ANALYSIS OF DATA ON THE ROLE OF AN ACCOUNTANT IN TRANSPORT CORPORATION

 CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
The data collected for this study were statistically analyzed and presented in this chapter. This presentation and analysis were presented in table; each contains information on the response to this research questions.
Research Question 1:
What are the roles of an accountant in an organization?
Item 1-8 in this questionnaire was used to control data with regards to these research questions. The summary of data analysis is presented in table 4-1 below:


Table 4.1:      The Role of an Accountant in an Organization
S/N
ITEMS
SA
A
D
SD
N
Fx
X
S.D
Decision
1.
Preparation and presentation of timely and accurate financial reports to management
60
30
10
-
100
300
3.50
1.75
Agreed
2.
Identification of areas of inefficiency and wastage of resources.
45
40
10
5
100
325
3.25
1.80
Agreed
3.
Treasuring function – raising finance, cash management
40
44
16
-
100
324
3.24
1.60
Agreed
4.
Setting up effective system of internal and accounting controls
56
44
-
-
100
356
3.56
1.90
Agreed
5.
Preparation of feasibility reports
79
21
-
-
100
379
3.79
1.96
Agreed
6.
Investigating of the performance operations of competing business organization to assist management in policy formulation.
63
25
10
2
100
349
3.49
1.72
Agreed
7.
Investigating of fraud within the organization
70
10
10
10
100
340
3.40
1.70
Agreed
8.
Assisting the organization to avoid – rather than evade tax by using his knowledge of the tax laws
30
60
10
-
100
320
3.20
1.50
Agreed

Out of one hundred (100) respondent who responded to items “1” preparation and presentation of timely and accurate financial reports to management 60 strongly agreed to the opinion, 30 agreed, 10 disagreed and 0 strongly disagree .This item yield the mean of 3.50 and this standard deviation of 1.73 .Out of one hundred respondents who responded to item “2” “Identification of areas of inefficiency and wastage of resources; 45 strongly agreed 40 agreed, 10 disagreed and 5 strongly disagreed. The item yields the mean of 3.25 and the standard deviation of 1.60. Out of one hundred responded (100) who responded to item “3” – “Treasuring function raising finance, cash management 40 strongly agreed. 44 agreed, 16 disagreed and Nil strongly disagree the item yield the mean of 3.24 and the standard deviation of 1.60. Out of one hundred (100) respond dents who responded to item “4” setting up effective system of internal and accounting control; 56 strongly agreed 44 agreed , Nil disagreed and Nil also strongly disagreed the item yield this mean o 3,56 and standard deviation 1.90. Out of one hundred respondent who responded to item “5”  “ preparation of feasibility reports “79 strongly agreed , 21 agreed ,Nil disagreed and Nil also strongly disagreed to this opining .This item yield this mean of 3.79 and standard deviation of 1.96 . Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “6” “Investigating of this performance /operation of competing business organization    to assist management in policy formation 63 strong agreed, 25 agreed, 10 disagreed and 2 strongly disagreed. The item yields the mean of 3.49 and the deviation of 1.72. Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “7” “Investigation of fraud within the organization “70 strongly agreed, 10 agreed, 10 disagreed and 10 strongly disagreed to this opining. The item yields the mean of 3.40 and the standard deviation of 1.70. Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “8” “Assisting the organization to avoid – rather than evade – tax by using his knowledge of the tax laws. 30 strongly agreed, 60 agreed, 10 disagreed and Nil strongly disagreed. The item yields the mean of 3.20 and this standard deviation of 1.50.
Findings
It was found that the respondents agreed on this opining that the roles of an accountant in an organization include:
1.         Preparation and presentation of timely and accurate financial reports to management who the mean of 3.50 and the standard deviation of 1.73
2.         Identification of areas of inefficiency and 10eastage of resources with the mean of 3.31 and the standard deviation of 1.60
3.         Treasuring function –raising finance, cash management with the mean of 3.24 and this standard deviation of 1.60
4.         Setting up effective system of internal and accounting controls with the mean of 3.56 and the standard deviation of 1.90
5.         Preparation of feasibility report with the mean of 3.79 and the standard deviation of 1.96
6.         Investigation of the performance operation of competing business organization to assist management in policy formation with the mean of 3.49 and the standard deviation of 1.72
7.         Investigation of fraud within the organization with the mean of 3.40 and the standard deviation of 1.70
8.         Assisting the organization to avoid – rather than evade – tax by using his knowledge of the tax taws with mean of 3.20 and standard deviation 1.50
Research Question 2
To what extant does an accountant assist this management of an organization in achieving organizational effectiveness in operation
Item 9-13 of the questionnaire was used to collect data with regards to the research questions this summary of data analysis is presented in table 4.2 below:

