LITERATURE REVIEW OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE TEACHING OF BUSINESS STUDIES

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
            Related literature of this study will be reviewed under the following sub-headings
(1)       Available instructional materials for the teaching of business studies.
(2)       Utilization of the available instructional materials by the teachers in teaching business studies.
(3)       Students interest in learning business studies with the available instructional materials.
(4)       Problems usually encountered by teachers in utilizing the available instructional materials
(5)       Review of related empirical studies
(6)       Summary of reviewed related literature


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Available instructional materials for the teaching of business studies
            In teaching and learning of situation, it is agreed that instructional materials are important because they help teachers to enhance the quality of instructions. Availability of suitable instructional materials in good supply and in rich variety and range is essential in education and especially for the achievement of curriculum objectives Ibitoyo (2001) noted some of the advantage of instructional materials in heighten motivation for learning, provide freshness and variety, appeal to students of varied abilities, encourage active participation, give needed reinforcement and widen the range of students experienced. Dale (2000), Ofoefuda (1996), Ocho (2003) noted that some instructional materials used in schools are:
a)         THE CHALK BOARD: The chalk board is a versatile instructional material. It can be adopted for small or large group instruction, both inside the classroom and outside the classroom. It can be used to teach all the subjects at all level of our educational system.
b)        THE BULLETIN BOARD: This is simply a display medium it is a valuable teaching tool. The display of it in the classroom may help to motivate, interpret and supplement lesson and unit of study. Nwani (2004) highlighted the following guides for the effective use of bulletin board.
i)         Locate the bulletin board at a strategic position.
ii)        Good lighting of the display is essential
iii)       Provide artificial lighting where natural light is not adequate
iv)       Avoid clouding the board with too many materials.
v)        Have a variety of materials to maintain interest.
vi)       Use brief clear caption and good lettering to enhance illustration presents.
vii)      Relate the materials to class discussion and studies.
Chart
            According to Ocho (2004) charts are combination of such picture: graphic, numerical or verbal materials, which together are most likely to present clear visual summaries of important process or relationships. The term chart can be applied to several different types, they may be classified according to use, functions or similarities of constructions. Specific charts can be designed for special purpose, for instance, a reading charts to assist readers to associate words with pictures of a word reading charts to motivate group pictures in reading and to assist in developing eye-fixation movement skills.
Purpose of Chart: Eya (2000) highlighted the following purpose of chart
(i)        To show relationship by means of pictures, symbols, facts, figures. Or statistics
(ii)       To represent materials symbolically
(iii)     To summarize information
(iv)      To show continuity in progress.
(v)       To presents abstract ideas in usual form
(vi)      To show the development of structures
(vii)    To encourage the use of other instructional materials.
(viii)   To create problems and stimulate thinking.
            The position now however is that most secondary schools do not have instructional material. Apart from the sad situation, most teachers were not trained in the use of available materials. Fafunwa (1980) state that it was therefore logical to believe that even at the training level, the materials do not exist or that the one they have are out dated and absolute. Eze (2003) noted that the federal government has recognized the importance of instructional materials and this informed the establishment of educational technology centre at Kaduna. A good business studies teacher should be able to teach the subjects in a likely and stimulating manner.



Utilization of the Available Instructional Materials by the Teachers in Teaching Business Studies
            Most secondary schools do not have instructional materials. Apart form this state of affairs, most teachers were not trained in the use of such material, it is therefore, logical to believe that even the teacher training colleges, the material do not exist or that the ones they have are outdated and absolute. In a study on effective utilization of visual aids in business studies, Bridge (2000) pointed out that teachers need to increase their knowledge in the field of Audio- Visual materials and use them to make their lessons attractive and interesting to students.
            In a bid to find alternative of making instructional materials available for use, Dike (2002) observed that a creative teacher can construct some of the needed instructional materials and as well teach students how to construct these materials. Okpala (1999) noted that if audio-visual materials are properly utilized, they will enable the teachers to achieve the following:
(a)       Reduce verbalization.
(b)       Humanized and utilized the subject matter.
(c)       Stimulate self-activity, make new topic interesting
(d)       Supply concrete basic conceptual thinking.
(e)       Increase ability of retention
(f)        Develop keen observation
(g)       Foster creative imagination
(h)       Lesson the burden of teaching/supporting the above view, Onwuka (1990) stated that audio-visual when effectively used can accomplish the following objectives:
(a)       Supply concrete basic for conceptual thinking and reduce meaningless word responses of pupils.
(b)       Making learning more permanent.
(c)       Offer reality of experience which stimulates self activity on the part of the pupils.
(d)       Increase student’s interest to learn.
(e)       Contribute to growth of meaning and vocabulary development.
            In respect of business studies courses, typewriting, shorthand, commerce, office practice, book-keeping, Accounting, and economics, the need for instructional materials cannot be over emphasized. According to national policy on Education (2004), business equipment and materials like typewriter, adding and listing machines, filling cabinet, educational television, stop watches, textbooks, and other materials should be provided to enhance desirable teaching and learning. Ughamadu (1999) noted that there is no gain saying to point out that instructional materials and equipment are considered to be the most visible element of business studies subjects. Madu (2009) noted that in teaching office practice or secretarial duties for instance, a model office equipped with relevant tools and materials used in regular office must be available. Most of the secondary schools in our society today lack adequate instructional materials, this ugly situation affect teaching and learning of concept. It is very essential to use instructional materials, the teacher who utilizes these materials should be properly trained on how to handle the materials expertly.

