LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS: A CASE STUDY OF HERNES PET NIGERIA LIMITED

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
 This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data   generated through the questionnaire.

TABLE 4.1 
Details
Senior staff
%
Junior staff
%
Total
No issued
30
60
20
40
50
No returned
19
49
10
26
39
No not  returned
7
14
4
8
11
Sources: Survey Data 2014
Percentage of total returned  
19   X   100   =   39%
50          1
From  the above table, it is observed that  39% of the total  questionnaire administered were completed and returned while only  11%  were  not returned. Therefore, the unreturned questionnaire is 11% of the administered questionnaire

4.2 ANALYSIS OF BACKGROUND INFORMATION 
QUESTION  1
TABLE  4.1   QUALIFICATION OF STAFF 
Qualification
Frequency
%
WAEC
12
31
O LEVEL
8
20
HND, BSC
15
39
FSLC
4
10
TOTAL
39
100
Source: Survey Data   2014
The question seeks to find the  respondents qualification  table  4.1   reveals that out  of   39  respondents,  12  respondents representing   31%   hold  WAEC,  8  representing  20% hold O’level ,  15  representing   39%  hold HND, BSC , and  4  representing  10%  hold  primary school certificate
QUESTION 2 
TABLE  43   DURATION OF STAFF WITH COMPANY
Duration
Frequency
%
1-4 years   
7
18
5-8 years
11
28
9-12 years 
12
31
Above  12 years
9
23
TOTAL
39
100
Source: Survey Data  2014
Table  4.2  shows the years of service of the respondents 7  respondents claimed they have been in the heroes petroleum between  1-4 years,  11  representing   28%  said   they have served in the industry  between  5-8  years,  12  respondent also claimed that they have been with the Agency for between  9-12   years while  9  respondents  representing   23% claimed they have served the   company for  between  12  years and  above.
QUESTION  3
TABLE  4.4  ANY INDUSTRIAL STRIKE OR DISPUTE
Response  
Frequency
%
Yes
25
64
No 
14
36
Total
39
100
Source: Survey Data  2014
 Table  4.3   shows that in a sample of   39  respondents ,  25  respondents  representing   64% claimed that the company  had  experienced  industrial strike  or dispute about one or two times within the period while  14   respondents representing  35% said that the company  never experienced industrial strike or dispute within this period

QUESTION 4
TABLE  4.5  EMPLOYEES   ASSESSMENT OF  LEADERSHIP  STYLE 
Response 
Frequency
%
Democratic
20
51
Autocratic
10
26
Laizzer –faire
9
23
Total
39
100
Source: Survey Data  2014
The table above  shows that out of  the  39  respondents,  20  representing   51%  claimed that the leadership style of the company democratic,  10 representing   25%  indicated that the leadership style  was  autocratic while  9  representing 23%  claimed that   the leadership of  the  corporation was laizzer-faire.
QUESTION 5
TABLE  4.6: EMPLOYEES  PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING 
Response 
Frequency
%
Yes
15
39
No 
24
61
Total
39
100
Source: Survey Data  2014
The table above shows that out of the  39  respondents,  15  representing  39%  agreed that employees participated in decision –making  while  24 representing   61%  claimed that employees do not participate in decision making .
QUESTION  6 
TABLE   4.7:  EMPLOYEES MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION GAP
Response 
Frequency
%
Just like others 
18
46
Better than others
10
26
Worse than others
5
13
Don’t know
6
15
Total
39
100
 Source: Survey Data  2014
The  table above shows out of the  39  respondents,  18 representing   46%  agreed that the condition of service of the company was just like others,  10 representing   26%   indicated that the condition of service as better than others while  5  representing  13%  admitted that the condition  of   service was worse than others and finally,  6 representing  15%  said nothing about the condition of service.



