CHAPTER FOUR: SOIL PROPERTIES AND TREATMENT ON PH, OM, N, P

4.1       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1: Shows the properties of the soil before the study. The soil is sandy loam in texture. The results further shows that pH  is 5.8 organic. Carbon and nitrogen are 1.82 and 0.11%. Calcium and Mg dominated exchange complex of soil. Exchangeable acidity is 1.4 Cmo/kg-1.

Table 1:          Shows the result of the initial soil properties.
TABLE 1 INITIAL ON SOIL PROPERTIES

SOIL PROPERTIES
VALUES
Sand
44
Silt
19
Clay
16
Textural class
Sand Loamy
pH  (H2o)
5.8
% Oc
1.82
% Om
3.13
%Nitrogen
 0.11
Na
0.17
K
0.15
Ca
4.0
Mg
2.0
EA (Acidity (cmol/kg)
1.4


Table 2 shows nutrient composition of treatments.
The treatments pH followed the trend CAN>WA>RHA. Wood ash had the highest calcium while RHA had Mg value of 1.912 Comol Kg-l. sodium and K were least in RHA and CAN. Rice husk ash and CNA recorded highest values of 4.48 and 1.051%.
Table 2: Nutrient composition of treatment
Treatment
(pH H2O)
OC          OM
N
Na
K
Ca2+
Mg4+
Wood Ash
9.8
  .28          
6.00
0.126
0.008
0.016
3.88
1.824
Rice hu     sk Ash
6.7
 4.48
7.68
0.051
0.005
0.014
0.52
1.912
Coconut ash
9.9
   2. 39
4.12
1.501
0.011
0.72
0.72
0.288

4.0       EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON SOME SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
4.1                   Dispersion Ratio
            The result (Table 3) shows that there was no statistically significant difference among the treatment at (P>0.05) in disperasion ratio.  The plot treated with coco nut ash recorded 0.89 value of soil dispersion ratio as the highest value, while the lowest value (0.70) was in control. This represents a percent increase of a dispersion ratio in CAN treated plot relative to control plot.
4.2       Hydraulic Conductivity
            There was significant difference among the treatments at (p>0.05) compared to control. The highest value of 74 cm/mins was in control while the lowest was recorded in husk ash which had the value of 59. This increased by 10 in hydraulic conductivity in control over the RHA treated plot.

4.1.2               Bulk Density.
            The result shows that there was statistically significant difference in bulk density among the treatments (P<0.05) relative to control. The result shows that control recorded 1.68 which is higher than, other treated plots. Again, bulk density of treated plots was significantly (P<0.05) lower than control.

4.1.3               Total Porosity
Control plot, recorded the lowest value of 37%,The highest values of total porosity were recoded by CNA and RHA.
The treated plots were significantly (P< 0.05) higher in total porosity relative to control. Wood ash treated plots had higher total porosity than other wastes treated plots.

TABLE 1: Effect of Treatments on Some Soil Physical Properties
Treatment
DR%
HC cm/mins
BDg/cm3
TP%
O
0.70
74
1.68
37
WA
0.78
65
1.55
42
CAN
0.89
66
1.45
45
RHA
0.77
59
1.45
45
FLSD(0.05)
NS
6.4
0.02
1.1
O         =          Control, WA = Wood Ash, CNA = Coconut Ash, RHA =
  Rice Husk Ash        
 
EFFECT OF TREATMENT ON SOIL pH, OM, N AND available p
4.3.1   Soil pH of Water:
            The result on soil pH in water is shown on Table 4. The result showed significant difference among the treatments at (P>0.05) in plots treated with wastes and control. The highest soil pH of 6.6 was obtained from the plots treated with wood ash. The control plots gave the lowest value of pH of 6.0. There was decrease in pH value in pre-planting result (Table 1). Compared to post harvest values. The result indicates that application of coconut ash can increase the pH value of the soil.

4.3.2               Organic matter
            The result of soil organic matter shows no significant difference between control and wastes treated plots. The highest value of 3.2 was obtained from the plots treated with rice husk ash while the lowest of 3.0 was recorded from the plots treated with coconut husk ash.

4.2.4   Total Nitrogen
            The result of the soil total Nitrogen shows that there was not significant. The highest difference in total Nitrogen between treated plots and control. value of 0.126% was recorded in coconut shell treated plots. The plots treated with Rice husk ash and the control recorded the same value of total Nitrogen of 0.096%.

4.2.5               Available Phosphorus
            There was no significant differences among the treatments at (P>0.05). The highest P value of 16.79 was obtained from the plots treated with rice husk ash while coconut shell ash plots gave the lowest value of 10.20 phosphorus.

TABLE 4 : EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON PH, OM, N AND available  P  
Treatment
pH in    H2O
OM
N
P
O
6.0
3.07
0.112
13.06
WA
6.6
3.07
0.098
13.06
CAN
6.2
3.0
0.126
10.206
RHA
6.1
3.2
0.098
16.79
FLSD (0.0-5)
0.19
NS
NS
NS
O         =          Control, WA = Wood Ash, CNA = Coconut Ash, RHA =
Rice Husk Ash
4.3       Effect of Treatments on Soil exchangeable cations
Table 4 shows effect of treatments on exchangeable
The values of Mg and K were significantly (P<0.05) higher in wastes treated plots except in Wood ash and coco nut ash relative to control. However, Wood ash significantly (P<0.05) increased Ca when compared to control. Cation exchangeable capacity was significantly (P<O.05) lower in wastes amended plots than control. The Ca and Mg dominated the exchange complex of soil.

TABLE 4 EFFECTS OF TREATMENTS ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Treatment
Ca
Mg
K
CEC
O
3.6
1.4
0.13
12.2
WA
4.4
2.3
0.23
11.3
CAN
3.6
2.6
0.16
11.6
RHA
2.8
3.6
0.23
10.4
FLSD(0.05)
0.07
1.4
0.02
0.20
O         =          Control, WA = Wood Ash, CNA = Coconut Ash, RHA = Rice husk ash

4.4       Effect of different ash on plant height  and shoot dry matter
Plant Height
Table 5          Shows effect of treatments on plant height  and shoot matter.
             Plant height and shoot dry weight were not significantly (p<0.05) affected by treatment. However, different wastes treatments increased plant height and shoot dry weight when compared with control.  Plant height increased in the order of coconut ash > rice husk ash > wood ash >control. While shoot dry weight increased as coconut ash > wood ash > rice husk ash > control.

Table 5 effects of ash on plant height and shoot dry matter
Treatment
Plant height(cm)
Germination%
Shoot dry matter(kg)
O
73.80
83.20
0.68
WA
80.20
75.60
0.81
CA
81.00
77.80
0.83
BRHA
77.80
96.40
0.77
FLSD
NS
NS
NS

O         =          Control, WA = Wood Ash, CNA = Coconut Ash, RHA =
Rice Husk Ash

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0                   Conclusion and Recommendation
The soils are low in pH and poor in plant nutrient elements. In spite of that, the ash materials were able to improve the pH of soil by raising pH from 5.8 to 6.6. Generally, essential plant nutrient such as exchangeable Ca, K and Mg including the fertility index like CEC were improved upon due to ash amendments. The organic carbon and total nitrogen were improved by the ash amendments. The maize height performance was enhanced by the soil amendments with ash while the highest plant height yield coming from the plot amended with coconut ash.
 5.1                  Recommendation
The treatments amended namely as wood ash, Rice husk ash, coconut ash improved some physical properties like bulk density.   Wood ash was best sources of liming agent among all other ashes amended with soil.

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