Business Studies Subjects
            According to National Policy on Education (2004) the 6-3-3-4 system of education will last for six years and will be in two level Junior and senior secondary schools. Each level will last for three years minimum. The secondary system is comprehensive in nature and base on 3-3 system, that is three years of general education for all and subsequent three years of specialist programme based on the aptitude and interest of the child. (Fafunwa 1981).


Business studies subject taken at the two levels are as follows
(1)       Junior Secondary School
            Short hand
Typewriting
Office practice
Commerce
Book-keeping
(2)       Senior Secondary School
Shorthand
Typewriting
Accounting
Commerce
Economics
            Business studies curriculum provides the development of the recipient in the cognitive psychomotor and affective domains training in business studies include such experience that enable the individual to be sound intellectually, acquire adequate vocational skills which aid the individual to live successfully in the worlds of works and be equally balanced in desirable attitude, moral and values at Junior secondary level, the business studies teachers introduces the student to business world. They learn about banking, insurance, budgeting, stock and bonds, transport, setting up a new business, credit and communication. At senior secondary level and beyond, business studies teacher prepare the student for entry into such jobs as stenography, sales advertising, data processing, students are trained to acquire skill needed for initial employment and advancement in business career, general education for all youths, knowledge, attitude and skills needed to be effective in economic understanding and technical skills.

Business Studies Teachers
            The business studies teacher has formal school training in business studies total curriculum. Business studies curriculum provides for development of the recipient in the cognitive psychomotor and effective domains. Therefore, business studies teacher possess adequate vocational skills which enable him or her operate successfully in the world of work and equally balance in desirable attitude, moral and values. He or she possess correct teaching ability which for completion of three years course in business studies curriculum at Nigeria certificate of education (NCE) level, four years at university education or higher degree in business education (Osuala 2004).
            The future of business studies teacher rest in the hand of it’s present teachers. Business studies teacher possess respect for knowledge, respect and care for all, respect for continuous learning, interest in promoting the spirit of inquiry among his students, interest for cultivating creativity, spontaneity and innovating, sense and pride of his profession, respect for the community in which he serves and all who do productive work, there in fuses pride with humanity and integrity, with courage. Esene (2007) noted that the person who teaches business subject posses individual experience adequately equipped with business skills and pedagogy for teaching various business course. He or she works on methods and materials curriculum development in business studies technique of evaluating the occupational performance of pupils (Osuala 1989).
            Osuala (2004) noted that qualification of business studies teacher in any state determined largely by the qualification or lack of qualified business studies teacher. He opined that business subject should be thought by those who are not only competent in the subject matter but also have special method of work in the teaching of business subjects. Isiaeyi (2008) noted that, apart from certificate qualification business teachers should posses the following competencies;

