DATA ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF LEADERSHIP ON POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Data Presentation
The data generated for the study are tabulated below. They include total questionnaire distributed and those returned; bio-data of the junior and senior staff of the three companies selected for the investigation; and the various responses to the main questions administered in the questionnaire issued to them. The schedule for questionnaire distribution and return is computed in such a way that it revealed the order in which the questionnaire were distributed to the sampled population and the order they were returned:

Table 4.1 Questionnaire Distributed and Returned to Sample by Number
Category
Junior Staff
Senior Staff
Total Staff
Company
Dstr
Rtnd
Dstr
Rtnd
Dstr
Rtnd
Emenite
58
58
72
70
130
128
Innoson
55
54
60
58
115
112
Hardis and Dromedas
40
40
64
60
104
100
Grand Total
153
152
196
188
349
340
Source: Field Survey (2012)


THIS IS A SAMPLE | WE ARE PROFESSIONALS IN WRITING

A cursory look at table 4.1 above reveals that a total of 349 personnel from the three companies comprising 153 junior personnel and 196 senior personnel respectively were considered and issued questionnaire. Out of this number, 340 personnel conprising 152 junior personnel and 188 senior personnel from the three companies had their questionnaire retrieved in good condition. The remaining 9 personnel had their questionnaire either lost or mutilated and as such was not considered fit for this evaluation.
Table 4.2 Questionnaire Distributed and Returned to Sample by Percentage
Category
Junior Staff
Senior Staff
Total Staff
Company
Dstr%
Rtnd%
Dstr%
Rtnd%
Dstr%
Rtnd%
Emenite
16.62
16.62
20.63
20.06
37.25
36.68
Innoson
15.75
15.47
17.20
16.62
32.95
32.09
Hardis and Dromedas
11.46
11.46
18.34
17.19
29.80
28.65
Grand Total%
43.83
43.56
56.17
53.87
100
97.42
Source: Field Survey (2011)
Table 4.2 is a percentage representation of the above table 4.1 computation. Summarily, the table reveals that out of 100% questionnaire issued to the respondents, 97.42% were
retrieved and considered valid while only 2.58% were not valid. The table also indicates that they were a fair distribution of questionnaire among the major categories of samples slated for the investigation. Precisely, 43.83% share were given to the junior staff of the three companies out of which 43.56% were returned; while 56.17% consideration were given to the senior staff of the three companies of which 53.87% were returned and used. 

4.2       Data Analyses
This study employed percentage statistics and the likert scale mean rating in analyzing the data generated from the questionnaire responses. The likert scale mean model is of the form: Mean (x) = ∑fx / ∑f
Where:
                        x          =          Mean
            ∑         =          Summation
            f           =          Frequency of outcome
            x          =          Outcomes
The likert questionnaire rating of Strongly Agreed (SA) Agreed (A), Undecided (UD), Strongly Disagreed (SD) and Disagreed (D) were assigned values as 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, respectively. The decisions on the degree of agreement were based on a cut-off rate of 3 mathematically evaluated thus:

5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1
            5                      =          3
Hence, decisions were based on the sample mean being greater than 3 for agreement and otherwise for disagreement. Below is the SPSS analysis of the questionnaire responses beginning with the background data.

A.                                ANALYSIS OF BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Q.1

Table 4.3       Age Distribution of Respondents
Age Limits
Emenite
Innoson
Hardis & Dromedas
Total
Below 25
20
14
15
49
25-35
42
35
30
107
36-44
48
40
41
129
45-56
12
15
10
37
56 Above
6
8
4
18
G.Total
128
112
100
340
Source: SPSSWIN Processed

The age distribution of the sampled respondents are shown in the above table 4.3. The two major labour population distribution by age, that is, the active and the inactive labour force are well represented. A cursory observation on the table reveals a cluster of labour population on the active labour bracket (25-45). Summarily, this active labour forms approximately 70% of the three firms total workforce. The remaining inactive 30% are distributed at the extrimities (inexperienced and the experienced). Below 25 year bracket, that is, the inexperienced labour constitutes 14% of the total labour while the remaining 16% are the experienced labour for the three firms. This category however are the essential brainbox of the firms and as such, they are very vital in area of policy, leadership training and overall firm growth. 

