population of these six (6) local governments used for the study was 2,560 from AFAN and 43 staff from Abia ADP. (Abia ADP, 2011).

3.4       Sample Size
            The sample for the study was drawn from the 2,560 staff of the All Farmers Association of Nigeria in the six local government areas and 46 staff of Abia ADP. Our choice of sample size was based on the views of Nwana in Obasi (1999), where he stated that “if the population is a few hundreds, a 40 percent or more samples would do; if many hundreds, a 20 percent will do. If a few thousands, a 10 percent will do and if several thousands, a 5 percent or less sample will do”. Since the population of the six selected local governments for the study was 2,560 Staff of AFAN and 463 staff of Abia ADP which represented a few thousands, 10 percent of the population was used as the sample size. This implies 10 percent of 2,560 which gives us 256 and 10 percent of 463 which gives 46. From the sampled local governments, 4 senior staff members of AFAN were selected and interviewed orally. The total number of senior staff interviewed was 24. When we subtract 24 from 256, we have 232 staff. To generate data for this study therefore, the questionnaire items were administered to 232 staff of AFAN and 46 staff of Abia ADP while the other 24 senior staff of AFAN responded to the interview guides.

3.4.1   Sampling Technique
            The proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select six local governments (three from the rural and three from the urban areas of the state), and the 232 staff of the All Farmers Association of  Nigeria (AFAN) and 46 staff of Abia ADP who responded to the questionnaire items. The choice of this sampling technique was because the urban and rural local governments have different characteristics and each of them needed to be adequately represented to increase the generalizability of the findings of the study, (Obasi, 2000). In addition, purposive sampling was used in the selection of those who were interviewed. Purposive sampling is used for sourcing expert opinions on an issue. With this approach in mind, we identified core staff of All Farmers Association of Nigeria, (AFAN), Abia State chapter, who were considered knowledgeable, in the focus of our study. They were those who responded to the interview questions.

Table 3.1: Showing the population of members of the: All Farmers Association of Nigeria (AFAN) in the 17 local government Areas of Abia State.
S/N
Local Government Area
Number of Staff
1
Aba North
603
2
Aba South
520
3
Isiala Ngwa North
486
4
Isiala Ngwa South
506
5
Obi Ngwa
510
6
Osisioma Ngwa
416
7
Ukwa East
312
8
Ukwa west
298
9
Arochukwu
435
10
Bende
412
11
Isuikwuato
427
12
Oha ofia
510
13
Umunneochi
391
14
Ikwuano
425
15
Umuahia North
543
16
Umuahia South
526
17
Ugwunagbo
314

Total number of staff
2560
Sources: Abia state local government service commission, 2011      
Table 3.2: Showing the population of members of All Farmers Association of Nigeria (AFAN) in the six (6) selected local governments in Abia state and the 10 percent sample size for the study from each L.G.A.
S/N
Selected Local Governments
No of workers
10 percent sample size
1
Aba North
605
61
2
Bende
412
41
3
Umuahia South
526
53
4
Ukwa East
312
31
5
Umunneochi
391
39
6
Ugwunagbo
314
31

Total six LGA
2.560
256
Source:  Abia State Local Government Service Commission, 2011

3.5       Validity and Reliability
            Two concepts that are necessary for ascertaining the appropriateness of the measuring instrument in a research are reliability and validity. Reliability refers to the consistency of the measuring instrument. It involves measuring variables and obtaining consistent results at each repeated measurement (Nzelibe 1995). Reliability refers to accuracy and precision of the results obtained over a period of time. The problem of reliability poses such questions as: if measures were applied and re-applied under precise application of conditions, would the same results be obtained? Validity of measurement determines the extent to which the researcher is measuring what he claims to measure. Asika (1991) posited that validity is defined as the degree to which a measuring instrument measures what it is designed to measure. A researcher should be concerned about the research instrument being able to achieve the specific measurement. It is therefore the duty of the researcher to ensure a correct design in order not to measure something else. If a research design elicits responses form the sample subjects, it is viewed as being valid.
            To judge the validity of the questionnaire items and interview schedule, we depended on wide consultations with specialists in the department of Public Administration and Local Government, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. To test for reliability, the pilot testing was employed. Pilot testing or study is an experimental activity carried out on small scale (that is, small sample in relation to large one and the entire population; or micro level in relation to macro level), to find out how something on large scale will work, (Obasi, 2000). It is an important aspect of research in that it is useful for improving both the validity and reliability of measuring instruments.
            In this study therefore, ten members of the All Farmers Association of Nigeria (AFAN) were randomly selected from each of the three local governments of the three Zones (Isiala Ngwa south, Ohaofia, and Umuahia North) that were not sampled for the study. This led to a total number of thirty workers used for the pilot testing of the instruments. The two instruments for this study were administered to this group of thirty workers. This was done at an interval of two weeks. The result of the responses from those used for the pilot testing confirmed the validity and reliability of the instrument. Besides, based on the result from the pilot testing and remarks from the specialists indicated above, some of the items of the two instruments were modified while some others were either expunged or replaced before the instruments were administered to the group sampled for the actual study.

3.6       Method of Data Analysis
            The research paradigms used by this study were the qualitative and quantitative approaches. In the presentation of our data for the study, the quantitative and qualitative data complemented each other. The presence of these two approaches ensured validity and reliability of the study. In other words, the information gathered from the literature reviewed assisted to authenticate the data from the questionnaire and interview.
            Data from the questionnaires were generated through the use of a five point likert scale. It is a measuring scale that can be used in a questionnaire to elicit information from respondents. The information was put in a weighted scale such as, “Strongly Agree” “Agree” “Undecided,” “Disagree”, “Strongly Disagree”. With these weights, a survey research which would have ended up as a qualitative study can be quantitatively analyzed with different types of statistical tools.

                        SA               A   U            D           SD
            In addition, data collected from the questionnaire were coded into the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), version 17. Based on the coded data, two descriptive statistical tools (frequency and valid percentage) were used to answer the research questions, while the research hypotheses were tested at 0.05 levels of significance.

3.7       Method of Data Presentation.
            Method of data presentation includes the following:
I.          Simple tables: This consists of list of objects containing statistical records in row and column formation
II.         Chi-square technique: This technique was used to test the hypotheses for the difference between a set of observed frequencies and a corresponding expected frequency


The formula is stated below:                 
      
Where X2 = Chi-square
oi = observed data
ei = expected data


3.8       THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
            To further enhance the effectiveness and general understanding of the subject matter, a research work deserves a background of systematically organized knowledge of varying levels of generalizations. This is aimed at providing meaning and relevance from the development of such knowledge and concepts whose application provides specifications and relationship based on empirical tests and validations.
            A theory provides us the tools with which we try to analyze issues and causations in order to determine what is real and what is not. It is important at this juncture to provide an analytical basis of explanation which would enhance a better appreciation and understanding of poverty alleviation and food security issues in Nigeria.
            There are several existing theories in the social sciences which would suit our purpose in this work. For a better analysis, we shall employ the Structural Functionalist theory.

3.8.1   The Structural Functionalist Theory
            The structural functionalist approach emphasizes the fact that there are certain functions which must be fulfilled in a given social system if such system must survive (Almond, 1948, Parson 1946, Durkhein 1890, Comte, 1840).
            For such functions to be performed, however, certain basic structures must be created to ensure their successes. In the social setting, structures are determined by functions and it is the need to perform these functions that lead to the establishment of structures.
            Deriving from above, it would be precise to assert that the survival of the political system can be determined by the strength of the national economy. The primary function of government is to reduce the level of poverty among the masses as a way of enhancing its economic base. In order to achieve the functions of poverty alleviation, successive Nigerian governments have created various structures whose sole objectives have been to provide the functions of poverty alleviation and if possible, total poverty eradication.
            In Almond’s view, the structural/functional approach discusses the concept of “function” and “structure”. In analyzing these concepts, three basic questions are put forward as follows;
(a)       What functions are required to be performed?
(b)       By what structures are these functions performed?
(c)       Under what condition?
            Almond further defined function as “the objective consequence of a pattern of action for the system”, and structures as “those arrangements within the system which performs the function”. In analyzing the above definitions, Almond stated that the conversion function, capabilities function and adaptive and maintenance functions are the functional requirements of a social system whereas the structure is a single function that may be fulfilled by a complex combination of structures, just as any given structural arrangement may perform functions which might have different kinds of consequences for the structure.
            Effecting the structural function to the poverty alleviation programme in Abia state, the aim of creating Abia ADP in 1991 is in line with the desire of the Nigerian government in general and Abia State government in particular to enhance the goals of food security, food management and improved living standard through a system of poverty alleviation and method of ensuing maximum food yield and crop improvement.
The Abia ADP, therefore, was an organisational structure created by Abia state government as a vessel towards the achievement of these goals. The establishment of Abia ADP was designed as a grass root measure to provide a specific goal of development through food security and enhanced crop yield in order to achieve the ultimate function of poverty eradication as along time objective and poverty reduction in a short time bases.  The activities of Abia ADP are determined by the role of government in that area. It is believed that in any political system, society or organization, there are always sub-units and institutions which are interlinked to form a highly integrated system. The aim of examining and assessing the governmental functions of poverty, alleviation strategy in this regard is for improving the national economy and living standard of the people.
            However, a society becomes a self-maintaining system having certain pre-requisites that make it survive. Through the economic institutions of Abia ADP, the Abia state government created a structure for the purpose of enabling the population to achieve their food security, and fulfill the goals and ends of food security giving the support and demand inputs and their conversion.
            Therefore, the concepts of national action will be used to identify the activities of those engaged in the administration of food security, Robert Easton, (1968) in his treatment of functional analysis of the political machine says, “The machine fulfils the important social function of harmonizing and personalizing all manner of assistance to those in need”. The machine also serves the function of providing alternative channels of social mobility for those otherwise excluded from the conventional avenues of personal advancement.
            Over the years, successive governments embarked on one form of poverty alleviation strategy or the other. What has remained unanswered is the structural functionalist postulation. In this regard, the Abia ADP must satisfy the basic needs of poverty alleviation and food security for which it was established. With this view, it is certain that if Abia ADP is not carrying out the activities for which it was established, it will mean that there are certain things acting as obstruction in the direction of government and this will affect both Abia ADP members and the entire people of Abia State.

