SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION OF LEADERSHIP ON POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION IN THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATION
 5.1      SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS
There is no significant relationship between autocratic leadership style and democratic leadership style in respect of quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms in Enugu   State. (t value cal< =1.523 < t value tabulated 2.1318, P=0.000<0.05). Leadership in Enugu manufacturing firms significantly ensures that policies made are effectively directed towards attainment of organizational goals (t value cal=19.225 > 2.1318, P=0.000<0.05).  Leadership training and development in Enugu manufacturing firms have shown significant effect on quality policy formulation and implementation (X2cal=42.475>X2 critical=9.48773, P=0.000<0.05). Environmental factors negatively and significantly influence leadership towards quality policy formulation and implementation in these manufacturing firms (X2cal=8.12<X2 critical=9.48773, P=0.000<0.05). Unhealthy policies negatively and significantly effect on productivity and profitability of these     manufacturing firms ((X2cal=7.10<X2 critical=9.48773, P=0.000<0.05).


5.2       CONCLUSIONS
This study as one of the empirical investigations on leadership and policy in organizations in Nigeria lays foundation for understanding the effect of leadership on quality policy formulation and implementation for manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The success of any organization very much depends on the quality of its leadership. It is leadership that recruits the requisite personnel, trains them on the job, sets standards on what are required, assigns workers to jobs, monitors and disciplines staff, and relates with the society and government. Leadership works with people to achieve the goals of the enterprise. Hence, policy formulation has to be endorsed by leadership for others in the organization to react.


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Policy formulation and implementation are leadership driven (Imaga, 2000:246)Unfortunately, some managers in leadership positions in organizations do not quite appreciate their roles in this respect. This makes the quality of products vary and the company market shares in the industry dwindle significantly. Unarguably, this does not augur well with the profitability and subsequent growth of firms. Research efforts to uncover the causes of failure in leadership roles on quality policy formulation and implementation revealed training inadequacy. Another is poor orientation on the best leadership style that can improve organizational performance through effective employees offering. Also, they exist controversies concerning the best style of leadership to be incorporated in the company policy guideline. This issue amongst others is yet unsettled even in the theories as several arguments still exist.

Research concerning leadership and quality policy formulation in private manufacturing firms is very new in Nigeria and as such, empirical works in this area is seriously lacking. Consequently, there exist several research gaps including the difference between autocratic and democratic leadership style and their impact on quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms; the rate at which leadership training and development impact on quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms; environmental factors influence leadership on quality policy formulation and implementation; and, implication of unhealthy policies on the productivity and profitability of manufacturing firms in Nigeria. This research established an empirical framework for prototype manufacturing firms in Nigeria which captured the aforementioned lacuna. By employing both descriptive and inferential statistics on primary data generated from three major manufacturing firms in Enugu state, the study tested five main hypotheses.

The first result revealed a no significant relationship exist between autocratic leadership style and democratic leadership style in respect of quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms in Enugu state. The second test confirmed that leadership in Enugu manufacturing firms significantly ensures that policies made are effectively directed towards attainment of organizational goals. The third result affirmed that leadership training and development in Enugu manufacturing firms have significant impact on quality policy formulation and implementation. The fourth established that environmental factors negatively and significantly influence leadership towards quality policy formulation and implementation in manufacturing firms. Above all, the fifth concludes that unhealthy policy has negative and significant impact on productivity and profitability of manufacturing firms in Enugu state.

5.3     RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the findings of this research and the conclusions therein, this study hereby recommends as follows:
(i)       The need for review of the style of leadership used in the manufacturing industry in Nigeria. The findings of objective one reveals that autocratic leadership style negates staff welfare and respect for employees’ opinions as well as ideas. This is not too productive to the organizations. As such, this study suggest the maximun use of democratic leadership style since this style is established to be favorable to manufacturing organizations in Nigeria.
(ii)    Training was found to be essential ingredient of growth but was not frequently emphasized by the firms studied. This study recommends that training of both management and employees be made a policy priority and as well be organized as often as possible.
(iii)  In formulating and implementing organizational policy, certain environmental factors like activities of customers, rivalry competitors, social responsibilities, and the government were found to be exhibiting negative influence. This study advocates for a thorough cost-benefit analysis on these factors when formulating policies or during implementation. They should as often as possible establish a resonable trade-offs among those intervening variables. To establish a balance must be done with care in order not to create more problems for the organization. This is because, the identified environmental variables also play significant roles for the survival and growth of the firms.
(iv)  Unhealthy and greedy policies are found to have destructive implications to the firms. Therefore, management and other concerned policy makers in the manufacturing industry must formulate good policies that seek to improve the welfare of its workers while magnifying productivity and profit. This is very necessary for the long-run survival of the company.  

5.4. CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
The results of this research provide a basis for a better understanding and appreciation of the effect of leadership on quality policy formulation and implementation in manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Among other things, the study will significantly impact on the economy in the following ways:

To Business Managers: First, the study will be of relevance to managers and leaders in the manufacturing organizations in Nigeria most espacially, the firms that were studied in Enugu state. This is because, the aim of every manufacturing firm is to achieve maximum level of product quality at the lowest possible cost and to achieve a larger market shareThe quality of policy which is a direct function of leadership thus become very vital to the attainment of such goal. Policy formulation directs all functionality and aspect of work done by managers. This study have successfully established strong insight on best leadership approach to policy hence its relevance to business managers.