Q.2, 5, & 7

Table 4.4   Distribution of Respondents by Sex, Company and Staff Category
Type of Respondent
Sex
Male
Female
Total
Junior Staff:
Category
Emenite
35
23
58
Innoson
29
25
54
Hardis & Dromidas
22
18
40

Total
86
66
152
Senior Staff:
Category
Emenite
40
30
70
Innoson
36
22
58
Hardis & Dromidas
32
28
60

Total
108
80
188
Grand Total


194
146
340
Source: SPSSWIN Processed
Table 4.4 above revealed the sex, company and staff distribution of the respondents investigated in the study. The schedule shows that out of the 340 respondents, 194 (57%) were males while 146 (43%) were females. The number of junior staff investigated were 152 (46%) comprising 86 males and 66 females; while senior staff were 188 (54%) comprising 108 males and 80 females respectively.

Q.3
Table 4.5   Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status
Type of Respondent
Marital status

Single
Married
Total
Junior Staff:
Category
Emenite
12
46
58
Innoson
10
44
54
Hardis & Dromidas
8
32
40

Total
30
122
152
Senior Staff:
Category
Emenite
0
70
70
Innoson
0
58
58
Hardis & Dromidas
0
60
60

Total
0
188
188
Source: SPSSWIN Processed
The above schedule represents the respondents’ marital status. The table reveals that all the senior staff of the three companies (188) is married. As for the junior staff however, 30 personnel are not married while 122 personnel are married.

Q.4
Table 4.6     Educational Distribution of Respondents


Type of Respondent
Highest Qualification

SSCE or Equiv
OND or Equiv
B.Sc or Equiv
Masters or Equiv
Abv Ms
Total
Junior Staff:
Category
Emenite
20
38
0
0
0
58
Innoson
14
40
0
0
0
54
Hardis & Dromidas
15
25
0
0
0
40

Total
49
103
0
0
0
152
Senior Staff:
Category
Emenite
0
0
40
28
2
70
Innoson
0
0
37
18
3
58
Hardis & Dromidas
0
0
45
14
1
60

Total
0
0
122
60
6
188
Source: SPSSWIN Processed
The respondents’ educational statues are shown in table 4.6 above. The table reveals a high proportion of graduate and post graduate responses. It also reveals that most of the senior staff of the three companies are graduates of universities and other tertiary institutions of higher learning. For instance, in Emenite firm, about 70 personnel representing 54.69% of the firm’s total sample are graduates. Similarly,  51.79% of the total sample in Innoson firm fall within the same graduate category. On the basis of aggregate of the three firms, a similar result (55.29%) emerged. The implication of this is that the three manufacturing companies have high value for education and training as the basis for their growth. This manifests in their choice of selection and assignment of responsibilities. A cursory look at the table will confirm that most of the junior staff of the three firms are personnel with lower qualifications such as senior secondary and equivalents or National Diplomas holders whereas the senior staff are higher qualification holders, precisely, first degree and above.
Q.6
Table 4.7   Job Position of Respondents

Type of Respondents
Job Positions

Supv.
Unit Head
HOD
Director
Others
Total
         Company
Category
Emenite
38
40
28
2
20
128
Innoson
40
37
18
3
14
112
Hardis & Dromidas
25
45
14
1
15
100

Total
103
122
60
6
49
340
Source: SPSSWIN Processed
Table 4.7 shows the job designation of the respondents. The distribution reveals that majority of the respondents occupy one significant leadership position or the other ranging from supervisor, unit head, to Director. By mere assumption, the sample studied constitutes personnel who are fully aware of the happenings in their establishments as regards leadership and quality policy formulation as well as implementation.