QUESTION  8
TABLE  4.9 : LABOUR TURNOVER SINCE   2001
Response 
Frequency
%
Very high
15
39
High
24
61
Total
39
100
 Sources: Survey Data 2014  
Table  4.8  shows how workers leave the company from the table,  of   39  respondents,  15 representing  39%  agreed that the  rate of turnover was very high while  24  representing   61%  claimed that the workers turnover was high  but   not  very high.
QUESTION 9
TABLE  4.10  MANAGEMENT APPRAISAL METHOD
Response 
Frequency
%
Open  appraisal 
28
72
Confidential  appraisal   
11
28
Total
39
100
 Source:  Survey Data  2014   
The table  above shows that  out of the  39  respondents, 28   representing  72%  indicated that the company  uses open appraisal  method in its assessment while  11  representing   28%  revealed that the company   uses confidential appraisal method  
On the question of the method most preferable by the  staff, majority  of them said they preferred the open appraisal
QUESTION  10 
TABLE   4:11  PROMOTION  AND  ADVANCEMENT ARE   USUALLY BASED ON  
Response 
Frequency
%
Qualification
19
49
Handwork
19
23
Years of services
11
28
Total
39
100
Source: Survey Data  2014
The above  table shows the criteria adopted by the management for promotion and advancement of staff.  From the table,  it reveals that  19  respondents representing   49%  agreed   that the exercise was   purely on qualification consideration. But  9  presenting  23%  indicated that it was based on hard work while  11  representing  28% 
QUESTION  11
TABLE  4.12  INCENTIVES FOR HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY
Response 
Frequency
%
Increase  in salary
25
64
Sharing of revenue
-
-
Workers participation 
10
26
Bonus  
4
10
Others 
-
-
Total
39
100
  Source: Survey Data  2014
The above table indicate that out of  39  respondents,  25  representing  64%  agreed that increase in salaries was the best option for higher performance and productivity among other  incentive ,  10 presenting   26%s indicate that workers participation in decision –making was the best option, while  4  representing  10%  revealed that bonus was the best option  
TABLE 4.12  DECISION
Response 
Frequency
%
Yes
28
72
No 
11
28
Total
39
100
Source:  Survey Data   2014 
Table  4.12 shows that28 respondents representing  72%  upheld that good relationship between the management and labour in Heroes Nig Limited  Abakaliki  enhances performance and productivity while the remaining  11  representing  28%  are of the view that the  view that the  good relationship  between the two parties does not enhance performance and productivity. therefore, from what we have  here,  it is clear that the   good relationship between  the  two parties enhance  performance and productivity.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
5.1      SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Specifically, with  regards  to Hernes  Ret Nigeria Limited   Abakaliki,  the  study revealed the following findings:
        i.            There is a communication gap between the management and the labour.   Most of the workers are not conversant with the corporate goals of the establishment. They don't know the scope and limitation of the organization they work,.   There is a barrier between the junior staff and their supervisors. The level of interaction is very poor and has adverse effect on the productivity of labour.
     ii.            The labour is not involved in the policy making.  The situation in the organization is that employees are not given free hands by the management to participate or make contributions on policy matter affecting them.
   iii.            The study revealed that the leadership style adopted in the organization is the democratic leadership style. However, investigation revealed that in practice, the leaders are not really implementing the democratic leadership style.
   iv.            The research again revealed that there was industrial faction in organization within the period 2001 to date (2008) and in each, case it adversely affected the  workers  and employer. The cause of the strikes was attributed to the union's agitation for improved condition of service.
      v.            It was also revealed that promotion and advancement are usually based  on  qualification  and  some workers  are  not happy about it and further investigation revealed that majority of the workers prefer that these should rather not be based on qualification. 
   vi.            The management of Hernes Pet  Abakaliki uses open appraisal system  for the  assessment  of her  staff.     This  approach replaced the confidential system, which was discovered as counter productive. The open system accepted by the entire staff   gives   them   the   opportunity   to   interact   with   their supervisors.

CONCLUSIONS
Based on the  findings of this research work, the researcher concluded as follows:-
·        For effective labour management relations to exist in an organization, there must be some sectional interest workers, it is a fair return o" price paid for labour while the management aims at higher productivity that will guarantee fair returns to the shareholders. To achieve an overall goal, there is need to harmonize the interest of both the labour and the management. This calls for a team work and absolute understanding between the two parties.
·        For productivity to increase there must be industrial peace. This can only be achieved where there is better understanding between management and labour. The management should allow the workers to participate and make suggestions on issues affecting the labour
·        There should be high degree or mutual trust among: the parties so as to enable then- treat issues arising between them in good faith. Each party should try to reconcile Is interests with that of the group. This is done by treating the business organization as a system. in this case, maltreatment of labour will be counter productive because it will lead to breeding unhealthy labour force.    On the other hand, much financial demands by the labour will lead to liquidation and defeat the long-term objectives of the organization.    Again, union requires a democratic leadership style which will ensure adequate flow of information to all workers at all times to avoid self-imposed and selfish leaders from emerging.
·        Other factors observed that have major effect on productivity are communication and motivation. Communication is vital in                        clarifying policies at ail times, ineffective communication leads workers to lack of directions and uncertainties. On motivation, we observed that the essence of motivation is to increase productivity.
In the Nigerian situation, the motivational method has to recognize the large family size of the Nigerian workers. Improvement salary/fringe benefit should be paramount especially now that the cost of living is too high for every worker as shown in the result of data analysis.