Relevance to Training: In terms of knowledge acquisition, this study will contribute to training of managers of manufacturing firms on best practices both in policy formulation and in action. At the end customer satisfaction will be achieved and the performance and profitability of the organization will be realized.

Benefits to End-Users of Company Products: Furthermore, the clients and end-users of the products of the manufacturing firms will benefits immersely from the outcome of this study. This is because, the findings of the study is very informative to managers and owners concerning the best leadership styles that can ensure customer satisfaction through quality and offering.

To Industry Watchers and Analyst: The outcome of this research is also expected to be of significance to industry watchers and analyst. This group of people will utilize the platform of this study in their analysis on leadership and policy formulation in Nigerian firms. Similarly, the general public, through the findings of this research, will be better informed on the existence and operations of the selected companies.

To Academics: Academically, this study contributes to the enrichment of literature on policy making and leadership. It has empirically established the significant impact of leadership on quality policy which invariably is vitally informative to analyst and policy makers. The study also provides important information to guide future researchers.

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APPENDIX   1
QUESTIONNAIRE
Department of Business Management,
Faculty of Business Administration,
University of Nigeria,
Enugu Campus,
Enugu State
Dear Respondent,
           
RESEARCH PROJECT QUESTIONNAIRE

I am a postgraduate student of the above named institution carrying out a research work on the topic: EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP ON QUALITY POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION IN MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN ENUGU STATE”. The research is in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an award of Master of Science (M.Sc.) Degree in Business Management of the University of Nigeria.
This questionnaire is purely for academic purpose and so all the information you will provide will be treated confidentially. I will be obliged if you assist me by completing the questionnaire as objectively as possible and to the best of your knowledge.

Thank you.
Yours Faithfully,



INSTRUCTION: Tick Appropriately, Whichever Is Chosen
(Note:Respondents must be employee of the selected manufacturing organizations)

SECTION ONE: BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
(1)  Age:     Below 25                       25-35              36-44              45-56              57 & above
(2)   Sex:                    Male                       Female
(3)   Marital Statues:   Married               Single             Others Specify         
(4)   Qualification:  SSCE           B.Sc or Equiv.           Masters Degree            Above Master

(5)   Staff Category:  Senior Staff              Junior Staff
(6)  Job Position:  Supervisor         Unit Head          HOD         Director         Others Specify.
(7)  What is the name of your Company ? ......................................................
SECTION TWO: MAIN QUESTIONS


ITEMS
SA
A
UD
D
SD
Objective One





To examine the significance of the relationship between autocratic leadership and democratic leadership with respect to quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms in Enugu state.





Questions





1.         Democratic leaders in our firm show more concern to employees welfare when  making policies more than autocratic leaders do.





2.         Democratic  leaders use influence rather than force to implement      corporate policies while autocratic leaders believe in force.





3.         Democratic leaders listen to public opinion in policy making but autocratic leaders are conservative and believe in order.





4.         While democratic leaders believe in long run growth policy, autocratic leaders are more concerned at the immediate.





Objective Two





To determine the extent to which leadership ensures that policies made are effectively implemented and directed towards attainment of organizational goals.





Questions





5.         Our company leadership treat policy as a very critical matter





6.         They ensure that quality policies are made while existing ones      are constantly reviewed to meet the trend of time





7.         Our company leadership often time monitors policy performance     to ensure that they are targeted toward the goals of the company.





8.         They apply strict disciplinary measure to control any deviation   in rules guiding the set policies





Objective Three





To evaluate the rate at which leadership training and development impact on quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms in Enugu state.





Questions





9.         Management of our company gives maximum concern to        leadership training and development.





10.       Most trainings are directed at enhancing the company policy in       terms of existing ones or in formulating new ones





11.       The leadership training is frequent and permits cross fertilization         of ideas across other firms in the industry          





12.       Leadership training have to a large extent enhanced the quality of           policies used in our company at the moment





Objective Four





To examine how environmental factors could influence leadership towards quality policy formulation and implementation in these manufacturing firms.





Questions





13.       Government policies and interest exact great influence on our          company policy formulation and implementation





14.       Rival competition from other firms in the industry here in Enugu             do influence our choice of policy making and implementation





15.       We could bend our policy to meet corporate responsibility in the     area of our operation





16.       To satisfy our numerous clients effectively, we often adjust our           policy to meet their good demands





Objective Five





To explore the implications of greedy and unhealthy leadership policies on the productivity and profitability of these manufacturing firms.





Questions





17.       Policies affecting employees negatively could dampen their    performance and result in low productivity





18.       Negative policies affecting customers could make them withdraw   patronage and in turn result in poor profitability of your company





 19.      Greedy policies resulting in customer drop will give rise to       competitors take over of your company’s market share.





20.       Your company could liquidate if unhealthy policies are not            adequately addressed.






THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP ON POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION IN THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN ENUGU STATE

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