B.                                ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN QUESTIONS
The Statistical Package (SPSS version 11) used to analyse the questionnaire compiled a table-by-table summary of the questions in line with the objectives of the research. About five tables summary outputs consistent with the five basic objectives emerged. They are hereunder presented and on-the-spot explanations made as follows:

Objective One

Table 4.8:  Autocratic And Democratic Leadership in Quality Policy Formulation
Questions 1, 2, 3, & 4
If:
SD (%)
D (%)
U (%)
A (%)
SA (%)
Total
Mean
Std. Dev.
1. Democratic leaders in our firm show more concern to employees welfare            when making policies more than autocratic leaders do.
34 (10)
34 (10)
0 (0)
238 (70)
34 (10)
340
3.6
1.12
2. Democratic leaders apply influence rather than force to implement corporate policies while autocratic leaders believe in force.
34 (10)
34 (10)
34 (10)
170 (50)
68 (20)
340
3.6
1.20
3. Democratic leaders listen to public opinion in policy making but autocratic leaders are conservative and believe in order.
34 (10)
68 (20)
0 (0)
102 (30)
136 (40)
340
3.7
1.42
4. While democratic leaders believe in long run growth policy, autocratic leaders are more concerned at the immediate.
34 (10)
68 (20)
0 (0)
170 (50)
68 (20)
340
3.5
1.29
Overall Mean






14.4(3.6)
5.02(1.26)
Source: SPSSWIN Processed
The above table represents the distinctions between autocratic leadership and democratic leadership style with respect to quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms. A cursory look at the audience responses generally show that they exist differences in policy formulation between the two major styles of leadership inherent in the sampled firms. Evidence from the descriptive percentage statistics and the likert mean rating confirm the observation. At an 80%  affirmation rate and 3.6 mean responses, democratic leaders in the firms studied show more concern to employees welfare when making policies than autocratic leaders. They apply influence rather than force to implement such corporate policies as against autocratic leaders who very much rely on force. The above observation is confirmed at a 70 percent response rate and another 3.6 mean rating. At a similar 70 percent rate but 3.7 mean high, democratic leaders again is found to have high value for followers ideas and opinions when making policy for the organization. This attribute is not found to be true with autocratic leaders who are more conservative and believe in commands. While formulating policies, democratic leaders believe in long run growth and as such, they accommodate variables that will result in achievement of such goals. Although at a 30 percent disagreement rate, autocratic leaders were found to be more often concerned with immediate short run result, this observation is confirmed true at 3.5 mean agreement rate.

Objective Two
Table 4.9:  Leadership Policy Formulation And Organizational Goals Attainment
Questions 5, 6, 7, & 8
If:
SD (%)
D (%)
U (%)
A (%)
SA (%)
Total
Mean
Std. Dev
5. Our company leadership treat policy as a very critical matter
34 (10)
34 (10)
0 (0)
238 (70)
34 (10)
340
3.6
1.12
6. They ensure that quality policies are made while existing ones are constantly reviewed to meet the trend of time
0 (0)
0 (0)
34 (10)
306 (90)
0 (0)
340
3.9
0.30
7. Our company leadership often time monitors policy performance to ensure that they are targeted toward the goals of the company.
34 (10)
0 (0)
68 (20)
102 (30)
136 (40)
340
3.7
1.01
8. They apply strict disciplinary mearsure to control any deviation in rules guiding the set policies
0 (0)
34 (10)
34 (10)
238 (70)
34 (10)
340
3.8
0.75
Overall Mean






15(3.8)
3.17(0.8)



































Source: SPSSWIN Processed
The above table 4.9 evaluates the extent to which leadership in manufacturing firms in Enugu state ensures that formulated policies are effectively directed towards attainment of organizational goals. The first descriptive result in the table justifies the criticality of policy to these organizations at 80 percent affirmative response. The currency of policies and the need for policy review to meet the trend of time is further justified. Accordingly, about 90 percent of the respondents confirms that the policy makers in their firms ensure that quality policies are made while existing ones are constantly reviewed to meet the trend of time. This submission is again verified at 3.9 significant mean response rate. The feedback process on policy performance is also investigated. The rationale is based on the relevance of monitoring and control to organizations growth as documented in the literature. The empirical descriptive evidence above at 70 percent agreement and 3.7 mean response confirms that leadership of the sampled companies often time monitors policy performance to ensure that they are targeted toward the goals of their various companies. Deviation of policy focus from the firms’ objectives is a serious issue. About 80 percent of the respondents opines that management apply strict disciplinary measure to control any deviation in rules guiding the set policies.

