CHAPTER THREE - INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL FOR TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHOD
            This chapter describes the design of study, area of the study, population sample and sampling techniques, instrument for data collection, validation of the instrument, reliability of data, method of data collection and data analysis.

Design of the Study
            The design of this study is a descriptive survey; this will be used to seek opinions of the respondents on the utilization of instructional materials in teaching of business studies in the secondary schools.

Area of Study
            The area of study is Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi state. Ikwo LGA is bounded in the north, Izzi LGA, in the south by Ezza South LGA, in the west by Abakaliki LGA, and by East, Cross River State. Ikwo Local Government Area is chosen to be the area of study, because I am from Ikwo and student’s results in business studies in J.S.C.E are always poor. 


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Population of the Study
            The population of this study will comprise all the teachers teaching business studies in Ikwo LGA and they are 34 business teachers drawn from the 20 secondary Schools in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. (Statistical data from Onueke Educational zone)
Sample and Sampling Techniques
            No sampling will be done because the entire population of the study will be used.
Instrument for Data Collection
            The questionnaire is the only instrument used to collect data for the study. The questionnaire contains 20 items statements, which covered four research questions formulated for the study.
Validation of the Instrument
            The instruments was validated by three experts in the departments of Business Education, Ebonyi state University, Abakaliki. Their corrections and that of my supervisor was used to make the final draft of the instrument.


Method of Data Analysis
            The data collected for the study were analyzed using mean score based on the responses to the structured questionnaire administered. The items instrument were quantified in four point rating scale as thus
Very Great Extent    (VGE)             -           4 points
Great Extent              (GE)                -           3points
Less Extent                (LE)                -           2 points
Very Less Extent                  (VLE)             -           1 points
The frequencies of the responses were tallied against these values and multiplied out. Also the mean for each statement items was computed.
Decision rule:
Since a four points rating scale was used, the mean     will be
            =          4 + 3+2+1
                                    4
            =          10/4
            =          2.5
Therefore, items with mean values above 2. 5 is considered accepted while items with mean values less that 2.5 is considered rejected.

CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
            This chapter presents the data analysis based on the four research questions formulated to guide the study.
Research Question 1
To what extent are instructional materials available for learning business studies?
S/No
Item statement
VGE4
GE3
LE2
VLE1
mean
remark
1
There are more that 20 typewriters used in teaching business studies

10

12

8

4

2.8
Great extent
2
Computers have been used to teach business studies instead of typewriters.


12


10


8


3


2.7

Great extent
3
There is no space for typing lessons

11

14

7

6

3.1
Great extent
4
There is no tape recorder for teaching shorthand

9

13

10

5

2.9
Great extent
5
There is no overhead projector for previewing dictations.

11

13

9

5

3.1
Great extent
Results in table one shows that all the items have mean score above 2.5. This implies that respondents agree to a great extent that typewriters, computers, tape-records, bunches and overhead projectors are available for use in teaching business studies.
Table II Responses on the extent teachers make use of the available instructional materials while teaching.
S/No
Item statement
VGE4
GE3
LE2
VLE1
mean
remark
1
The business studies teachers uses inductive approach in teaching

10

14

8

5

3.2
Great extent
2
The teachers dictates interesting outlines during shorthand classes

12

9

10

3

2.8
Great extent
3
The teachers uses model office plan in teaching office practice

13

8

7

5

2.7
Great extent
4
The business teacher takes us to field trip for learning

11

10

8

7

2.7
Great extent
5
Business studies teacher uses drilling in teaching typewriting

13

11

9

4

3.1
Great extent
Result in table two shows that all items have mean score above 2.5. This implies that the respondents agree to a great extent that business studies teacher uses inductive method, dictations, office plane method, field-trip, and drilling method in utilizing the available instructional materials while teaching business studies.

Table III Responses on the extent students have interest in learning within the available instructional materials.
S/No
Item statement
VGE4
GE3
LE2
VLE1
mean
remark
1
Students like to carryout activities in which their values motives, personal goals, and interest are reflected


10


11


7


4


2.6

Great extent
2
Content and learning experiences selected in relation to students interest give them satisfaction


12


11


5


3


2.7

Great extent
3
The more interested a child is in what the teacher is teaching, the more attention he will pay


13


9


4


3


2.6

Great extent
4
Students interest and attitude can affect the learning of business studies positively or negatively


14


11


6


4


3.8

Great extent
5
Students interest is captured easily the use of instructional materials

11

13

9

5

3.1
Great extent

In the table three all the items had a mean score above 2.5. This shows that all the respondents considered student’s interest paramount in learning business studies with the available instructional materials.

Table IV: Response on the problem usually encountered by teachers in utilizing the instructional material
S/No
Item statement
VGE4
GE3
LE2
VLE1
mean
remark
1
Teachers do not have enough time to utilize the instructional material effectively


12


13


8


3


3.1

Great extent
2
Some teachers do not have basic knowledge and skill for effective utilization of the instructional materials



11



10



9



4



3.2


Great extent
3
Rapid changes in technology has thrown some teachers out of balance

12

10

8

5

2.9
Great extent
4
Poor funding for the maintenance and acquiring more up-to-date equipment

13

10

7

5

2.9
Great extent
5
Teachers need in service training to measure up to new trend

11

14

8

4

3.1
Great extent

In table four all the items had a mean score above 2.5, this shows that all the respondents agree to a great extent that insufficient time, lack of basic knowledge and skill, new technologies, poor funding, and not adequately giving teachers in service training to meet up with the new trend are the problems teachers usually encounter in the utilization of instructional materials in teaching business studies.


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Major Finding of the Study
            The following major finings were made from the study:
(1)       The available instructional materials for teaching business studies in junior secondary school includes: the chalk board, the bulletin board, chart, overhead projectors, dictating machines, typewriter, and computer.
(2)       Teachers use various method in utilization of instructional materials in teaching business studies which includes: Discussion method and demonstrative method, inductive approach method, model office plan method, drilling method and field trip method for teaching business studies.
(3)       students interest in business studies with instructional materials indicates that students like to carry out activities in which their personal goals, values, motives and interest are reflected content and learning experiences selected in relation to students interest give them satisfaction. It was also discovered that the more interested a child is in what a teacher is teaching the more attention he will pay to it. Students interest and attitude can affect the study of business studies positively or negatively, students interest is also captured by the use of instruction materials
(4)       The problems usually encountered by teachers in utilizing the available instructional materials indicates that teachers do not have enough time to utilize the instructional material effectively, some teachers do not have basic knowledge and skill for effective utilization of the instructional materials rapid changes in technology has thrown some teacher out of balance and poor finding for the maintenance and acquiring up-to-date equipment.


INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL FOR THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

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