Table 4.2: The Extent an Accountant Assist the Management of an Organizational Effectiveness in Operation
S/N
ITEMS
VGE
GE
LE
VLE
N
FX
X
S.D
Decision
9.
Financial data management
65
28
7
-
100
358
3.58
1.80
Accept
10.
Analysis and Advice
42
48
7
3
100
329
3.29
1.60
Accept  
11.
Financial report preparation
59
38
3
-
100
356
3.56
1.80
Accept  
12.
Compliance
38
52
10
-
100
328
3.28
1.60
Accept  
13.
External business affiliations
30
50
20
-
100
310
3.10
1.50
Accept  

Out of one hundred (100) respondent who responded to item “9” “financial date management’ 65 agreed to the opinion to a very great extent, 28 agreed to a great extent, 7 agreed to a little extent while mill agreed to a very little extent. The item yields the mean of 3.58 and the standard deviation of 1.80. out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “10” “analysis and advice” 42 agreed to the opinion to a very great extent, 48 agreed to a great extent, 7 agreed to a little extent and 3 agreed to the opinion to a very little extent. The item yields the mean of 3.29 and the standard deviation of 1.60. Out of one hundred (100) respondent who responded to item “11” financial report and preparations 59 agreed to the opinion to a very great extent, 38 agreed to a great extent, 3 agreed to the opinion to a little, extent and mill agreed to a very little extent. The item yields the mean of 3.56 and the standard deviation of 1.80. out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “12” “compliance” 38 agreed to the opinion to a very great extent, 52 agreed to a great extent, 10 agreed to a little extent and mill agreed to a very little extent. The item yields the mean of 3.28 and the standard deviation of 1.60 out of one hundred (100) responded who responded to item “13” external business affiliation”. 30 agreed to the opinion to a very great extent, 50 agreed to a great extent, 20 agreed to a very little extent and Nil agreed to a very little extent. The items yield the mean of 3.10 and the standard deviation of 1.50.

Findings
It was found that the respondents agreed to the opinion that accountant assist the management of an organization in achieving organizational effectiveness in operation to the following extent:
1.         Financial data management with the mean of 3.58 and standard deviation of 1.80
2.         Analysis and advice with the mean of 3.29 and standard deviation of 1.60
3.         Financial report preparation with the mean of 3.56 and the standard deviation of 1.80
4.         Compliance with the mean of 3.28 and the standard deviation of 1.60
5.         External business affiliation with the mean of 3.10 and the standard deviation of 1.50
Therefore, the entire respondent agreed to the opinion

Research Question 3
To what extent does an accountant assist the management in achieving organizational efficiency in the budgeting process?
Item 14-16 in the questionnaire was used to collect data with regards to the research question. The summary of data analysis is presented in table 4.3 below:
Table 4.3
The Extent on Accountant Assists the Management in Achieving Organizational Efficiency in the Budgeting process.
S/N
ITEMS
VGE
GE
LE
VLE
N
FX
X
S.D
Decision
14.
Planning the cost action that helps to foresee the future transaction
40
42
10
8
100
314
3.14
1.50
Accept
15.
Accountant provide information to management of an organization that assist them to arrange the financial obligations coming into business process
60
12
15
13
100
319
3.19
1.52
Accept
16.
Accountants provide information that helps the management of an organization to ascertain that this prepared budgets  works in conjunction with long term goals of the firms
30
50
12
8
100
302
3.02
1.42
Accept

Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to the item “14” planning the cost action that helps to foresee the future transaction. 40 agreed to the opinion to a  very great extent, 42 agreed to great extent, 10 agreed to a little extent and 8 agreed to a great to a very little extent.   The mean of 1.5. Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “15” “accountant provides information to management of an organization that assist them to arrange the financial obligation coming into the business process.” 60 agreed to the opinion to a very great extent, 12 agreed to a great extent, 15 agreed to a little extent and 13 agreed to a very little extent. The item yield the mean of  3.19 and the standard deviation of 1.52.out of 100 respondents who responded to item “16” “ accountants provide information that helps the management of an organization to ascertain that the prepared budgets works in conjunction with long term goals of the firms”. 30 agreed to a very great extent, 50 agreed to a great extent, 12 agreed to a little extent and 8 agreed to a very little extent. The item yields the mean of 3.02 and the standard deviation of 1.42.

Findings
It was found out that respondents agreed to the opinion that an accountant will assist the management in achieving organizational efficiency in the budgeting process to the following extent:
1.   Planning the cost action that helps to foresee the future transaction with the mean of 3.14 and the standard deviation of 1.50
2.   Accountant provide information to management of an organization that assist them to arrange the financial obligation coming in the business process with the mean of 3.19 and the standard deviation of 1.52
3.   Accountants provide information that helps the management of an organization to ascertain that the prepared budgets works in conjunction with long term goals of the firms with the mean of 3.02 and the standard deviation of .1.42
Therefore all the respondents agreed to the opinion

Research Question 4
To what extent does an accountant helps an organization to achieve its goal item 17-20 in the questionnaire was used to collect data with regards to these research questions. The summary of data analysis is presented in table 4.4 below: 
Table 4.4
The Extent an Accountant Helps an Organization Achieve its Goal.

S/N
ITEMS
VGE
GE
LE
VLE
N
FX
X
S.D
Decision
17.
Timeliness of reports
25
49
10
16
100
283
2.83
1.32
Accept

18.
Cost – effective against waste
38
40
7
15
100
302
3.02
1.42
Accept
19.
Information provider for effective business plan.
62
34
7
3
100
340
3.40
1.84
Accept
20.
Provision of reliable information for organizational survival
65
10
10
4
100
314
3.14
1.77
Accept

            Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “17” “timelines of reports” 25 agreed to the opinion to a very great extent, 49 agreed to a very great extent, 10 agreed to a little extent and 16 agreed to a very little extent. The items yield the mean of 1.32 and the standard deviation of 1.32. out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “18” “cost-effective against waste” 38 agreed to the opinion to a very great extent, 40 agreed to a great extent, 7 agreed to a little extent and 15 agreed to a very little extent. The item yields the mean of 3.02 and the standard deviation of 1.42. Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “19” “information provider for effective business plan” 62 agreed to the opinion to a very great extent, 34 agreed to a great extent, 7 agreed to a little extent and 3 agreed to a very little extent. The item yields the mean of 3.40 and the standard deviation of 1.84. Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “20” “provision of reliable information for organizational survival” 65 agreed to a very great extent, 10 agreed to a great extent, 10 agreed to a little extent and 4 agreed to a very little extent. The item yields the mean of 3.14 and the standard deviation of 1.77.
Findings
            It was found that the respondents agreed that an accountant will help an organization to achieve its goal to the following extent:
1.         Timeliness of reports with the mean of 2.83 and the standard deviation of 1.32.
2.         Cost-effective against waste with the mean of 3.02 and the standard deviation of 1.42.
3.         Information provider for effective business plan with the mean of 3.40 and the standard deviation of 1.84.
4.         Provision of reliable information for organizational survival with the mean of 3.14 and the standard deviation of 1.77.
Therefore all the respondents agreed to the opinion