Objective Three
Table 4.10:  Impact of Leadership Training And Development On Policy Formulation
Questions 9, 10, 11, & 12
If:
SD (%)
D (%)
U (%)
A (%)
SA (%)
Total
Mean
Std. Dev.
9. Management of our company gives maximum concern to leadership training and development.
0 (0)
68 (20)
102 (30)
136 (40)
34 (10)
340
3.4
0.92
10. Most trainings are directed at enhancing the company policy in terms of existing ones or in formulating new ones
34 (10)
34 (10)
34 (10)
170 (50)
68 (20)
340
3.6
1.20
11. The leadership training is frequent and permits cross fertilization of ideas across other firms in the industry
68 (20)
136 (40)
68 (20)
34 (10)
34 (10)
340
2.5
1.21
12. Leadership training has to a large extent enhanced the quality of policies used in our company at the moment
34 (10)
68 (20)
0 (0)
170 (50)
68 (20)
340
3.5
1.29
Overall Mean






13(3.25)
4.61(1.15)
Source: SPSSWIN Processed
The impact of leadership training and development on quality policy formulation and implementation in the sampled manufacturing firms is analyzed in table 4.10. The descriptive evidence reveals a sgnificant overall mean average of 3.25, an indication of moderate agreement. A thorough view at the table first show a 50 percent affirmation that the management of the sampled companies gives maximum concern to leadership training and development. They was 20 percent disagreement and 30 percent undecided cases. Concerning the training focus of these manufacturing firms, about 70 percent of the respondents are of the opinion that most trainings are directed at enhancing the company policy with respect to existing ones and also in formulation of new ones. The mean response rate is 3.6. The response concerning the frequency of these training is poor with a mean response rate of 2.5. At the percentage rating level, only 20 percent affirms that  the leadership training is frequent and permits cross fertilization of ideas across other firms in the industry. Despite the irregular training response however, respondents at 70 percent affirmation rate admitted that leadership training so far has to a large extent enhanced the quality of policies used in their various companies at the moment.   
Objective Four
Table 4.11:  Influence of Environmental Factors on Leadership Policy Performance
Questions 13, 14, 15, & 16
If:
SD (%)
D (%)
U (%)
A (%)
SA (%)
Total
Mean
Std. Dev.
13. Government policies and interest exact great influence on our company policy formulation and implementation
0 (0)
68 (20)
102 (30)
136 (40)
34 (10)
340
3.4
0.92
14. Rival competition from other firms in the industry here in Enugu do influence our choice of policy making and implementation
34 (10)
34 (10)
68 (20)
68 (20)
136 (40)
340
2.5
1.21
15. We could bend our policy to meet corporate responsibility in the area of our operation
0 (0)
68 (20)
102 (30)
136 (40)
34 (10)
340
3.4
0.92
16. To satisfy our numerous clients effectively, we often adjust our policy to meet their good demands
34 (10)
68 (20)
0 (0)
170 (50)
68 (20)
340
3.5
1.29
Overall Mean






12.8(3.2)
4.33(1.08)
Source: SPSSWIN Processed
The above table 4.11 evaluates the significant effects of environmental factors on leadership quality policy formulation and implementation in the sampled manufacturing firms. Result arising from the mean overall of 3.2 is an indication of the existence of such influence. When comfirmed further from individual responses on the environmental specific variables, government policies and interest at 50 percent agreement and 3.4 mean rate exact great influence on the sampled companies’ policy formulation and implementation. Rivalry influence constitutes 60 percent at 2.5 mean rate; corporate social responsibility was slightly high as companies could bend policies up to 50 percent. However, customer satisfaction was found to exact the greatest influence with a 70 percent agreement rate and 3.5 mean response.

Objective Five

Table 4.12:  Implications of Bad Leadership Policies on Productivity and Profitability
Questions 17, 18, 19, & 20
If:
SD (%)
D (%)
U (%)
A (%)
SA (%)
Total
Mean
Std. Dev.
17. Policies affecting employees negatively could dampen their performance and result in low productivity
0 (0)
68 (20)
102 (30)
136 (40)
34 (10)
340
3.4
0.92
18. Negative policies affecting customers could make them withdraw patronage and in turn result in poor profitability of your company
34 (10)
34 (10)
34 (10)
170 (50)
68 (20)
340
3.6
1.20
19. Greedy policies resulting in customer drop will give rise to competitors take over of your company’s market share.
34 (10)
68 (20)
0 (0)
102 (30)
136 (40)
340
3.7
1.42
20. Your company could liquidate if unhealthy policies are not adequately addressed.
34 (10)
68 (20)
0 (0)
170 (50)
68 (20)
340
3.5
1.29
Overall Mean






