As we all probably know some people, either at our workplace or in our personal lives, who are really good listeners to all situations. No matter what kind of situation we're in, they always seem to know just what to say – and how to say it – so that we're not offended or upset. They're caring and considerate, and even if we don't find a solution to our problem, we usually leave feeling more hopeful and optimistic. We probably also know people who are masters at managing their emotions. They don't easily get angry in stressful situations. Instead, they have the ability to look at a problem and calmly find a solution. They're excellent decision makers, and they know when to trust their intuition.
Regardless of their strengths, however, they're usually willing to look at themselves honestly. They take criticism well, and they know when to use it to improve their performance. People like this have a high degree of emotional intelligence, or EI. They know themselves very well, and they're also able to sense the emotional needs of others. Different approaches and theoretical models have been developed for Emotional Intelligence. This summary article focuses chiefly on the Goleman interpretation. The work of Mayer, Salovey and David Caruso (Yale) is also very significant in the field of Emotional Intelligence, and will in due course be summarised here too.
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EI): THE MODELS
The Emotional intelligence can be defined as the ability to monitor one's own and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. Emotional intelligence also reflects abilities to join intelligence, empathy and emotions to enhance thought and understanding of interpersonal dynamics. However, substantial disagreement exists regarding the definition of EI, with respect to both terminology and operationalizations. Currently, there are three main models of EI: Ability model, Mixed model (usually subsumed under trait EI) and Trait model.
Emotional intelligence (EI) or emotional quotient (EQ) is the capacity of individuals to recognize their own, and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different feelings and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. Although the term first appeared in a 1964 paper by Michael Beldoch, it gained popularity in the 1995 book by that title, written by the author, psychologist, and science journalist Daniel Goleman. Since this time Goleman's 1995 theory has been criticized within the scientific community.
There are currently several models of EI. Goleman's original model may now be considered a mixed model that combines what have subsequently been modeled separately as ability EI and trait EI. Goleman defined EI as the array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance. It "encompasses behavioral dispositions and self-perceived abilities and is measured through self-report". The ability model, developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer in 2004, focuses on the individual's ability to process emotional information and use it to navigate the social environment.
Studies have shown that people with high EI have greater mental health, job performance, and leadership skills although no causal relationships have been shown and such findings are likely to be attributable to general intelligence and specific personality traits rather than emotional intelligence as a construct. For example, Goleman indicated that EI accounted for 67% of the abilities deemed necessary for superior performance in leaders, and mattered twice as much as technical expertise or IQ. Other research finds that the effect of EI on leadership and managerial performance is non-significant when ability and personality are controlled for, and that general intelligence correlates very closely with leadership. Markers of EI and methods of developing it have become more widely coveted in the past decade. In addition, studies have begun to provide evidence to help characterize the neural mechanisms of emotional intelligence.
Criticisms have centered on whether EI is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality traits. Review finds that, in most studies, poor research methodology has exaggerated the significance of EI. Emotional Intelligence links strongly with concepts of love and spirituality: bringing compassion and humanity to work, and also to 'Multiple Intelligence' theory which illustrates and measures the range of capabilities people possess, and the fact that everybody has a value. The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence, is too narrow; that there are wider areas of Emotional Intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are. Success requires more than IQ (Intelligence Quotient), which has tended to be the traditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essential behavioural and character elements. We've all met people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially and inter-personally inept. And we know that despite possessing a high IQ rating, success does not automatically follow.
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THE ELEMENT OR IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORK
Categories of emotional intelligence is depends on what a person can exhibit. For a resource person to hire candidates who will thrive in your workplace, look for those who have a handle on these five pillars.
1. Self-awareness: If a person has a healthy sense of self-awareness, he understands his own strengths and weaknesses, as well as how his actions affect others. A person who is self-aware is usually better able to handle and learn from constructive criticism than one who is not.
2. Self-regulation: A person with a high EQ can maturely reveal her emotions and exercise restraint when needed. Instead of squelching her feelings, she expresses them with restraint and control.
3. Motivation: Emotionally intelligent people are self-motivated. They're not motivated simply by money or a title. They are usually resilient and optimistic when they encounter disappointment and driven by an inner ambition.
4. Empathy: A person who has empathy has compassion and an understanding of human nature that allows him to connect with other people on an emotional level. The ability to empathize allows a person to provide great service and respond genuinely to others’ concerns.
5. People skills: People who are emotionally intelligent are able to build rapport and trust quickly with others on their teams. They avoid power struggles and backstabbing. They usually enjoy other people and have the respect of others around them.
GUIDELINES FOR PROMOTING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
1. Paving the way
· Assess the organization's needs
· Assessing the individual
· Delivering assessments with care
· Maximising learning choice
· Encouraging participation
· Linking goals and personal values
· Adjusting individual expectations
· Assessing readiness and motivation for EQ development
2. Doing the work of change
· Foster relationships between EQ trainers and learners
· Self-directed change and learning
· Setting goals
· Breaking goals down into achievable steps
· Providing opportunities for practice
· Give feedback
· Using experiential methods
· Build in support
· Use models and examples
· Encourage insight and self-awareness
· Encourage transfer and maintenance of change (sustainable change)
3. Encourage Application Of New Learning In Jobs
· Develop organizational culture that supports learning
· Evaluating the change - did it work?
· Evaluate individual and organizational effect
Working on your emotional intelligence could well be the most important aspect of your personal development. Research has shown that people with higher levels of emotional intelligence enjoy more satisfying and successful careers and relationships. If you think about ways to enhance your EI, you are likely to become more interesting and attractive to others, and you will also give your self-esteem a boost.
Coleman, Andrew (2008). A Dictionary of Psychology (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199534067.
Goleman, Daniel (1998), What Makes a Leader?, Harvard Business Review
Petrides, Konstantin; Furnham, Adrian (2001), "Trait Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Investigation with Reference to Established Trait Taxonomies", European Journal of Personality, pp. 425–448
Jump up to: a b Salovey, Peter; Mayer, John; Caruso, David (2004), "Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Findings, and Implications", Psychological Inquiry, pp. 197–215
Goleman, D. (1998). Working With Emotional Intelligence. New York, NY. Bantum Books.
My Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test | Emotional Quotient (EQ) Quiz
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