3.8.2.  Application of the Theoretical Framework
            The theory used is considered essential for the adequate and appropriate understanding of poverty alleviation programme and food security- a study of Abia State Agricultural Development Programme. Applying the coercive and normative pressures within the structural functionalist approach, poverty alleviation, food security and economic development are interrelated. One complements the other and for success to be achieved in this goal, certain structures must as of necessity be created and only then can the desired functions be achieved.
            The survival of the political system as well as the state itself is predicated on responsiveness of the national economy and this can only be achieved when policy implementation achieves the goals for which it was formulated.
            The input-output functions of the system guarantee the survival of the system and the attainment of the goals which the system has set out to achieve. This is made possible by a condition of harmony and co-operation at both ends of the political system comprising the leaders and the followers.

3.9       THE STUDY AREA
            Abia State Agricultural Development Programme (Abia ADP) was created in 1991 by Edict No. 6 of 1991, Gazette No. 3 vol. 1 of 1992. The ADP was also declared a public service by Abia State government Gazette No 4 of 5th October, 2000. Under the bifurcation arrangement between old Imo and Abia States, Abia State ADP took off in January, 1992.
            Abia State ADP is the Extension and Research arm of the ministry of Agriculture and charged with the responsibility to assisting small holder farmers produce good quality food and agro-industrial raw materials in sustainable manner through Extension and research programmes.
            The ADP has the Agricultural Development Programme Executive Committee (ADPEC) as its apex governing body. This body has the Executive Governor as its Chairman, the Commissioner for agriculture as the Deputy Chairman and the ADP Programme Manager as the Secretary. However, the internal management body is the Programme Management Unit (PMU) while the programme manager is the Chief Executive of the Programme. The members of the PMU are the programme manager, the sub-programme heads and the zonal managers of the three (3) agricultural zones namely, Aba Zone, Umuahia Zone and Ohafia zone. These zones correspond to the three senatorial zones in Abia State.
            Abia ADP as a parastatal is structured along the following seven sub-prog


The technical services and Extension are the core sub-programmes while the rest of the sub-programmes provides either organization or support services.

3.9.1   Funding arrangements and staff profile.
            The Abia ADP is funded by the State Government, The Federal government and International Donor agencies. The state pays the salaries of workers as well as counterpart funds for projects.
            Abia state ADP has a dynamic workforce. As at the end of June 30th, 2011, the staff strength of direct staff stood at 463 categorized as below:
(a)       Senior Management staff                -           GL13 and above       44
(b)       Middle management                        -           GL 07 – GL 12          258
(c)       Junior Staff                                       -           GL 07 – GL 06          161
                                                                                    Total                           463
Source:           (Abia ADP statistical bulletin 2012)

3.9.2   Abia ADP main Objectives:
            The main objective of Abia ADP as being implemented now is to raise the standard of living of 314,910 rural farm families in the project area through increased output, yield and productivity hence, income on sustainable basis.
More specifically,
1.         To disseminate low cost, labour saving messages (packages) to farmers/farming communities in order to upgrade their knowledge and skills for increased productivity.
2.         To design, supervise and control all the engineering activities needed to enhance the small scale farmers in food production for improvement of their living standards and provide relevant and appropriate production technologies and quality planting materials in crops, livestock, fisheries, agro-forestry and land management for increased productivity.

3.9.3   Strategies for Achieving the Objectives:
            The Abia ADP achieves its objectives by providing the following.
i.          Training and visit (T & v) Extension system.
ii.         Farmers field school (FFS) under the united agricultural Extension system (UAES).
iii.       Conduct of on-farm adaptive research (OFAR) trials for the generation of appropriate technologies.
iv.        Development of rural infrastructure and facilities such as rural feeder roads, irrigation facilities and water supplies.
v.         Strengthening of farm input supplies through the use of agro-service centres.
vi.        Development of rural institutions through participatory approach and training.
vii.      Intensification of monitoring, advisory and evaluation activities in the ADP area of operation.
viii.     Publishing these activities for consumption and popular use by the ADP clientele.

3.9.4   Abia ADP Funded Projects:
1.         National programme for food security (NPFS).
            This project commenced in 2007 and it is on-going. The broad objective of the programme is to foster the development of small holder agriculture and income generation in the rural areas, improve food security and reduce poverty on economically sustainable basis.
3,9.5 Strategies of NPFS
1.         Empowering farmers financially in a revolving loan scheme with zero interest rate.
2.         Emphasis on group formation, primary production of crops livestock, fisheries, fibers and processing.
3.         Savings mobilization
4.         Development of irrigation facilities and small dams 
5.         Provision of rural infrastructure.

3.9.6 Funding Arrangements:
            The project is domestically funded by the Federal Government of Nigeria from the Pool of Agricultural fund. It is purely a grant. However, accessing the fund is subjects to payment of counterpart fund. The counter part fund and grants from FGN/FAO will be managed within the state as operational and revolving funds. It is the state governor that revolving funds. It is the state governor that approves the counterpart fund.

3.9.7   Roots and Tubers Expansion Programme (RTEP)
            The Root and Tuber Expansion Programme was designed with a broad objective of empowering poor resource farmers to increase their income and enhance productivity. It involved multiplication and distribution of improved roots and tuber crop planting materials. It laid emphasis on processing utilization and market expansion. The main objective of the programme is to improve the income and livelihood of farmers and processors and marketers of Root and tuber crops and their products. The following table shows the Abia ADP overview of roots and Tuber Expansion programme (RTEP) implementation between 2001-2009.
Source: Abia ADP bulletin, 2011
 
Source: Abia ADP bulletin, 2011
 
Source: Abia ADP bulletin, 2011
 
3.9.8               Strategies of RTEP
1.         Development and commercialization of production and processing and marketing roots and tuber crops in the state with emphasis on processing.
2.         Organization of groups/dusters of growers processors, marketers and end-users to facilitate linkages and access to finance and other capital resources.
3.9.9   Funding Arrangements
            It is donor assisted, with a domestic fund component. Participate is subject to payments of counterpart fund. The federal Government Funds these projects through different cost sharing formulae. The federal government also guarantees all loan components.
3.10    Cassava Implementation Assessment
            The crop cassava regarded traditionally was relegated to the background. However, in the early 1980s, cassava cultivation suffered a severe setback all over the country resulting form a devastating outbreak of mealy-bugs and the green spider mite. This incident significantly reduced production such that the Federal government sought for Technical assistance from IFAD in 1985. IFAD came in with a project to increase productivity of the crop through increased use of improved varieties, better disease and pest control, promotion of better agronomic practices and introduction of improved processing methods.
            A loan package of US $ 12 million was committed by IFAD and the Nigerian Government in order to promote the activities of CMP in twelve (12) States of which Imo was one. The resulting bifurcation-SSS    subsequent assets sharing enabled ASADEP to receive US$ 0.731 million. As a result of the project intervention, Cassava production in Nigeria rose form 12 million metric tons in 1987 to over 31 million metric tone in 1996 while the annual growth rate of cassava production rose to 15%. The ERR for the project was 10.6% as against 12.7% in SAR.