Research Question 5
            What are the ways of improving on the problems of an accountant to achieve effectiveness and efficiency?
Items 21-25 in the questionnaire were used to collect data with the regard for these research questions. The summary of data analysis is presented in table 4.5 below:
Table 4.5 The Strategies of Improving Effectiveness and Efficiency of an Accountant
S/N
ITEMS
SA
A
D
SD
N
Fx
X
S.D
Decision
21.
Non – management interference and opposition.
59
29
10
2
100
333
3.33
1.82
Accept  
22.
Effective and efficient in supply of informal
44
30
10
-
100
286
2.86
1.69
Accept  
23.
Training and retraining of accountant
65
21
7
7
100
344
3.44
1.85
Accept
24.
Allowing an accountant to handle statement records
40
52
10
10
100
346
3.46
1.86
Accept  
25.
Provision of owning facilities

40
38
12
7
100
305
3.05
1.75
Accept  
                                 
Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “21” “non-management interference and opposition” 59 strongly agreed, 29 agreed, and 10 disagreed and 2 strongly disagreed. The item yielded the mean of 3.33 and standard deviation of 1.82. Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “22” “effective and efficient in supply of information” 44 strongly agreed, 30 agreed, 10 disagreed and nil strongly disagreed. The item yields the mean of 2.86 and the standard deviation of 1.64. Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “23” “training and retraining of accountant” 65 strongly agreed, 21 agreed, 7 disagreed and 7 strongly disagreed. The item yields the mean of 3.44 and the standard deviation of 1.85. Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “24” “allowing an accountant to handle/keep the financial statement records” 40 strongly agreed, 52 agreed, 10 disagreed and 10 strongly disagreed. The item yields the mean of 3.46 and the standard deviation of 1.86. Out of one hundred (100) respondents who responded to item “25” “provision of working facilities” 40 strongly agreed, 38 agreed, 12 disagreed and 7 strongly disagreed. The item yields the mean of 3.05 and standard deviation of 1.75.
Findings
It was found that the respondents agreed to the opinion that the ways of improving the problems of accountant to achieve effectiveness and efficiency include:
1.         Non-management interference and opposition with the mean of 3.33 and the standard deviation of 1.82.
2.         Effective and efficient in supply of information with the mean of 2.86 and the standard deviation of 1.69.
3.         Training and retraining of accountant with the mean of 3.44 and the standard deviation of 1.85.
4.         Allowing an accountant to handle/keep financial statement record with the mean of 3.46 and the standard deviation of 1.86.
5.         Provision of working facilities with the mean of 3.05 and the standard deviation of 1.75.

Summary of Findings
From the analysis of data collected, it was found that:
1.   The roles of an accountant in an organization include; preparation and presentation of timely and accurate financial reports to management, identification of areas of inefficiency and wastage of resources, Treasuring function, Setting up effective system of internal and accounting controls, preparation of feasibility reports , Investigating of the performance, operation of the business, investigation of fraud within the organization and assisting the organization to avoid, rather than evade – tax by using his knowledge of the tax law.
2.   Accountants assist management of an organization in achieving organizational effectiveness in operation to the extent of providing of financial data management, analysis and advice, financial report preparation, compliance and external business affiliation.
3.   accountant assist the management in achieving organization efficiency in the budgeting process to extent of planning the cost action that helps to foresee this future transaction, providing information to management of an organization that assist them to arrange the financial obligation coming in the business process and provide information that helps the management of an organization to ascertains that this prepared budgets works in conjunction with long term goals of the firms.
4.   Accountant helps an organization with timeliness of reports, cost-effective against waste, information provider for effective business plan, and provision of reliable information for organizational survival and this helps the organization to effectively achieve its goal.

5.   There are problems accountants faced in an organization and this problems can be resolved, the solution to the problems faced by an accountants of organizations include non-management interference and opposition effective and efficient in supply of financial information training and retraining of accountant, allowing an accountant to handle/keep the financial statement records and provision of working facilities.

ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF AN ACCOUNTANT IN EBONYI STATE TRANSPORT CORPORATION ABAKALIKI
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