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(a)       The skills and attitude desirable for all educated persons.
(b)       Competence in business
(c)       A knowledge of principles and methods of teaching.
(d)       and a general cultural education.
Okoro (2005) noted that the training requirement of business teacher emphasized that an individual who is intending to pursue a professional career as a business teacher in a large secondary school or universities should give special consideration for the following factors in his career planning.
(a)       Sound undergraduate preparation, including broad general education and business education on which to build special preparation later.
(b)       Additional preparation in chosen specialized area of business education.
(c)       Actual business experience in preparation for the career desired, and
(d)       Other teaching experience prior to entering a more specialized area.
Students Interest in Learning Business Studies with the Available Instructional Materials
            Tyler (1949) noted that learning is interaction between the teacher and the external condition in the environment to which the learner reacts one can say that learning has taken place only when there is a permanent change in behaviour of an individual. In the utilization of the available instructional materials in the teaching and learning of business studies, the interest of the students is considered more important.
            The interest students have in learning business studies depends so much on the method the teacher uses in teaching the subject. Tone (1963) opined that method is the procedure by which the teacher meets the learner at his level, starting with his interest and his problems and then establishes conditions that enable him to proceed to reach set goals in an effective a manner as possible.
            Igboke (2005) Highlighted that a business studies teachers is expected to possess some general qualifications and some other personal qualifications which will ensure the teacher’s effective and efficient performance as a high school teacher. The interest of students arouses when a good method is applied. A competent teacher does not necessarily follow the steps logically, due to his previous wealth of experiences. The teacher looks at the environments with the available instructional materials and know the suitable method and techniques to use in order to attract the students interest in learning business studies.
            However, there are some teaching methods which the business teachers can apply in the teaching of business studies as highlighted by Igboke (2005) as follows:
(i)        Teaching of basic skills: This is a manual dexterity, acquired through repetitive performance of an operation. Thus, a person is said to have acquired skill if he can perform a given assignment at a given time and with minimum errors. For instance, a learner can be said to have acquired skill in typewriting if he can type a give number of word at a specific time and with little or no mistake.
(ii)       Teaching of facts: The subject matter of business studies includes a considerable body of fact; students need this background of facts as a basis for developing understanding of a higher order. The facts to be learnt in business studies include the rule about writing shorthand, typing, book-keeping trading. The teacher should be able to determine those facts already known by the students so that he does not bore them with something they already know. Some of the methods in teaching of facts includes; direct learning of facts, over-learning, sequential learning and teaching machines.
(iii)     Teaching attitudes and ideals: Teaching desirable attitudes can be done indirectly. The teacher sets the example by his own attitude and ideas. He can create a business like atmosphere in the class room and maintain standard embodying business like attitudes. He then sets situations in which behaviour is evaluated; the office worker in a firm, the secretary in a book, the book-keeper in a television programme, the receptionist in a case study. By introducing role-playing, the teacher helps. Students develop principles underlying acceptable attitudes and ideas.
            In order to keep the students interested in the study of business studies as noted by Igboke (2005) that learning should be by installment, that is to say that the span of comprehension is limited, the mind is capable of absorbing only a limited amount of information at a given span of time. New knowledge is therefore, best acquired in small doses, new subject matters must be presented in installments. Progress through the lesson will consist of a series of steps each one of which is secured and consolidated before the next step is taken. In this manner, the interest of the students should be maintained in the learning of business studies.

Problems Usually Encountered by Teachers in Utilizing the Available Instructional Materials
            Lack of basic knowledge and skills have hindered effective utilization of instructional materials installed in some schools. Students have shown that in any educational technologies, materials supplied by the federal government for effective implementation of the new system of education are being wasted due to lack of skill and basic knowledge of their operation by teacher.
            Oyedele (2004) emphasized that in everywhere, teachers need to make the fullest use of resources materials. She noted that one of the reasons why available materials are not used by many teachers in schools and colleges is that the teachers lack the necessary skills to operate them. They therefore, agreed that training is also necessary in this area. Obi (1999) highlighted the problems of lack of time in the school time table for effective utilization of instructional materials she pointed out that the present practice of 35 minutes and two period in a week does not augur well for business subjects. She also opined that for effectiveness and efficiency in classroom and thorough supervision to be achieved the number of students in class should be fifteen. Time has always been a major constraint in the effective utilization of instructional materials most of these materials consume a lot of time to set up and dismantle within the allowed time on the time table.
            Finance has also been critical factor. Business subjects materials are very expensive to acquire and maintain. There is always the problem of inadequacy of well trained techniques for services. The equipment has not been given appropriate financial support Ogumnilade (2000) noted that rapid changes in technological innovation in the developed countries which out pace the level of development in Nigeria. It is very difficult to keep abreast except there is a definite commitment on the part of the government or a body like petroleum trust fund (PTF) to assist. Fafunwa (1989) adviced that teachers on their part should not be imperious to change and must realized that we are now in world of constant flux.
 Review of Related Empirical Studies
            Emenike (2004) carried out a study on the extent of supply and utilization of instructional material for teaching business studies in Enugu state. He found out the following.
(a)       The extent of supply and utilization of instructional materials for teaching business studies is poor.
(b)       There is no enough qualified personnel/instructor for the programme.
(c)       Instructional materials are not sufficiently supplied. In relation to the researcher’s study, the study also looked into the utilization of instructional materials for teaching business studies.
            Identifications of important teaching skill are necessary for the successful teaching of business studies at junior secondary schools. By Madu (2006) the supply covered the entire teacher in all the post primary school in Enugu State. The finding from this study revealed that;
(a)       The teacher deemed the following teaching method effective in the teaching of business studies. Discussion method, group method, and question and answer method of instruction.
(b)       Teachers also gave various suggestion on the skill required by them to effectively teach business studies as team teaching, skill exploration and use of local resources the above study is related to the aspect in which the researcher talked about teaching method in business studies.
            The study carried out by Obuneme (2005) on the instructional material used for teaching business studies in Anambra State, highlighted out the following findings:
(a)       That the instructional materials for use in teaching and learning of business studies were inadequate.
(b)       The available instructional material are not effectively used by teachers for instruction.
(c)       The attitude of government towards the provision of instructions materials also create problem for the provision of instructional materials for use by teachers in junior secondary schools. The study enumerated above is related to the researcher’s present, study and the study, concentrated itself to business studies.

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