Figure 3.3 Area Under Cassava

The principal objective of each participating ADP was to increase the availability of planting materials of high-yielding cassava varieties and other root crops and to demonstrate methods of processing and utilization that would reduce drudgery, increase productivity in a cost-effective way and improve the quality of foods prepared from cassava and cassava products. The project was to strengthen the following ADP units:
(a)       Seed Multiplication: The Project was to expand the ADP Seeds Unit’s capacities to produce certified cassava planting material on ADP Seeds farms and by out growers. In addition, multiplication of planting materials of other root crops where shortages are seriously limiting production would be supported.
(b)       Extension:
(i)        Demonstration – Strengthen On-farm demonstration of improved cassava varieties using the SPAT techniques and ON-Farm demonstration of improved agronomic practices associated with maximizing the yield of improved cassava varieties.
(ii)       WIA - The WIA Component was to offer demonstration training in manual methods of cassava processing and improved methods of utilizing cassava and cassava products at the household level.
(iii)     Adaptive Research: To improve the relevance and effectiveness of adaptive research, the project was to support:
1.         On-farm trials to confirm the superiority of improved cassava varieties
2.         On-farm trials to confirm agronomic practices for use with improve cassava varieties and
3.         On-farm demonstrations of methods to minimize soil-erosion through contour planting, intercropping, alley cropping and the introduction of anti-erosion barrier vegetation such as votives grass.

(iv)      Crop Processing:
1.         Testing and demonstration of manually operated cassava processing equipment suitable for adoption by small scale processors:
2.         Quantification of the production costs and profitability of different scales of cassava processing from manual to mechanized system;
3.         Workshops and Conferences on cassava processing to stimulate uptake of technology in rural areas; and
4.         Promotion of processing methods which minimize cyanide pollution of water ways.
(v)       Project Co-ordination (PME): Assist the ADP Planning and Evaluation Units to carry out baseline surveys, monitor and evaluate ongoing activities, and meet their reporting requirements in a timely manner.
Cost and Financing
            The IFAD loan of US $ 0.48 million was to finance the project in Abia State at 45 interest per annum with a maturity of 20 years including a five – year grace period. The remaining amount was to be financed mainly by FGN and Abia State government contributions. In addition, some costs were expected to be recovered in the form of revenues generated from sales of engineers, cuttings and cassava roots.

The Redesigned Project
The ‘Redesign’ Exercise added the following features to the IFAD CMP:
(a)       A processing component: To test and demonstrate smaller-scale processing equipment in addition to the existing village – scale processing units installed in the earlier phase of the project by RAIDS;
(b)       A utilization component:  To implemented by the WIA section of the ADP in order to increase the awareness of rural women of cassava toxicity and its elimination;
(c)       Environmental protection measures to minimize soil – erosion and cyanide pollution; and
(d)       Enhanced monitoring and evaluation of all project’s activities.
 
3.11    Factors Affecting Projects Implementation
            Nwanjah (2010), the major factors that affects project implementation by Abia ADP has both positive and negative effects. The positive effects include:
i.          devaluation of Local currency and the introduction of SAP led to increased families which boosted the programme.
ii.         Effective extension/research linkage helped to accelerate the adoption of improved varieties and the associated production techniques.
            Equally the negative effects includes
1.         Inadequate counterpart funding
2.         Lack of mobility and
3.         Late recognition and arrival of PME into the programme made it difficult to establish an effective system of monitoring and evaluating the various aspects of the project from its inception.

3.12  Abia ADP Beneficiaries and Achievements
            Uduma (2010), the first and foremost project outcome was the increased capacity building of farmers and beneficiary participation in the design, planning and implementation of the project. Another outcome of the project, among farmers/beneficiaries is enlightenment as well as credit/fund management.
            Equally, the Abia ADP programme has developed skilled manpower for the management of such farm operations. The beneficiary groups have gained considerable implementation experience in this phase which can be employed to improve future operations in the next phase. SPFS has during the implementation period promoted the high yielding varieties of cassava, Yam and rice. SPFS also expanded the product base for crops and animal production as well as processing for the desired value added ness.

Figure 3.4 Overview of AFAN Beneficiaries of ADP

Okafor (2010) enumerated other key achievements as follows;
1.         Promotion of high yielding disease resistant and early maturing roots and tubers varieties.
2.         Rise in yield of roots and tuber products rose vis-a-via the base level. These may appear small but when translated to money and in view of the quantity involved, it represents a tremendous difference in productivity to the beneficiaries.
3.         There is a significant increase in income among the beneficiaries. This is high enough to establish that beneficiaries’ socio-economic status was enhanced by the project.
4.         Farmers adoption rate of technologies prior to the commencement of RTEP and other proprammes by Abia ADP was minimal. RTEP promoted and expanded both the roots and tubes crops improved varieties and transferred there to farmers under the participatory community extension system.
5.         There is increased capacity building of beneficiaries and staff. All members of staff that are involved in the programme gained a considerable implementation experience in the programme which can be employed to improve future operations.
6.         Abia ADP realized that food losses were due to lack of awareness of opportunities. For Example, RTEP created the realization that the key to minimizing post harvest losses and raising revenue of small scale producers and agro processors lies in market development and market expansion.

CHAPTER  FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       PRESENTATION OF DATA
The previous chapter described the design used in this study and presented the procedure, population size and sample, source of data and rate at which questionnaires were returned. This chapter focused on collected data, analyses of the data, presentation and validation of hypothesis stated in chapter one. For the purpose of this study, we used “strongly agree”, “agree”, “undecided”, “disagree” and “strongly disagree” to answer questions.

Table 4.1: Age Distribution of Respondents
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
20-30 years
108
45.4
47.0
47.0
31-40 years
118
49.6
51.3
98.3
41-50 years
4
1.7
1.7
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012 

The table 4.1 above shows that 108 respondents representing 45.4 % of the total respondents are within the age bracket of 20 -30 years, 118 respondents representing 49.6 % of the respondents fall between the ages 31-40 years of. While 4 respondents representing 1.7 % are between the 41-50 years age bracket. Therefore most members of the work force are within the productive age. This encourages effective performance

Table 4.2: Gender Distribution
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Male
120
50.4
52.2
52.2
Female
109
45.8
47.4
99.6




100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012 

The table 4.2 shows that 120 respondents representing 50.4% are male while 109 respondents representing 45.8 % are female.                                                      
Table4.3: Occupation of the Respondents
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
civil servants
158
66.4
68.7
68.7
Farmers
57
23.9
24.8
93.5
Traders
15
6.3
6.5
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012 

From the table 4.3 above the data shows that 158 respondents representing 68.75% of the total respondents are civil servants, 57 respondents representing 24.8% of the respondents are farmers. While 15 respondents representing 6.5% are traders.

Table 4.4: Educational Qualifications 
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
University graduate
135
56.7
58.7
58.7
College of education and polytechnic
77
32.4
33.5
92.2
Secondary school
18
7.6
7.8
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012 

The table 4.4 above shows that 135 respondents representing 56.7% are university graduates, 77 respondents representing 32.4% graduated from either colleges of education or polytechnic while 18 respondents which represent 7.6% are senior school certificate holders.

Table 4.5: Residence of Respondents
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Urban
163
68.5
70.9
70.9
Rural
67
28.2
29.1
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012 

The result from table 4.5 above indicates that 163 respondents representing 68.5% live in urban areas while 67 respondent representing 28.2 % live in the rural areas.

SECTION A: Abia ADP Service Delivery Guidelines and Attainment of Food Production in Abia State.

(1)       Has Abia ADP  improved the output productivity and income of farmers?

Table 4.6: Abia ADP Improved Food Security
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
80
33.6
34.8
34.8
Agree
84
35.3
36.5
71.3
Undecided
52
21.8
22.6
93.9
Disagree
11
4.6
4.8
98.7
Strongly disagree
3
1.3
1.3
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s Field survey, 2012 

The table 4.6 above indicates that 80 respondents, representing 33.6 % of the population under study strongly agree that Abia ADP programme has improved food security in Abia State while 84 respondents which represent 35.3% agree that Abia ADP programme has contributed to an improved food security in the state. 52   respondents which represent 21.8% were undecided, 11 respondents representing 4.6% disagree while 3 respondents representing 1.3% strongly disagree.
(2) Has Abia ADP improved the income yield of Abia farmers per annum?
Table 4.7: Improvement on the Standard of Living of Abia farmers
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
42
17.6
18.3
18.3
Agree
88
37.0
38.3
56.5
Undecided
28
11.8
12.2
68.7
Disagree
61
25.6
26.5
95.2
Strongly disagree
11
4.6
4.8
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s Field survey, 2012
The result indicates that 42 respondents representing 18.3% strongly agree that Abia ADP have improved the standard of living of Abia farmers through the Abia ADP programme. While 88 respondents representing 38.3 % agree that Abia ADP have improved their  standard of living of farmers through the Abia ADP  programme,12.2%  were undecided, 26.5 percent disagree and 4.8% strongly disagree that that Abia ADP have improved their  standard of living through the Abia ADP  programme.

