EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE QUALITY OF INSTANT BREAKFAST FOOD PRODUCED FROM SWEET POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS) FORTIFIED WITH SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX)



ABSTRACT
Prevailing shortage of livestock products and low income earning have compelled large population in developing countries to resort to plants as the chief sources of proteins. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of processing on the quality of instant breakfast food produced from common plant sources. The developed breakfast products were processed from sweet potato (70%) and soy bean (30%) blend. Three samples were produced which include fermented potato starch (FPS), unfermented potato starch (UFPS) and whole potato flour (WPF).
The proximate compositions, functional and sensory properties as affected by the processing method were compared. The rheological properties in terms of flow behaviour and pasting characteristics were also investigated. The proximate composition of the formulated breakfast food product showed a moisture content range from 5-7%, protein 19.6 – 25.8%, ash 0.5-2.5%, fibre 2.07-6.30%, Fat 7.25-8.25% and carbohydrate content of 61.25-64.35%. The values obtained for functional properties which include absorption capacity and swelling capacity ranged from 0.4-0.6g/g and 2.9-10g/g respectively. The loose, packed bulk densities and porosity of the breakfast samples were 0.46-0.47g/cm3, 0.59-0.71g/cm3 and 68-73% respectively. Flow behaviour had typical curves showing the dependence of shear stress on shear rate, it was observed that all the suspensions exhibited a non-Newtonian, pseudo-plastic behaviour. Pasting characteristics showed that sample FPS had the highest breakdown viscosity. Sample WPF had the highest trough and final viscosity, while the highest peak, pasting temperature and setback viscosity was produced by sample UFPS. The high setback value of sample UFPS had shown the higher tendency of the sample to retrograde. The sensory parameters of the breakfast samples were not significantly (P>0.05) different in terms of appearance, mouth feel, flavour except for taste where sample FPS was significantly (P<0.05) different from the rest of the samples. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference between the breakfast samples in their general acceptability.


 


EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE QUALITY OF INSTANT BREAKFAST FOOD PRODUCED FROM SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas) FORTIFIED WITH SOYBEAN (Glycine max)

THE DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE (B.Sc.) IN FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgments
Abstract
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.0       Background of Study
1.1       Statement of Problem
1.2       Aims and Objectives
1.3       Significance of Study
1.4       Scope of Study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Breakfast
2.2       Instant Breakfast Food
2.3       Traditional Breakfast Food Pattern of Nigerians
2.4       Constituents of Breakfast Foods
2.5       Types of Breakfast Foods
2.6       Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas)
2.7       Nutritional Quality of the Sweet Potato
2.8       Composition of Sweet Potato
 2.8.1  Vitamins
2.8.2  Minerals
2.9       Processing and utilization of sweet potato
2.10    Health Position/Benefits of Sweet Potato
2.11    Soybean
2.11    Anti-Nutritional Factors of Soybean
2.12    Proximate Composition
2.12.1 Moisture
2.12.2  Carbohydrate
2.12.3 Protein
2.12.4  Crude Fibre
2.12.5 Total Ash
2.12.6 Fat (Lipids)
2.13    Functional Properties
2.13.1 Water Absorption Capacity
2.13.2 Swelling Capacity
2.14 Rheological Properties
2.15    Enrichment and Fortification of Breakfast Food

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Source of Materials
3.2       Processing of Samples
3.2.1 Sweet Potato processing (starch/flour)
3.3       Soybean Flour Processing
3.4       Analysis of the Sample
3.5       Proximate composition Analysis

3.5.1   Moisture Determination

3.5.2  Protein Determination
3.5.3 Fat Determination
3.5.4 Ash Determination
3.5.5   Fibre Determination
3.5.6   Carbohydrate Determination
3.6  Functional Properties Analysis
3.6.1 Water Absorption Capacity
3.6.2 Bulk Density Determination
3.6.3 Swelling Capacity Determination
3.7 Rheological Properties Analysis
3.7.1  Flow Characteristics Analysis
3.7.2  Pasting Characteristics
3.8 Blend Reconstitution and Sensory Evaluation
3.9 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.0  Proximate Composition
4.1.  Protein Content (%)
4.2       Ash Content  (%)
4.3       Crude Fat Content (%)
4.4       Crude fiber content(%)
4.5       Moisture Content (%)
4.6       Carbohydrate Content (%)
4.7       Functional Properties Analysis
4.7.1   Water Absorption Capacity
4.7.2   Swelling Capacity
4.7.3   Bulk Density
4.7.4   Porosity (%)
4.8       Rheological Analysis of the Breakfast Samples
4.8.1   Pasting Characteristics
4.9       Sensory Evaluation

 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1       CONCLUSION
5.2       Recommendation
References
Appendix I
Appendix II
                      
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Composition of Sweet Potato
Table 2: Vitamin Constituents of Sweet Potato Per 100g
Table 3: Mineral Constituents of Sweet Potato Per 100g
Table 4: Essential Amino Acids of the Sweet Potato Per 100g
Table 5: Blend composition 
Table 6: Proximate composition Analysis of the samples
Table 7: Functional properties of the breakfast samples
Table 8: Rheological Properties of the Breakfast Sample
Table 9: Pasting Properties of the Breakfast Samples
Table10: Sensory Evaluation of the Product

                                   LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 1:   Viscosity - shear stress curve for sample FPS,
            UFPS and WPF
Fig. 2:    Shear stress – shear rate curve for sample FPS,
            UFPS and WPF
Fig. 3:   Viscosity (RVU) - Time (mins) curves for sample FPS
Fig. 4:   Viscosity (RVU) - Time (mins ) curves for  sample UFPS
Fig. 5:   Viscosity (RVU) - Time (mins ) curves for  sample WPF

EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE QUALITY OF INSTANT BREAKFAST FOOD PRODUCED FROM SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas) FORTIFIED WITH SOYBEAN (Glycine max)

DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT



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