RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ON EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP ON POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

   CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       RESEARCH DESIGN
Research design is the plan, structure and the strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to the research questions and control variance. It is a blue print that guides the researcher in conducting her study. It could manifest in three major ways viz; survey, experimental, and ex-post facto design (Onwumere, 2005). This study employed the survey method. The method involved using a self-designed questionnaire in collecting data from respondents. It also included the use of interviews and direct observations in gathering data necessary to analyze the formulated hypotheses (Eleje and Okafor, 2010). The method was chosen in order to make reference to phenomena as they exist in real life. Besides, it is relatively economical in terms of time and resources. Survey method enabled the researcher to assess both primary and secondary data. It is more realistic than experimental method when evaluating primary data in that it investigates phenomenon in its natural setting.



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3.2       AREA OF THE STUDY
This study was concentrated in Enugu state. Enugu, one of the 36 constitutionally recognized states in Nigeria, has a population of approximately 3.2 million inhabitants based on the 1991 census. The preliminary findings of the 2006 census indicate that the population has increased to 3.9 million. The people primarily belong to the Igbo ethnic group, which is one of the three largest ethnic groups in Nigeria. The state capital is Enugu (derived from enu ugwu meaning “hill top”). The state was created on 27th August 1991 from the old Anambra State. Enugu town was previously the capital of the then Eastern Region and also East Central State. Enugu is an inland state and one of the five states in the South East geo-political zone of Nigeria occupying a surface area of 8,000 sq. km. It shares its boundaries in the east with Ebonyi State, in the west with Anambra State, in the north with Kogi and Benue States and in the south with Abia State. The two major towns are Enugu and Nsukka.

The state comprises of three geo-political zones made up of 17 legally constituted Local Government Authorities (LGAs), although a further 39 Local Government Development Centres (LGDCs) were created in 2004 by the then Governor. The latter are not recognized by the Federal government. The latest administration has redesignated the LGDCs as Local Government Development Areas. These include Aninri, Awgu, Enugu East, Enugu North, Enugu South, Ezeagu, Igbo Etiti, Igbo-Eze North, Igbo-Eze South, Isi-Uzo, Nkanu East, Nkanu West, Nsukka, Oji River, Udenu, Udi, and Uzo-Uwani.  These development centres are managed by an Administrator rather than an appointed Chairman and have reverted to being accountable to their parent LGA.

 The state is predominantly agrarian but is regarded as an “educational state” since it has a preponderance of primary, secondary and tertiary educational institutions. The major mineral for which Enugu is known worldwide is coal and this gives the state the sobriquet “Coal City State”. The major employer of labour in the state is government (local and state), although there is a vibrant private sector made up of mainly small and medium scale enterprises. Some of the leading private manufacturing firms which coincidentally are selected for the study include Emenite, Innoson, Hardis & Dromedas amongst others. This firms have contributed significantly to employment generation and corporate social responsibilities in the state.

3.3       SOURCES OF DATA
The data for this study was generated from both primary and secondary sources.

3.3.1   Primary Data: This is a form of data that is raw and uncollated. This type of data was generated from the respondents who were mainly staff from the selected firms.  The instruments used in generating the data were self designed questionnaire, interviews, and direct observations by the researcher.  The questionnaire was designed in likert scale format to eliminate bias in the respondents’ choice of selection.  It contained 27 questions structured into two main sections.  Section one was the background data of the respondents. It carried 7 questions covering age, sex, marriage statues, qualifications, staff category, position and organization’s name. The second section carried 20 questions focusing majorly on the objectives of the study.

3.3.2   Secondary Data: Secondary data is a processed or collated data got from mainly published and unpublished works, including annual reports, government and organizational articles amongst others. The secondary data for this study were sourced majorly from the companies’ articles, Journals, Magazines, dailies, seminar and workshop papers, as well as unpublished materials in the form of handouts and project works earlier done in this area. The main instruments for the secondary data were the libraries and internet facilities.