(3) Are you a registered farmer in the state?
Table 4.8: Registered farmers
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
11
4.6
4.8
4.8
Agree
100
42.0
43.5
48.3
Undecided
34
14.3
14.8
63.0
Disagree
44
18.5
19.1
82.2
Strongly disagree
41
17.2
17.8
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The table above shows that 11 respondents which account for 4.8 % strongly agree that they are registered farmers, 100 respondents representing 43.5% agree that they are registered farmers; 14.8% were undecided, 44 respondents representing 19.1% disagree while 17.8 percent disagree that they are registered farmers in the state.
(4)       Has Abia ADP programme improved the output productivity of Abia farmers?
Table 4.9: Abia ADP improvement on the output productivity of Abia farmers
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
17
7.1
7.4
7.4
Agree
46
19.3
20.0
27.4
Undecided
10
4.2
4.3
31.7
Disagree
111
46.6
48.3
80.0
Strongly disagree
46
19.3
20.0
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012 
The table above shows that 17 respondents representing 7.1 % of the sampled population strongly agree that Abia ADP has improved the output productivity of the people, 46 respondents which represent 19.3 % agree that Abia ADP has improved the output productivity of the people. On the other hand, 111 respondent representing 46.6% disagree that Abia ADP has improved output productivity of the people of the state, while 46 respondents which represent 19.3% strongly disagree that Abia ADP programme has improved the output productivity of the people.
(5) The impact of Abia ADP Programmes on inequality and household disparity of Abians.
Table 4.10: Impact of Abia ADP on inequality and household disparity.
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
95
39.9
41.3
41.3
Agree
30
12.6
13.0
54.3
Undecided
34
14.3
14.8
69.1
Disagree
31
13.0
13.5
82.6
Strongly disagree
40
16.8
17.4
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012 
The table above indicates that 95 respondents representing 41.3%of the sampled population strongly agree that  Abia ADP in the State has balanced the inequality in household disparity of Abia citizens; 30 respondents representing 13% of the population agree ,14.8% were undecided, 13.5%  disagree and 17.4% of the population strongly disagree that Poverty Alleviation programme and food security by Abia ADP in yhe State has balanced the inequality in household disparity of Abia citizens


(6)  Have you benefited from Abia ADP activities?
Table 4.11: Beneficiaries of Abia ADP  activities
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
65
27.3
28.3
28.3
Agree
60
25.2
26.1
54.3
undecided
54
22.7
23.5
77.8
Disagree
51
21.4
22.2
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The table above shows that 65 respondents representing 27.3% strongly agree that they have received benefit from Abia ADP while 60 respondents representing 25.2 % agree that they have received benefit from Abia ADP programme. 54 respondents representing 22.7% were undecided. 51 respondent which represent 21.4% disagree that they have received benefit from the Abia ADP programme
(7) Has the social and economic standard of Abia indigenes risen through Abia ADP programme?
Table 4.12: Impact on Social and Economic Standard.
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
70
29.4
30.4
30.4
Agree
56
23.5
24.3
54.8
Undecided
35
14.7
15.2
70.0
Disagree
52
21.8
22.6
92.6
Strongly disagree
17
7.1
7.4
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012

The table above shows that 70 respondents representing 30.4 % strongly agree that the social and economic standard of Abia indigenes has been raised high through the Abia ADP programme; 24.3% agree, 15.2 were undecided, 22.6% disagree and 17 respondents representing 7.4%  of the population strongly disagree that the social and economic standard of Abia indigenes has been raised high through the Abia ADP.

(8) Has Abia ADP increased  the gross domestic product of Abia farmers?
Table 4.13: Abia ADP’s effect on Gross Domestic Product
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
37
15.5
16.1
16.1
Agree
92
38.7
40.0
56.1
Undecided
26
10.9
11.3
67.4
Disagree
52
21.8
22.6
90.0
Strongly disagree
23
9.7
10.0
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The table above shows that of the total respondents, 37 respondents representing 15.5% of the population strongly agree that Abia ADP programme has contributed to an increase in the gross domestic product of the state.92 respondents which represent 38.7% agree, 26 respondents representing 10.9% of the sampled population were undecided, 52 respondents which represent 21.8% of the sampled population disagree while 23 respondents representing 9.7% strongly disagree.


(9)  Has Abia ADP helped in building social structure and enhanced communal efforts in Abia State?
Table 4.14: Abia ADP impact on Social Structure and Communal Effort
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly Agree
93
39.1
40.4
40.4
Agree
65
27.3
28.3
68.7
Undecided
63
26.5
27.4
96.1
Disagree
9
3.8
3.9
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The table above shows that 93 respondents representing 39.1 % strongly agree that Abia ADP programme has impact on building social structures and enhancing communal efforts in the state. 65 respondents representing 27.35 of the sampled population agree that Abia ADP programme has contributed in building social structure and enhancement of communal efforts in the state.63 respondents were undecided while 9 respondents which represent 3.9% of the population under study disagree.

(10) Has Abia ADP Aid in food security improved the human development of Abia farmers?
Table 4.15: Abia ADP Impact on Human Development
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
19
8.0
8.3
8.3
Agree
121
50.8
52.6
60.9
Undecided
10
4.2
4.3
65.2
Disagree
45
18.9
19.6
84.8
Strongly disagree
35
14.7
15.2
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
From the table above, it can be seen that 19 respondents representing 8.3% strongly agree that Abia ADP programme has improved human development of farmers in Abia State. 121 respondents representing 52.6% of the sampled population agree, undecided respondents were 10 respondent representing 4.3%. 45 respondents disagree while 35 respondents representing 15.2% strongly disagree that Abia ADP programme has improved human development of farmer in the state.

(11) Has Abia ADP policy and practice in operations supported by poverty Alleviation and food security raised the standard of low income earners in the state?
Table 4.16: Abia ADP impact on Low Income Earners
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
31
13.0
13.5
13.5
Agree
73
30.7
31.7
45.2
undecided
66
27.7
28.7
73.9
Disagree
29
12.2
12.6
86.5
Strongly disagree
31
13.0
13.5
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
From the table above 31 respondents representing 13% of the sampled population strongly agree that Abia ADP policy and practice in operations supported by poverty Alleviation and food security has raised the standard of low income earners in the state. 73 respondents which represents 30.7% of the population agree,66 respondents were undecided;29 respondents which represent 12..2%  of the population disagree while 31 respondents representing 13%of the sampled population strongly disagree that Abia ADP policy and practice in operations supported by poverty Alleviation and food security has raised the standard of low income earners in the state.

(12) Has Abia ADP credit facilities programme on food security impacted on the GDP of people in the state?
Table 4.17: Effects of Abia ADP Credit facilities on GDP
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
96
40.3
41.7
41.7
Agree
77
32.4
33.5
75.2
Undecided
9
3.8
3.9
79.1
Disagree
24
10.1
10.4
89.6
Strongly disagree
24
10.1
10.4
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012 
Of the entire respondents, 41.7% strongly agree that Abia ADP programme and food security in the state has impacted on the Gross domestic product of Abia people, 33.5% agree, 3.9% were undecided, 10.4% disagree while 10.4% strongly disagree that Abia ADP programme and food security in the state has impacted on the Gross Domestic Product of people in the State

SECTION B: ABIA ADP PROGRAMME ORIENTATION TOWARDS POVERTY REDUCTION AND FARM IMPLEMENTS TO FARMERS IN ABIA STATE.
(1 ) Has Abia ADP  improved the food production and food sufficiency of Abia farmers through assistance of farm implements?
Table 4.18: Impact of farm implements on Abia farmers
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
85
35.7
37.0
37.0
Agree
91
38.2
39.6
76.5
undecided
16
6.7
7.0
83.5
Disagree
20
8.4
8.7
92.2
Strongly disagree
18
7.6
7.8
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
From the table above, 85 respondents representing 35.7% of the population strongly agree that Abia ADP has improved the food production and food sufficiency of Abia farmers through farm implements in the state. 38.2% agree 6.7% were undecided; 20 respondents representing 8.4% disagree while 7.6% strongly disagree that Abia ADP has improved the food production and food sufficiency of Abia farmers in the state.