14.2(3.55)
4.83(1.21)
Source: SPSSWIN Processed
Lastly, the implications of unhealthy policies on the productivity and profitability of these sampled manufacturing firms were estimated. Table 4.12 presents the descriptive results of the respondents. A review of this table first indicates at 70 percent response rate and 3.4 mean response that policies affecting employees negatively could dampen their performance and result in poor productivity. A similar 70 percent response rate but 3.6 mean response again affirms that negative policies affecting customers could make them withdraw patronage and in turn result in poor profitability of the companies. The effect of customer withdrawal is risky to business survival. This was further confirmed still at 70 percent responses but now 3.7 and 3.5 means respectively, for the last two questions.  Their results affirm that greedy policies resulting in customer drop will give rise to competitors take over of the companies’ market share. Invariably, loss of market share will give rise to great losses which could result in the liquidation of the companies if not addressed adequately and timely.
                                                                                       
4.2       TEST OF THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The whole outcomes above were further verified using inferential statistics to determine the possible significance of those responses at 95 % level of significance and five degree of freedom. As earlier stated, the T-test statistics and the Friedman’s chi-square built into the SPSS computer programme were used to test the five major hypotheses stated earlier in chapter one. Hypotheses one and two were tested using the T-test instrument while hypotheses three, four, and five were tested using chi-square statistics.

HYPOTHESIS ONE:
H01:     There is no significant relationship between autocratic leadership style and democratic leadership style with respect to quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms in Enugu state

HA1       There is significant relationship between autocratic leadership style and democratic leadership style with respect to quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms in Enugu state

The mean responses and the standard deviations for the four questions (1-4) administered to achieve objective one were considered relevant for testing hypothesis one. Employing the inferencial T-test statistics using the computerized Special Package for Social Science (SPSS), the result below emerged.

T-Test Result:

One-Sample Statistics


N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Meanresp
340
4.1659
.26431
.13216


                                                         One-Sample Test


Test Value = 0

t
df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference





Lower
Upper
meanresp
1.523
4
.000
4.16592
3.7453
4.5865

Decision Rule: The decision rule on t-test of significance is to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis if the critical t-value is less than the computed t-value, and accept the null of otherwise (Obiora, E. 1992).

Hence, testing the above hypothesis at 95% confidence interval and 4 degree of freedom, the computed t-value of 1.523 was got. Comparing the result with the tabulated t-value of 2.1318, the alternate hypothesis is thus rejected. The researcher therefore concluded that: there is no significant relationship between autocratic leadership style and democratic leadership style with respect to quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms in Enugu state. This result is significant as two-tailed Sig. is 0.000 < 0.05.

HYPOTHESIS TWO

H02:     Leadership in Enugu manufacturing firms do not significantly ensure that policies made are effectively directed towards attainment of organizational goals

HA2       Leadership in Enugu manufacturing firms significantly ensures that policies made are effectively directed towards attainment of organizational goals

Similarly, the mean responses and the standard deviations for the four questions (5-8) administered to achieve objective two were considered relevant for testing hypothesis two. Again, the inferencial T-test statistics was employed and the result below emerged:  

T-Test Result:

One-Sample Statistics

N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
meanresp
340
3.7733
.55513
.19627

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

T
df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference





Lower
Upper
meanresp
19.225
4
.000
3.77331
3.3092
4.2374

Decision rule: The same decision rule in hypothesis one was upheld. Hence, testing the above hypothesis at 95% confidence interval and four degree of freedom, the computed t-test value of 19.225 was got. This value is greater than the critical t-value of 2.1318. This therefore implies rejection of the null hypothesis. The study thus submits that: Leadership in Enugu manufacturing firms significantly ensures that policies made are effectively directed towards attainment of organizational goals. The result is also significant as two-tailed Sig. is 0.000 < 0.05.
HYPOTHESIS THREE
H03:     Leadership training and development in Enugu manufacturing firms have not shown any significant impact on quality policy formulation and implementation.