3.4   POPULATION OF THE STUDY
A population according to Osuala (1993) is a group of thing with similar characteristics. Onwumere (2005) defined it as a thing comprising all elements, subjects, and perhaps observations in relation to a particular phenomenon. The target population for this study was derived from both the junior and senior staff of the three companies slated for the study. The two categories of staff were necessary due to the nature of information required to achieve the stated objectives. Evaluation of records from the personnel department of the three firms revealed that the total number of both junior and senior staff of the three firms was two thousand, seven hundred and forty seven (2,747) and this formed the target population.

Below is a tabular representation of the population in line with firm and staff position:

Company
Senior Staff
Junior Staff
Total
Emenite Limited
202
823
1025
Innoson Group
126
780
906
Hardis & Dromedas
314
502
816
Total
642
2105
2747
Source: Personnel Departments of the Companies.



3.5       SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION AND DISTRIBUTION   
A sample is a representation of a population. It is necessary in research when a population of study is so large that it will be too difficult to manage without bias. A sample size could be obtained by employing the Taro Yamane (1964:208) sample size statistical determination model thus:
n          =         
Where:
n = Sample size
N = Total Population (2747)
e = Tolerable error taken as 5%

Employing the above model, the sample size (n) for this study was determined thus:

                 2747
       1+2747 (0.05) (0.05)

    2747
7.8675                                              =   349.      This figure formed the sample that were issued questionnaire.
However, since this research was a cross-company study, it became imperative to determine the various company proportion of the sample. The Bowler’s (1996:56) sample proportion model was used thus:
nh        =         Nh        x        S
                         N                   1
Where:
nh        =          Firms share of sample Size
Nh       =          Firms part of Population Size
N         =          Population
S          =          Sample Size

Emenite           =         1025   x          349               =          130
                                    2747                 1
Innoson          =          906     x          349                =          115
                                    2747                 1
Hardis and Dromedas          =          816     x          349     =          104
                                                2747                 1
Total                                                                          =          349
Arising from the above evaluation, Emenite was issued 130 questionnaire, Innoson group, 115; while Hardis and Dromedas was issued 104 respectively.

3.6       SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
Sample selection technique or procedure is simply the procedure the researcher employed in choosing the sample of study.  Generally, it can be grouped into random or probability sampling method and non-random or non-probability sampling method.  This study adopted the probability random sampling procedure. The justification is that the population of study had similar characteristics in respect of the information expected from them. As a result, the researcher believed that any member of the population stood equal chance of providing her valid data for her analysis. Besides, random sampling technique gives every member in a sampled population equal chance of being selected.  For this reason, the researcher distributed her questionnaire randomly to all the 349 staff of the three firms that were sampled for the study.  The process was executed on a hand-to-hand basis and was retrieved same as well.


3.7       ESTABLISHING THE VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
To ensure that the instruments measured what they were intended to measure, validity test was carried out. A pilot study was used to establish the validity of the instrument.  Runkel and Grath (1922:20), Borg and Gall(1983:72), viewed pilot study technique as the process of a study which involves analysis of data following closely the procedure planned for the main study before launching the said main study. 

The researcher used pilot respondents from the population different from population of the study but having similar features.  The selected firms and staff were given copies of the questionnaire to answer. The score tests were collected after they had duly completed the exercise.  No rigorous statistical test was used.  The researcher went through the number of skewed responses in the form and necessary modifications were made in order to correct them as to convey the correct meaning that elicited the proper response. Based on this, therefore, the instruments were taken to have passed the validity test.