(2) Has Abia ADP bridged the unbridled inequality and food insecurity between the rural and urban dwellers in the state through external loan assistance?
Table 4.19: Abia ADP and Rural/Urban Inequality
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
80
33.6
34.8
34.8
Agree
90
37.8
39.1
73.9
undecided
32
13.4
13.9
87.8
Disagree
18
7.6
7.8
95.7
Strongly disagree
10
4.2
4.3
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
From the table above, it could be seen that 80 respondents representing 34.8 % strongly agree that Abia ADP has bridged the unbridled inequality and food insecurity between the rural and urban dwellers in the state; 39.1% agree, 13.9% undecided, 7.8% disagree while 4.3% strongly disagree that Abia ADP has bridged the unbridled inequality and food insecurity between the rural and urban dwellers in the state

(3)  Has Abia ADP reduced poverty and increased food security through the creation of employment to Abia citizens?

Table 4.20: Abia ADP and Employment Creation
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
91
38.2
39.6
39.6
Agree
74
31.1
32.2
71.7
Undecided
38
16.0
16.5
88.3
Disagree
21
8.8
9.1
97.4
Strongly disagree
6
2.5
2.6
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The table above shows that 91 respondents representing 38.2% strongly agree that Abia ADP has reduced poverty and increased food security through the creation of employment the citizens.74 respondents representing 31.1% of the sampled population agree while 16.5% were undecided. 21 respondents representing 9.1% disagree and 6 respondents representing 2.6 % of the population strongly disagree.

(4) Can rural dwellers boast of improved standard of living and food security because of the farm implements supplied by Abia ADP?
Table 4.21:   Impact of Abia ADP farm implements on the Standard of Living of rural dwellers
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
25
10.5
10.9
10.9
Agree
129
54.2
56.1
67.0
undecided
34
14.3
14.8
81.7
Disagree
31
13.0
13.5
95.2
Strongly disagree
11
4.6
4.8
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Abia ADP field survey, 2012
From the table above, it could be seen that 25 respondents representing 10.9% strongly agree that rural dwellers can boast of high standard of living and food security because of the farm implements granted to them by Abia ADP.129 respondents representing 56.1% agree, while 34 respondents, which represent 14.8 % were undecided. Of the total population, 13.5% disagree while 4.8% strongly disagree that rural dwellers can boast of high standard of living and food security because of the farm implements granted to them by Abia ADP.
(5) Does Abia ADP share equally agricultural implements to rural dwellers?
Table 4.22:  Abia ADP and Agricultural Implementation
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
45
18.9
19.6
19.6
Agree
69
29.0
30.0
49.6
undecided
30
12.6
13.0
62.6
Disagree
61
25.6
26.5
89.1
Strongly disagree
25
10.5
10.9
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The table above shows that 19.6% of the respondents strongly agree that does Abia ADP share universally agricultural implements to rural dwellers in the state. 30 % of the sampled population agreed while 13% were undecided. Of the total sampled population, 26.5% disagreed while 10.9% strongly disagreed that Abia ADP shares agricultural implement to rural dwellers.
(6)       Have you benefited from Abia ADP for your food production and food sufficiency through their farm implements?
Table 4.23: Local Farmers and Abia ADP Assistance
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
40
16.8
17.4
27.4
Agree
61
25.6
26.5
43.9
Undecided
22
9.2
9.6
53.5
Disagree
67
28.2
29.1
82.6
Strongly disagree
40
16.8
17.4
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The result indicates that 40 respondents representing 17.3% strongly agree that they have benefited from Abia ADP for their food production and food sufficiency the provision farm implements. While 61 respondents representing 26.5% agree they have benefited from Abia ADP for their food production and food sufficiency, 9.62% were undecided, 29.1 percent disagreed and 17.4% strongly that they have not benefited form Abia ADP for their food production and food sufficiency.

 (7) Has local farmers gained communally from Abia ADP for their food production and food sufficiency?
 Table 4.24: Local Farmers and Abia ADP Assistance
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
63
26.5
27.4
27.4
Agree
58
24.4
25.2
52.6
Undecided
39
16.4
17.0
69.6
Disagree
34
14.3
14.8
84.3
Strongly disagree
36
15.1
15.7
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The table above shows that 27.4 % percent of the respondents strongly agree that local farmers have gained communally from Abia ADP for their food production and food sufficiency. 25.2% agree 17% were undecided; 14.8% disagree while 15.7% strongly disagree that local farmers have gained communally from Abia ADP for their food production and food sufficiency

 (8) Do you pay anything before the aid grant by Abia ADP to rural dwellers?
Table 4.25: Conditions for receiving Aid
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Cooperative members
36
15.1
15.7
15.7
Provision of collateral
47
19.7
20.4
36.1
Grants
61
25.6
26.5
62.6
Aids
62
26.1
27.0
89.6
Communal effort
24
10.1
10.4
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
From the table above, it could be seen that 36 respondents representing 15.7 % strongly agree that they submit their registered cooperative membership before aids was granted to them, 20.4% agree on the provision of collateral, 26.5% undecided on the area of grants, 27% disagree on aids while 10.4% strongly disagree that communal effort contributes on the conditions for receiving aid from Abia ADP.
(9)Has Abia ADP relieved entirely rural dwellers in Abia State?
Table 4.26: Abia ADP Relief to Rural Dwellers
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Short-term loan
69
29.0
30.0
30.0
Middle-term loan
57
23.9
24.8
54.8
Grants
23
9.7
10.0
64.8
Aids
37
15.5
16.1
80.9
Long-term loan
44
18.5
19.1
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The table above shows that 69 respondents representing 30% strongly agreed that Abia ADP has relieved entirely rural dwellers in Abia State through short-term loan. 57 respondents representing 24.8%agree on middle term loan, while 10% agreed on grants. The table also shows that 37 respondents representing 16.1% of the sampled population disagreed on aids while 19.1% strongly disagreed that Abia ADP has relieved entirely rural dwellers in Abia State through long-term loan

SECTION C: ABIA FARMERS ATTAINMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTION AND CREATION OF EMPLOYMENT THROUGH MODERN TECHNOLOGIES.

(1)  Has insufficient farm implements affected food production in Abia State?

Table 4.27:  Effects of insufficient farm implements on Food productivity
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
66
27.7
28.7
28.7
Agree
78
32.8
33.9
62.6
Undecided
27
11.3
11.7
74.3
Disagree
46
19.3
20.0
94.3
Strongly disagree
13
5.5
5.7
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012

The table above shows that 66 respondents representing 28.7% of the sampled population strongly agree that insufficient farm implements affects food productivity in Abia State, 78 respondents which represent 33.9 % agree that insufficient farm implements affects food productivity in Abia State. On the other hand, 27 respondents representing 11.7% were undecided, 20% disagree, while 46 respondents which represent 19.3% strongly disagree that insufficient farm implements affects food productivity in Abia State

(2) Has lack of commitment by staff affected poverty Alleviation and food security in the state?
Table 4.28: Lack of Staff commitment and its impact on productivity.
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
70
29.4
30.4
30.4
Agree
97
40.8
42.2
72.6
Undecided
29
12.2
12.6
85.2
Disagree
16
6.7
7.0
92.2
Strongly disagree
18
7.6
7.8
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
From the table above, 70 respondents representing 30.4% of the population under study strongly agree that lack of Staff commitment affects productivity; 97 respondents representing 42.25 agree while 29 respondents representing 12.6% were undecided. 7% of the respondents disagree while 7.8% strongly disagree that lack of commitment by Abia ADP staff affects productivity in the state.

(3) Has lack of continuity of programme by successive administrations affects employment by Abia farmers?
Table 4.29:   Lack of Continuity of programmes by successive Administrations affects employment opportunities
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
55
23.1
23.9
23.9
Agree
110
46.2
47.8
71.7
Undecided
27
11.3
11.7
83.5
Disagree
22
9.2
9.6
93.0
Strongly disagree
16
6.7
7.0
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The table above shows that 55 respondents representing 23.9 % strongly agree that non-continuity of existing programme by a new government impacted negatively in the food security of Abia State. 110 respondents representing 47.8% of the sampled population agree that non-continuity of existing programme by a new government impacted negatively in the food security of Abia State 26 respondents were undecided while 16 respondents which represent 7% % of the population under study strongly disagree.
(4) Has distrust among staff and Abia farmers affects food security in the state?
Table 4.30: Lack of co-operation between Abia ADP staff And Abia Farmers Affects Food Security
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
78
32.8
33.9
33.9
Agree
76
31.9
33.0
67.0
Undecided
36
15.1
15.7
82.6
Disagree
25
10.5
10.9
93.5
Strongly disagree
15
6.3
6.5
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey 2012
The table above shows that 78 respondents representing 39.9% strongly agree that distrust among Abia ADP and farmers affect food security in the state; 76 respondents representing33% agree. 15.7% were undecided, 10 9% disagree while 6.5% strongly disagree that distrust among Abia ADP and farmers affect food security the in the state.
(5) Has poor government implementation affected the social and economic living standard of Abians?