HA3       Leadership training and development in Enugu manufacturing firms have shown significant impact on quality policy formulation and implementation.

Again, the mean responses and the standard deviations for the four questions (9-12) administered to achieve objective three were considered relevant for testing hypothesis three. Again, the nonparametric chi-square test for this hypothesis shows the following result:
NPar Tests
Descriptive Statistics
If:
N
Mean
Std. Dev
Min
Max
9. Management of our company gives maximum concern to leadership training and development.

340
3.4000
0.9200
1.00
5.00
10. Most trainings are directed at enhancing the company policy in terms of existing ones or in formulating  new ones

340
3.6000
1.2000
1.00
5.00
11 The leadership training is frequent and permits cross fertilization of ideas across other firms in the industry

340
3.6000
1.2000
1.00
5.00
12. Leadership training has to a large extent enhanced the quality of policies used in our company at the moment

340
2.5000
1.2100
2.00
5.00







Friedman Test
Ranks
If:
Mean Rank
 Management of our company gives maximum concern to leadership training and development.

2.70
Most trainings are directed at enhancing the company policy in terms of existing ones or in formulating  new ones

2.55
The leadership training is frequent and permits cross fertilization of ideas across other firms in the industry

3.65
Leadership training has to a large extent enhanced the quality of policies used in our company at the moment

2.05



Test Statisticsa
N
340
Chi-Square
42.475
Df
4
Asymp. Sig.
.000
a. Friedman Test

From the above computed estimation, the calculated chi-square result is 42.475.  This is greater than the critical chi-square result of 9.48773.  Therefore, the null hypothesis should again be rejected, and alternative hypothesis accepted accordingly.  This result is significant as asymp. Sig is 0.000 < 0.05.

Hence, leadership training and development in Enugu manufacturing firms have shown significant impact on quality policy formulation and implementation.

HYPOTHESIS FOUR
H04:     Environmental factors negatively and significantly influence leadership towards quality policy formulation and implementation in these manufacturing firms.

HA4:   Environmental factors positively and significantly influence leadership towards quality policy formulation and implementation in these manufacturing firms.

The mean responses and the standard deviations for the four questions (13-16) administered to achieve objective four were considered relevant for testing hypothesis four. The nonparametric chi-square test for this hypothesis shows the following result:

NPar Tests
Descriptive Statistics

If:
N
Mean
Std. Dev
Min
Max
13. Government policies and interest exact great influence on our company policy formulation and implementation

340
3.4
0.92
1.00
5.00
14. Rival competition from other firms in the industry here in Enugu do influence our choice of policy making and implementation

340
2.5
1.21
2.00
4.00
15. We could bend our policy to meet corporate responsibility in the area of our operation

340
3.4
0.92
1.00
5.00
16. To satisfy our numerous clients effectively, we often adjust our policy to meet their good demands

340
3.5
1.29
2.00
4.00







Friedman Test
Ranks
If:
Mean Rank
Government policies and interest exact great influence on our company policy formulation and implementation

3.35
Rival competition from other firms in the industry here in Enugu do influence our choice of policy making and implementation

2.05
 We could bend our policy to meet corporate responsibility in the area of our operation

3.55
 To satisfy our numerous clients effectively, we often adjust our policy to meet their good demands

2.65




Test Statisticsa
N
340
Chi-Square
8.12
Df
4
Asymp. Sig.
.000
a. Friedman Test

The above evaluation reveals a calculated chi-square result of 8.12.  This is greater than the critical chi-square result of 9.48773.  Therefore, the null hypothesis should be accepted, and alternative hypothesis rejected accordingly. The result is also significant as asymp. Sig is 0.000 < 0.05.

Based on this chi-square result, the study holds that environmental factors negatively and significantly influence leadership towards quality policy formulation and implementation in the sampled manufacturing firms in Enugu state.

HYPOTHESIS FIVE
H05:     Unhealthy policies negatively and significantly impact on productivity and profitability of these manufacturing firms
HA5:    Unhealthy policies positively and significantly impact on productivity and profitability of these manufacturing firms
NPar Tests
Descriptive Statistics
If:
N
Mean
Std. Dev
Min
Max
17. Policies affecting employees negatively could dampen their performance and result in low productivity

340
3.4
0.92
1.00
5.00
18. Negative policies affecting customers could make them withdraw patronage and in turn result in poor profitability of your company

340
3.6
1.20
3.00
4.00
19. Greedy policies resulting in customer drop will give rise to competitors take over of your company’s market share.