3.8       RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
The reliability of the instruments was also tested.  According to Nwankwo (1984:12), reliability concerns the accuracy (i.e. consistency and stability) of measurement of a phenomena or subject.  In other words, reliability deals with the consistency of the instrument after several measurements.  The test-retest method involving giving a different set of firms and staff respondents the same questionnaire on two occasions after a time interval was used to demonstrate the reliability of the instrument.  A total of 25 respondents were chosen from the population different from the pilot survey but having similar characteristics with the population of study.  The 25 respondents were given a copy of the questionnaire each respectively and asked to put down the predetermined identified number given to them before completing the tests.  This enabled the researcher to distinguish one questionnaire from the other.  The completed tests were collected and kept aside.  The same set of questionnaire was given to same respondents after some days.  After completing the tests, they were collected by the researcher.  With the aid of predetermined identification numbers on the tests, the researcher compared the responses given by each respondent on the two occasions. 

Out of 25 respondents, none showed a marked disparity in their responses to the two tests.  This was an indication of consistency of the test over time.  Thus the reliability of the instrument was determined using cronbach alpha statistical tool.

 3.9      METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
Tsshe Special Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer version was employed to analyze and test the data generated for the study.  The analysis and test was in line with the research objectives, research questions and the hypotheses formulated in chapter one. The researcher first used the computerized likert scaling method to evaluate the questionnaire. Accordingly, the responses by the respondents to some of the items in the questionnaire were compiled into tables with respect to the main variables being examined.  Percentage analysis was employed to analyze the questions in the questionnaire and ‘on the spot’ assessement made. The inferential statistics using the Friedman’s Chi-Square method and T-statistics were subsequently used to test the five hypotheses formulated in chapter one. Specifically this work borrowed the Friedman’s model from the work of Eleje and Okafor (2010).  The Friedman’s Chi-Square model employed by these authors is of the form:  
X2 =  å k       (01 – e1) +   (02 – e2) +   (03 – e3) + …. +   (0n – en)
            i=I                        e1                       e2                e3                         en


Where:
            01 => First observed frequency
            0n => nth observed frequency
            e1=> First expected frequency
            en => nth expected frequency.

Using a hypothetical scenario to buttress the point we make the following assumptions:
                                                                        01 = 4
                                                                        02 = 3
                                                                        e1 = 0.8
                                                                        e2 = 0.7
Hence, x2c =>  å (o-e)2/e
                                                                                                 i=1
Table 3.2
 Calculated Chi Square Table (X2c)
O
E
o-e
(o-e)2
(o-e)2/e
4
0.8
3.2
10.24
12.8
3
0.7
2.3
5.29
7.56




X2c = 20.36

REFERENCES
Anastasi, A.(1969), Psychological            Testing, The Macmillan Company, Collier Macmillan Limited, London, Toronto.
Borg M and Gall D (1983) Educational Research; An Introductory (4th Edition): New York, Longman.

Chukwuemeka, E.E.O. (2002) Research Method and Thesis Writings: A Multi-Discipline Approach, Enugu: Hope –Rising Ventures Publishers.

Dibua, E.C. and Dibua E.C. (2005) Element of Business Statistics (Vol. 2), Onitsha: Good Success print

Eleje, Edward O. and Okafor, F.O. (2010), “Development of Commodity Derivatives Market in Nigeria: An Empirical Assessment”, African Journal of Contemporary Issues, Vol.10 No.1

Lapin, L.L. (1988) Statistics for Modern Business Decisions, New York: Journo Vital Inc

Lucey, T. (1996) Quantitative Techniques, London: DP Publications
Nwankwo, J.I. (1984) Mastering Research in Educational and Social Sciences: Ibadan, Bisi Books.

Onwumere, J.U.J. (2005), “Business and Economic Research Methods” Lagos, Don-Vinton Ltd
Osuala, E.C. (1987) Introduction To Research Methodology; Onitsha, Africana-Fep.
Runkel, J. Philip and Grath, M.E. Joseph (1972) Research On Human Behaviour: A Systematic Guide To Method: San Francisco; Holt Reinhart and Winston.

Yarmane, Y. (1964) Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, 3rd Edition New York: Harper and Row Publishers

THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP ON POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION IN THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN ENUGU STATE

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