Table 4.31: Effect of Poor Implementation of Poverty Alleviation Programme by Government affects STD of Living of Abians
Opions
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
84
35.3
36.5
36.5
Agree
89
37.4
38.7
75.2
Undecided
16
6.7
7.0
82.2
Disagree
22
9.2
9.6
91.7
Strongly disagree
19
8.0
8.3
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
From the table above, it can be seen that 84 respondents representing 36.5 % strongly agree that Poor government implementation has affected the social and economic living standard of the citizens. 89 respondents representing 38.7 % of the sampled population agree, undecided respondents were 16 respondent representing 7%. 22 respondents disagree while 19respondents representing 8.3% strongly disagree that Poor government implementation has affected the social and economic living standard of the citizens

(6)       Can capital intensive production and non-ability of Abia ADP meet up with the needs of Abia farmers.

Table 4.32: Capital Intensive Production and Food Security
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
84
35.3
36.5
36.5
Agree
94
39.5
40.9
77.4
Undecided
30
12.6
13.0
90.4
Disagree
12
5.0
5.2
95.7
Strongly disagree
10
4.2
4.3
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
The table above shows that 84 respondents which represent 36.5% of the population strongly agree that Capital intensive production and non-ability of Abia ADP to meet up with the needs of Abia farmers affects food security in the state.; 94 respondents covering 40.9% of the population agree, 13% of the sample were undecided; 5.2% disagree and 4.3% strongly disagree Capital intensive production and non-ability of Abia ADP to meet up with the needs of Abia farmers affects food security in the state.
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS
Having presented the data, they were analyzed in relation to the presentation. They were then used in testing the entire hypotheses. Chi-square (X2) was used to test the hypotheses listed in chapter 1.
This research tested the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance
From the table, the Chi–square method is applied with the formula:
HYPOTHESIS ONE
Ho:      Represents the null hypothesis.
Hi:       Represents the alternative hypothesis.
Ho:      Abia ADP service delivery guidelines has no significant relationship with increased food production by Abia farmers per annum
Hi:       Abia ADP service delivery guidelines has significant relationship with increased food production  by Abia farmers per annum
From the data presentation, table

Table 32: Abia ADP Improved Food Security
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
80
33.6
34.8
34.8
Agree
84
35.3
36.5
71.3
Undecided
52
21.8
22.6
93.9
Disagree
11
4.6
4.8
98.7
Strongly disagree
3
1.3
1.3
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012 

Table 33: Have Abia ADP  Improved the standard of Living of farmers?
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
42   (18.3)
17.6
18.3
18.3
Agree
88  (38.3)
37.0
38.3
56.5
Undecided
28  (12.2)
11.8
12.2
68.7
Disagree
61  (26.5)
25.6
26.5
95.2
Strongly disagree
11   (4.8)
4.6
4.8
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012

Contingency table for the relationship between Abia ADP guidelines and farmers in food security for increased output and productivity and incomes in Abia State
Options
A
B
Strongly agree
80     (34.8)
42   (18.3)
Agree
84    (36.5)
88  (38.3)
Undecided
52   (22.6)
28  (12.2)
Disagree
11   (4.8)
61  (26.5)
Strongly disagree
3     (1.3)
11   (4.8)
Total
230
230
Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012
From the table, the Chi–square method is applied with the formula:

Degree of freedom (Df)
(DF) = (R-I) (C-I)
where R= row
          C= column
DF= (5-1)(2-1)= 4
The tabulated Chi- square at degree of freedom (4) and level of significance 0.05;  (X2 (4) = 9.48773
Decision rule: If the Chi-Square calculated is less than Chi-Square tabulated, we accept Ho, otherwise, we reject.
Since our calculated Chi- Square (361.20) is greater than the tabulated Chi Square under 4 degree of freedom (X2 (4), 0.05) = 9.48773, we reject Ho and accept Hi and conclude that Abia ADP service delivery guidelines has significant relationship with increase food production by Abia farmers per annum. This implies that Abia ADP guidelines in Abia State have contributed to farmers in enhancing food security of the people.

HYPOTHESIS TWO
Ho:      Abia ADP programme orientation geared towards poverty reduction and provision of farm implements to Abia farmers have not improved the attainment of food production  per annum in the State.
Hi:       Abia ADP programme orientation geared towards poverty reduction and  provision of farm implements to Abia farmers have improved the attainment of food production per annum in the State.
Table 35: Abia ADP has Improved urban and rural dwellers through the provision of farm implements to Abia farmers for improved food production.
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
85  (37.0)
35.7
37.0
37.0
Agree
91  (39.6)
38.2
39.6
76.5
Undecided
16  (7.0)
6.7
7.0
83.5
Disagree
20  (8.7)
8.4
8.7
92.2
Strongly disagree
18   (7.8)
7.6
7.8
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012

Table 36: Abia ADP has Bridged Rural and Urban Inequality through the provision of farm implements to farmers.
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
80   (34.8)
33.6
34.8
34.8
Agree
90   (39.1)
37.8
39.1
73.9
Undecided
32   (13.9)
13.4
13.9
87.8
Disagree
18   (7.8)
7.6
7.8
95.7
Strongly disagree
10    (4.3)
4.2
4.3
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012.

Contingency table for food production and food sufficiency level of urban and rural dwellers through the provision of farm implements in Abia state
Options
A
B
Strongly agree
85  (37.0)
80   (34.8)
Agree
91  (39.6)
90   (39.1)
Undecided
16  (7.0)
32   (13.9)
Disagree
20  (8.7)
18   (7.8)
Strongly disagree
18   (7.8)
10    (4.3)
Total
230
230

From the table, the Chi–square method is applied with the formula:
Degree of freedom (Df)
(DF)               =          (R-I) (C-I)
where R          =          row
          C           =          column
DF       =          (5-1)(2-1)= 4
The tabulated Chi- square at degree of freedom (4) and level of significance 0.05;  (X2 (4) = 9.48773
Decision rule: If the Chi-Square calculated is less than Chi-Square tabulated, we accept Ho, otherwise, we reject.
Since our calculated Chi- Square (338.003) is greater than the tabulated Chi Square under 4 degree of freedom (X2 (4), 0.05)  = 9.48773, we reject Ho and accept Hi and conclude that Abia ADP programme orientation geared towards poverty reduction and provision of farm implements to Abia farmers have improved the attainment of food production per annum in the State. The implication is that through the farm implements urban and rural dwellers benefits immensely by attaining food sufficiency and improved standard of living.

HYPOTHESIS THREE
Ho: Modern technologies provided by Abia ADP to Abia farmers have not led to the attainment of improved food production and creation of employment in the State.
Hi:       Modern technologies provided by Abia ADP to Abia farmers have led to the attainment of improved food production and creation of employment in the State.
Table A: Insufficient farm implements Affects Food Security
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
66   (28.7)
27.7
28.7
28.7
Agree
78   (33.9)
32.8
33.9
62.6
Undecided
27   (11.7)
11.3
11.7
74.3
Disagree
46    (20.0)
19.3
20.0
94.3
Strongly disagree
13    (5.7)
5.5
5.7
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0


Table B: Distrust among Abia ADP staff and farmers affect food security
Options
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Strongly agree
70  (30.4)
29.4
30.4
30.4
Agree
97  (42.2)
40.8
42.2
72.6
Undecided
29   (12.6)
12.2
12.6
85.2
Disagree
16   (7.0)
6.7
7.0
92.2
Strongly disagree
18   (7.8)
7.6
7.8
100.0
Total
230
96.6
100.0

Source: Egbo’s field survey, 2012

Contingency table for Poor programme implementation and successes of poverty alleviation programme in Abia State.
Options
A
B
Strongly agree
66   (28.7)
70  (30.4)
Agree
78   (33.9)
97  (42.2)
Undecided
27   (11.7)
29   (12.6)
Disagree
46    (20.0)
16   (7.0)
Strongly disagree
13    (5.7)
18   (7.8)
Total
230
230
From the table, the Chi–square method is applied with the formula:
Degree of freedom (Df)
(DF) = (R-I) (C-I)
where R= row
          C= column
DF= (5-1)(2-1)= 4
The tabulated Chi- square at degree of freedom (2) and level of significance 0.05;  (X2 (4) = 9.48773

Decision rule: If the Chi-Square calculated is less than Chi-Square tabulated, we accept Ho, otherwise, we reject
Since our calculated Chi- Square (338.003) is greater than the tabulated Chi Square under 4 degree of freedom (X2 (4), 0.05)  = 9.48773, we reject Ho and accept Hi that Modern technologies provided by Abia ADP to Abia farmers have led to the attainment of food production and creation of employment in the State .