340
3.7
1.42
1.00
4.00
20. Your company could liquidate if unhealthy policies are not adequately addressed.

340
3.5
1.29
2.00
5.00







Friedman Test
Ranks
If:
Mean Rank
Policies affecting employees negatively could dampen their performance and result in low productivity

2.15
Negative policies affecting customers could make them withdraw patronage and in turn result in poor profitability of your company

2.45
Greedy policies resulting in customer drop will give rise to competitors take over of your company’s market share.

3.25
Your company could liquidate if unhealthy policies are not adequately addressed.

2.65



Test Statisticsa
N
340
Chi-Square
7.10
Df
4
Asymp. Sig.
.000
a. Friedman Test

The above result reveals a calculated chi-square result of 7.10.  This is less than the critical chi-square result of 9.48773.  Therefore, the null hypothesis should be accepted, and alternative hypothesis rejected accordingly. The result is also significant as asymp. Sig is 0.000 < 0.05. Based on this chi-square result, the study holds that unhealthy policies negatively and significantly impact on productivity and profitability of these manufacturing firms
4.3. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS/FINDINGS
Were the objectives set in this research achieved? Actually, there exists strong evidence from the results which point to the achievement of the basic objectives originally set out for the study. They are compared as follows:

Research Objective One:
To examine the significance of the relationship between autocratic and democratic leadership style and their impact on quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms in Enugu state.

Outcome of the Research Analysis:
Results arising from both the descriptive and inferential statistics suggest that this objective was achieved. A critical assessement of table 4.8 indicates the existence relationship in policy formulation between the two major styles of leadership inherent in the sampled firms. Evidence from the descriptive percentage statistics and the likert mean rating confirm the observation. Relationship exist in areas of concern to employees welfare, mode of policy implementation, value for employees ideas, business growth mentality, amongst others. For instance, at an 80%  affirmation rate and 3.6 mean responses, democratic leaders in the firms studied show more concern to employees welfare when making policies than autocratic leaders. They also use influence rather than force to implement corporate policies as against autocratic leaders who very much rely on force. Besides, democratic leaders  were found to have high value for followers ideas and opinions when making policy for the organization. This attribute is not found to be true with autocratic leaders who are more conservative and believe in commands. In policy formulation, democratic leaders believe in long run growth and as such, they accommodate variables that will result in achievement of such goals. Autocratic leaders on the other hand were found to be often concerned with immediate short run result. These descriptive statistical outcomes above were further verified inferentially with t-test instrument and result showed that although relationship exists between autocratic leadership style and democratic leadership style in respect of quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms in Enugu state, such relationship is not significant when measured at 95% confidence level. The identified support of the above findings include the works of McPeterside, (2008); Murray, (2011); Muna, (2008); Bass & Bernard, (2008); amongst others.

Research Objective Two:
To determine the extent to which leadership ensures that policies made are effectively implemented and directed towards attainment of organizational goals.

Outcome of the Research Analysis:
The results emanating from both descriptive and inferantial statistics again indicate that objective two is met. Table 4.9 evaluates the extent to which leadership in manufacturing firms in Enugu state ensures that formulated policies are effectively directed towards attainment of organizational goals. The first descriptive result in the table justifies the criticality of policy to these organizations at 80 percent affirmative response. The currency of policies and the need for policy review to meet the trend of time was further justified. Accordingly, about 90 percent of the respondents confirms that the policy makers in their firms ensure that quality policies are made while existing ones are constantly reviewed to meet the trend of time. The feedback process on policy performance was also investigated. The rationale is based on the relevance of monitoring and control to organizations growth as documented in the literature (Azzone, et.al, 1991Beer, 1981; Aberdeen; 2006, etc). Accordingly, empirical descriptive evidence in the same table (4.9) confirms that leadership of the sampled companies often time monitors policy performance to ensure that they are targeted toward the goals of their various companies. Deviation of policy focus from the firms’ objectives was also found to be a serious issue. About 80 percent of the respondents opines that management apply strict disciplinary mearsure to control any deviation in rules guiding the set policies.