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0                   SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
5.1       Summary of Findings.
            This section presents an in-depth test of the three hypotheses using the chi-square (X2) statistical technique. The interpretation of the corresponding results of the test constitutes our findings on these hypotheses.

5.1.1   Hypothesis 1
            Abia ADP service delivery guidelines has no significant relationship with increased food production by Abia farmers per annum.
            The result shows that the chi-square (X2) method for the testing of the relationship between Abia ADP service delivery guidelines and farmers potentials for increased output and food production on a sustainable basis in Abia State is 361.20. This value has been interpreted to mean a positive relationship between the two variables. This seems to mean that Abia ADP service delivery guidelines in Abia State has contributed in enhancing food security, increased output, productivity and income of farmers in Abia State. This relationship is significant as shown by the 0.05% significant level at the 4 degree of freedom. This means that at the 4 degree of freedom, the tabulated score of 9.48773 is less than the calculated score of 361.20. This means that the null hypothesis is rejected. In other words, Abia farmers benefits through the instruction from Abia ADP guidelines.

5.1.2   Hypothesis 2
            Abia ADP programme orientation geared towards poverty reduction and provision of farm implements to Abia farmers have not improved the attainment of food production per annum in the State.
            From the result of the hypothesis testing using chi-square(X2) method between the Abia ADP and Abia farmers on food production and food    sufficiency level of rural dwellers through the provision of farm implements is 338.003. Equally, this value has been interpreted to mean positive relationship between Abia ADP Programmes and food production and food sufficiency level of the urban and rural dwellers through the provision of farm implements to farmers in the State. This relationship is significant as shown by the degree of freedom (df=4) which is less than 0.05, the significant level of this study. This means that the corresponding null hypothesis is rejected as a result of the tabulated score of 9.48773. Indeed, food production and food sufficiency level of urban and rural dwellers has been improved by the effort of Abia ADP through the provision of farm implements.

5.1.3       Hypothesis 3
Modern technologies provided by Abia ADP to Abia farmers have not led to the attainment of improved food production and creation of employment in the State.
            The result of hypothesis 3 shows that chi-square(X2) method for the testing of the relationship between the effort of the government in the provision of modern technologies and farmers in the State for improved production, self- sufficiency and creation of employment in Abia state is 338.003. This value has been interpreted to mean positive relationship between the two variables. This seems to mean that poor government efforts in providing agricultural materials to farmers are constraints to the successes of poverty alleviation Programme and food security in the state. This relationship is significant as shown by the level of significance 0.05 (X2c4) = 9.4877.3, the significant level of this study. In other words, the corresponding null hypothesis is rejected.
5.2             DISCUSSION
In the beginning of the research work, objectives of the study and  hypotheses were formulated which were beneficial to the study. The empirical literature revealed that poverty and food insecurity has never been so clear and alarming in their proliferation but more worrisome is the conflict in their manifestation. The discussion of the findings was based on research questions and objectives which were used to discuss the hypotheses earlier formulated in chapter two.
From the literature review, the information gathered dealt on the wider discussion of poverty alleviation and food security. No attempt was formally made to discuss the role of Abia ADP in improving the living conditions of Abians. Thus this study on the efforts of Abia ADP in improving the living standard of Abians through poverty alleviation programme and provision of modern farm equipment increases the output, productivity and income of Abia farmers. Abia ADP has equally helped in the delivery of aids from international organizations and donor agencies which helped in improving the welfare of every Abians.
            In accordance with the raised hypotheses and in effort to evaluate the hypotheses, some statistical analyses were employed. Such statistical methods as simple tables consist of list of objects containing statistical records in row and column formation. Chi-square (X2) technique was used to test the hypotheses for the difference between a set of observed frequencies and a corresponding expected frequency. Some specific questions were administered in the interview guide which were used to complement and confirm the results of the quantitative analysis.
5.2.1   Hypothesis one

            Abia ADP service delivery guidelines has significant relationship with increased food production by Abia farmers per annum.
            The effort of the Abia ADP project implementations assisted Abia farmers in achieving their potentials for increased output and productivity and income on a sustainable basis through their service guidelines. The great emphasis the programme laid on various dimensions of cassava production, processing and utilization gained such wide acceptability that cassava cultivation shifted from being women’s responsibility to everybody’s concern. This was evidenced by the increased hectare under cassava cultivation and a corresponding increase in cassava production.
            Equally, the Rot and Tuber Expansion Programme designed by Abia ADP achieved the objective of empowering poor resource farmers to increase their income, enhance food production and reduce poverty in the area. This involved multiplication and distribution of improved roots and tuber crop planting materials. Also, it laid emphasis on processing utilization and market expansion.
            The factors that led to the achievement of these Programmes were the management and staff stability of Abia ADP, the implementation of the UAES, Supervision Support from APMEU, FACU and IFAD, co-operation of farmers and the joy of a new state and zeal to excel was overwhelming and formed a strong propelling force that produced an inner drive which induced most officers to go the extra mile in the performance of their duties.
            This hypothesis was subjected to the test of the significance of the chi-square (X2) Method between  farmers effort in achieving increased output yield of food security and poverty reduction in Abia State and Abia ADP programme guidelines. From the result of the test, it was observed that the success of Food security, increased output production and sustainable income in Abia state is dependent on the Abia ADP Programme guidelines.
            Besides, an item by item analysis of the relationship between the indicators of Food Security, increased output productivity, sustainable income and the Abia ADP programmes revealed that: there is a significant relationship between the entire variables. The contingency for positive options are 38.4, 36.5, 22.6, 4.8 and 1.3 such as (Appendix III). The contingency value should always be available for “cross-checking” and the fact that Abia ADP has access for improved food security and household improved standard of living. All these contingency values of the relationship show that the relationship is positive and significant too (see Appendix III)
            The findings in answer to research question I of this study agree with the above result. Besides, twenty four (24) out of two hundred and thirty two (232) staff interviewed on this matter admitted that Abia ADP can be described as their “Supplier Aid”. For this reason, they argued, it is imperative that farmers in the state should cooperate with Abia ADP guidelines in order to improve their food security and standard of living.
5.2.2   Hypothesis Two:
            Abia ADP programme orientation geared towards poverty reduction and provision of farm implements to Abia farmers have improved the attainment of food production per annum in the State.
Abia ADP consolidated and expanded the processing base of farmers in the sites for the desired value addedness through the provision of farm implements. From financing arrangements and implementation, the actual costs of the project were made up of the IFAD total loan package of US$0.731 million to Abia State Government plus counter part contributions from Federal and State Governments which amounted to  US $ 113332 (Abia ADP report on Loan 177NR, 2011) and the provision of agricultural implements such as fertilizer, seedlings, machineries like tractors,  irrigations, dams etc to enable them achieve food security, reduce poverty and improve the living standard of the people.
            The financing arrangement was that the IFAD soft loan would be paid back at 4% interest rate per annum with a maturity period of 20 years including a five year period of grace. However, the implementation time table was affected by the initial late start-up caused by erroneous regard of IFAD financed activities as a sub-Programme of the much larger World Bank Financed programme of MSADP – 1. This coupled with untimely release of counter part/loan funds along with delays in procurement process all occasioned delays which resulted in the redesigned project and subsequent loan extension.
            Thus, Abia ADP found the performance of the bank and borrower satisfaction and suggested for improvement in increase and timely release of both counterpart/loan and load funds, relaxing the stringent conditions for loan draw down, addition of more incentives to farmers and structural appraisal of project designs to eliminate flaws at the implementation stage.
            The result of the test of significance of the chi-square (X2) technique between the Abia ADP consolidated gains from on-going and closing external loan assisted programmes to farmers and food production and food sufficiency level of rural dwellers show that Abia ADP has impacted positively on both variables.
            An item by item analysis of the contents of the relationship between Abia ADP and other variables show that there is a positive impact. The contingency for positive options are 37.0, 39.6, 7.0, 8.7 and 7.8 such as Appendix (iv). This means there is a positive impact from Abia ADP activities to the food production and food sufficiency level of rural dwellers. From the Abia ADP programme, the rural dwellers have benefited from the programme through the provision of loan facilities and other necessary assistance as shown in the frequency table 37.0, 39.6, 7.0, 8.7 and 7.8. Equally, Abia ADP has breached the gap between the rural and urban inequality as described by the frequency table, 34.8. 39.1, 13.9,7.8 and 4.3.
The findings in answer to research question II of this study agree with the result. Twenty four (24) out of the two hundred and thirty two (232) staff interviewed on this matter agreed that Abia ADP has impacted positively to the food production and food sufficiency level of the rural dwellers. In this case, rural dwellers should consistently embark on the Abia ADP policies for improved standard of living.


5.2.3   Hypothesis Three
Modern technologies provided by Abia ADP to Abia farmers have led to the attainment of improved food production and creation of employment in the State.
The factor that aroused the interest of farmers to source alternative sources of raw materials base through increased cassava production was the ban on importation of wheat. The programme also sensitized farmers to a new dimension of the growing awareness of the alternative domestic and industrial uses of cassava products such as cassava flour, starch and the potentialities of leaves. Increased utilization in cottage industries, manufacturing and pharmaceutical companies enhanced cassava cultivation through the provision of modern technologies for efficient and effective production yield.
Equally, the project completion report (PCR) to analytical indicate the project outcomes and reporting on the lessons of implementation. It concentrated on notable successes, failures and factors responsible for these outcomes, successes and failures. Significant divergences between actual project outcomes and those originally intended were highlighted. Suggested actions to maximized farmers benefits were advanced.
The structural adjustment programme (SAP ushered in an era of looking inwards to discover untapped resources which led to experimenting with the innovations, technologies and techniques inherent in the CMP package.
The project outcome is satisfactory to farmers, since farmers achieved most of their major objectives of self sufficiency, surplus production and reduced poverty.
Thus, the hypothesis was subjected to the test of significance of the chi-square (x2) method between Abia farmers and the effort of the government in providing modern farm equipments for self sufficiency, surplus production and reduced poverty in the state. From the result of the test, it was shown that lack of modern equipments are constraints to the success of poverty alleviation programme in Abia state.
Besides, an item by item analysis of the indicators of the programme implementation and success of the programme in the state reveal that modern sufficient farm inputs and other basic aid components provide necessary boost to increased output production. The contingency for positive options are 28.7, 33.9, 11.7, 20.0 and 5.7 such as (appendix v) is an outstanding result that Abia farmers benefit from the effort of government in providing simple technologies, self sufficiency, surplus production and reduced poverty. The contingency value should always be available from “cross-checking” and fact that non provision of modern farm equipments by Abia ADP  are constraints to the successes of poverty  alleviation  programme in Abia  State.
            Finally, the findings in answer to research question three of the study agreed with the above result. Twenty four (24) out of two hundred and thirty two (232) staff interviewed on this matter responded that non provision of modern farm equipments has drastic effect on the successes of poverty alleviation programme in Abia State. For this reason, they argued, it is imperative that Abia ADP should improve in their implementation of policies to achieve the successes of poverty alleviation programme in Abia State.

CHAPTER SIX
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
6.1       SUMMARY
            This work is an attempt to empirically examine the role of Abia State Agricultural Development Programme in Poverty Alleviation and Food Security. As earlier Stated, Abia ADP has been established to play a very crucial role in the development of Agriculture and food security in Abia State. To achieve the target a good understanding of the government Programme (Poverty Alleviation Programme) was introduced owing to the fact that Abia ADP has been experiencing serious structural imbalance, low growth trap, characterized by capitalist economic system such as dominance, dependency and vulnerability as well as political imbalance among ethnic groups in the state.
            The proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select the respondents. From a list of seventeen (17) local government Areas in the State, six local governments (three from the rural and three from the urban areas of the state) was selected. This gave a total of 256 staff at 10% of the All Farmers Association of Nigeria, Abia state chapter, who responded to the questionnaire. Equally, ten (10) members were randomly selected from each of the three local governments of the three zones in the state for pilot testing of the instrument.
            Chi-square technique was used to test the hypotheses for the difference between a set of observed frequencies and a corresponding expected frequency.
            Results of the study showed that Abia ADP service delivery guidelines have significant relationship with increased food production by Abia farmers per annum. This was subjected to the test of significance of chi-square (X2) between food security in Abia state. Second, Abia ADP programme orientation geared towards poverty reduction and provision of farm implements to Abia farmers has improved the attainment of food production in the State per annum. The implication is that through the Abia ADP Programme orientation, urban and rural dwellers benefited immensely by attaining food sufficiency. This was equally shown from the result of the test of significance of the Chi-square (X2) test between the positive impact of Abia ADP and food production and food sufficiency level of urban and rural dwellers.
            The result of the last study concludes that Abia farmers benefited from the effort of government in the provision of modern technologies for self sufficiency, surplus production and reduced poverty. The hypothesis was subjected to the test of significance of the chi-square (X2) between the provision of modern farm equipments, food security and the success of poverty alleviation at 0.05 significance levels. This poor farm equipments characterized by corrupt practices of Abia ADP staff has adverse effect on food security in the state and as these implements are provided there was an increase in food production in the State.

6.2       RECOMMENDATIONS
The empirical results and the analysis conducted revealed the best approach to improving food security in Abia State.        
1.         Considerable efforts should be made to ensure the availability of improved and adoptable technologies and the effectiveness of technology transfer.
2.         Quality and commitment of staff must be ensured to carry out the extension delivery system with respect to the outcome of the programme.
3.         Effectiveness of loan utilization and repayment and mobilization of savings must be looked into so that there will exist a revolving account which will touch every intending farmer/group on the long run.
4.         Government should include in its strategic reserve portfolio all kinds of crops. This will ensure stable prices over time and minimum exploitative attitude of market intermediaries.
5.         Farmers should be urged to register on time before the farming season so that Abia ADP should know how to structure their poverty alleviation programmes and planning techniques amongst them. This is one of the surest ways of ensuring that the benefits reach those who merit it.
6.         Abia ADP staff should avoid corrupt practices and nepotism if the goals of efficient programme implementation must be achieved. This is imperative because wide spread corruption by the staff of Abia ADP affects the goals of the programme  and this has lasting negative effects on the food situation of both the urban and rural dwellers.
7.         The non-continuity of existing programme by new government negatively affects Abia ADP and this has to be avoided. New governments should continue on existing programmes and build on whatever progress that was already on ground while making adequate changes where and when necessary. This will help the farmers to enhance their efforts at food security and food sufficiency in the state through a well defined pattern.
8.         Distrust among staff of Abia ADP and farmers should be seriously checked to improve food security and food sufficiency. Both parties should see each other as partners in progress and work at the same direction. This will avoid unnecessary disruptions and help in the execution of government policy for enhanced standard of living.
9.         Communal ownership of land should be avoided and lands provided for capable farmers who can go into large scale and proper plantation. This will greatly improve food security and food sufficiency in the state.
10.       To ensure that farmers contribute meaningfully to food security, food sufficiency and employment opportunities, there should be a memorandum of understanding between Abia ADP staff and All Farmers Association of Nigeria. This is to curb the politicization of loan funding, land use, employment of qualified staff and general efficiency. The spelling out of the conditions and requirement for loan funding to farmers, employment of staff, etc, will help to actualize high level of food security and food sufficiency in the state. 
11.       One of the key components of economic development is equitable distribution of income. The situation where Abia ADP is perceived to have worsened inequality among the rural and urban dwellers should be avoided if the correct image and end result is achieved.
12.       Micro credit loan to farmers by the Abia ADP should be provided to help rural farmers advance in their production efficiency. Efforts should be made to enlarge its outreach and scope to include micro-credit to farmers and establishment of farm settlements. Further measures include the incubation of small and medium scale industries and training.
13.       Government should establish better rules of engagement with international donor agencies and partners for maximum output and results.
14.       There should be continuous recruitment of professional staff as well as in-house training to help improve the operational efficiency and capability of all staff.      

6.3       CONCLUSION
            The work on Poverty Alleviation Programme and Food Security through Abia State Agricultural Development Programme (Abia ADP) reveals that even though poverty level in Abia state is high, Abia State Agricultural Development Programme (Abia ADP) has contributed immensely to the food production and food sufficiency level of Abia state. Though the success is very low, it is known that the high level of poverty is as a result of several factors ranging from poor management, poor policy evaluation and lack of commitment to programme objectives to inadequate funding and lack of continuity by successive regimes in the state.
            Indeed, analysis showed that poor implementation of policies adversely affect food security and food sufficiency in the state. In this case, the government of Abia State should endeavor to improve in their economic policies to help improve the agricultural yield in the state.
            It is further revealed that other major problems militating against Abia ADP success in their effort to alleviate poverty in the state is based on the Abia ADP over reliance on international development partners. Believing on the international partners, their major needs are denied and as a result cannot meet up with their demands.
            High incidence of corruption in the administrative body constitutes another major constraint to Abia ADP success in the state. The top management of Abia ADP is riddled with corruption and this cannot guarantee efficient service delivery. Above all, mismanagement by all departments was considered another major constraint why Abia ADP could not achieve their aim of food security and food sufficiency in Abia State.
            Finally, the low level of fund injected into food production and food sufficiency as well as the level of funds allocated to rural farmers constitute a major setback. The government should endeavor to improve on the amount of fund invested in farmers in the state to help improve food yield in the state.


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INTERNET

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