The inferential t-test was further employed and result showed that Leadership in Enugu manufacturing firms significantly ensures that policies made are effectively directed towards attainment of organizational goals. The result of the above study that leadership of firms significantly affects the successful attainment of corporate policies and corporate goals compares favorably with the findings of Jonah, (2008); Bernard, (2007); Ezeh, and Onodugo, (2002); Chukwu, and Agunta, (2009); amongst others.

Research Objective Three:
To evaluate the rate at which leadership training and development impact on quality policy formulation in the manufacturing firms in Enugu state.

Outcome of the Research Analysis:
Simlarly, the results emanating from both descriptive and inferantial statistics again indicate that objective three is also achieved. The impact of leadership training and development on quality policy formulation and implementation in the sampled manufacturing firms is analyzed in table 4.10. The descriptive evidence reveals a significant overall mean average of 3.25, an indication of moderate agreement. A thorough view at the table confirms moderate affirmation that the management of the sampled companies gives maximum concern to leadership training and development. Concerning the training focus of these manufacturing firms, majority of the respondents are of the opinion that most trainings are directed at enhancing the company policy with respect to existing ones and also in formulation of new ones. The response concerning the frequency of these training is poor with a mean response rate of 2.5. Only 20 percent affirms that the leadership training is frequent and permits cross fertilization of ideas across other firms in the industry. Despite the irregular training response however, majority of the respondents admitted that leadership training so far has to a large extent enhanced the quality of policies used in their various companies at the moment.

Meanwhile, this descriptive outcome was further verified inferentially and result confirm that leadership training and development in Enugu manufacturing firms have significant impact on quality policy formulation and implementation. Again, this result is consistent with the findings of Udeze, (2000); Vokurka, and Fliendner, (1997); Voss, (1995); Adenmosun, (2000); amongst others.
Research Objective Four:
To examine how environmental factors could influence leadership towards quality policy formulation and implementation in these manufacturing firms.
Outcome of the Research Analysis:
Again, the descriptive and inferantial statistics results for objective four again indicate that objective four is also achieved. Table 4.11 evaluates the significant effects of environmental factors on leadership quality policy formulation and implementation in the sampled manufacturing firms. Result arising from the mean overall of 3.2 is an indication of the existence of such influence. When comfirmed further from individual responses on the environmental specific variables, government policies and interest at exact moderate (50%) influence on the sampled companies’ policy formulation and implementation. Rivalry influence constitutes 60 percent; corporate social responsibility was slightly high as companies could bend policies up to 50 percent. However, customer satisfaction was found to exact the greatest influence (70%).
 This descriptive results similarly were further verified and result of inferential statistics confirmed that environmental factors negatively and significantly influence leadership towards quality policy formulation and implementation in manufacturing firms. This results compares favorably with the findings of  Hamel, and Prahalad, (1994)Ling, and Li, (2000); Prokesch, (1993); etc.
Research Objective Five:
To explore the implication of unhealthy policies on the productivity and profitability of manufacturing firms.
Outcome of the Research Analysis:
Results arising from both the descriptive and inferential statistics suggest that objective five was also achieved. The implications of unhealthy policies on the productivity and profitability of the sampled manufacturing firms were estimated in table 4.12. A review of the table first showed (70%) that policies affecting employees negatively could dampen their performance and result in poor productivity. A similar 70 percent response rate but affirmed that negative policies affecting customers could make them withdraw patronage and in turn result in poor profitability of the companies. The effect of customer withdrawal is risky to business survival. This was further confirmed still at 70 percent affirmative responses. The table also established that greedy policies resulting in customer drop will give rise to competitors take over of the companies’ market share. Invariably, loss of market share will give rise to great losses which could result in the liquidation of the companies if not addressed adequately and timely. On inferential level, the chi-square statistics result summerized that unhealthy policies could have negative and significant impact on productivity and profitability of manufacturing firms in Enugu state. This finding is consistent with existing empirical studies (Azzone, et,al., 1999; Parthasarthy and Sethi, 1993; Ewurum, 2006; etc).

REFERENCES
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THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP ON POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION IN THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN ENUGU STATE

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