5.3     RECOMMENDATIONS
1.      Management of Heroes, Abakaliki is Pet  Abakaliki is  advised to bridge the communication gap between the labour and management.  This could be achieved by allowing the workers more often to make suggestions and contributions on issues affecting the labour and the organization in general. The management can realize this goal by taking special interest in workers personal problems. The workers should be given a sense of recognition in the organization. There should be free flow of information to create proper awareness on the policies and goals of the organization.
2.      Based on the findings, increase in salaries and fringe benefits enjoys the support of the entire workers as the best way to motivate them. In view of this, management should review workers' salaries and fringe benefits in line with the economic realities of the time.
3.      As a matter of policy, managers especially those in top management positions should attend seminars and courses in management-labour relations. Heakman in his book, Human Relation Management, indicated that training and educating those who are responsible for leading others enhances organizational growth and productivity. The retraining workshops will also make the managers review their leadership style and adopt the system that will carry the labour along to the realization of the set objectives of the organization.
4.       In consideration of the rule of  the Heroes Pet company  in  the overall development of  a  nation, the researcher is of the view that both the federal and state governments should adequately help to finance this sector by providing enough equipment  which will facilitate their productivity. Lack of equipment adversely affect the operation of the corporation  

REFERENCE
Beach, D. (1996). Personnel Management of People at Work, (4th Edition), New
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Daft, R.L (1998) Management, U.S.A., Tolley Publishing.

Eze F. C. (2001). Business and Management Communication, Enugu, Valson
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Faruham  P. (1998)Industrial Relation in Nigeria, London  Longman,

Fashoyin, T. (1980) Industrial Relations in Nigeria: Development and Practice,
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Macgregor D. (1954) The Human Side Enterprise New York, Houghton
Mifflin Co.

Mefarland, D. (1974) Management fundamentals and practices (5th Edition)
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Tayo, F. (1992) Industrial Relations in Nigeria, Lagos, Longman,

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APPENDIX I
Business Management Dept,.
State University,
28th November, 2014
Sir/Madam;

TO COMPLETE QUESTIONNAIRE
I a final year student of the above named institution carrying out a research work lobour-management relations and organizational effectiveness;  A case study of Hernes Pet Nigeria Limited. You have been selected to take part in this work, should be grateful if you would spare a bit of your time to answer the questions on questionnaire. Your responses will be treated with strict confidence and shall be Used for academic purposes only.
Thanks  for your kind consideration.



Yours faithfully,
APPENDIX II
QUESTIONNAIRE
Please thick ( √ ) in the box  provided  against  the answer (s) that  seem  appropriate to you 
1. What is your educational qualification?   
(a).  Primary  school and below 
(b).  WAEC,  GCE OR Equivalent  
(c)    HSC,GCE ‘A’Level Or  equivalent  
(d)  HND, B.SC  or equivalent 
(e) Others  Specify   
2. How  long have you been in the employment?   
(a)   1-4 years            (b) 5-8 years                  (c)  9-12years  (d) above  12 years  
3. Has the  company  experienced any  industrial action since   1996 (a) yes (b) No (c)  don’t know 
4. If your  answer to  3  is yes, how many times? (a)   once  (b)  twice (c)more than  twice 
5. If your answer to 3 is No, what would you  attribute the cause of industrial peace to? (a) Good labour leadership                                       
(b)  Good management leadership 
(c)  Participation of labour in decision/making          
  (d)  Unaware of labour of their rights   
(e)  All above         (d)  No idea 
6. Which  of these incentive methods  will make you work harder? 
(a) Increase in salary                     (b) No idea  
(c)  Allowing you to participate often in the decision-making  process
 (d)  Others specify   
7.  Have the organization ever reviewed the  salary  structure of the workers?  (a) Yes           (b)  No              (c)  No idea  
8. How do you classify the corporations leadership style? (a) Laissez –faire (b)  Democratic                 (c)  Autocratic  
9. Employees participation in  decision – making   exposes the organization to danger and should be discouraged  (a) Yes             (b) No         
(c)  Don’t  know  
10. Which  of the leadership style do you prefer?  (a) Laissez –faire 
(b) Democratic            (c) Autocratic  
11. How would you assess the relationship between management and labour since  19996 to date?  (a)  Very cordial                          (b)  Cordial 
(c)  Fair                (d)  Very fair           (e)  Bad 
12. How would  you assess the communication gap between management and employees?  (a) Wide             (b)   Narrow 
13. How would  you assess the  communication gap between the workers   and the union leaders? (a)  Wide        (b)  Narrow 
14. Does  the manager involve  workers when deciding  on matters affecting them?  (a) Yes              (b)  No           (c) No idea 
15. What is your assessment of the company‘s condition of service in relation to other  parastatals? (a) better than others        (b)  just like others (c) worse than others (d)  don’t know  
16. What is the labour turnover since 1996?  (a) Very high             (b)  High  
17. What appraising techniques  is employed by the management in assessing workers performance? (a) open  appraisal           (b)  confidential  appraisal           (c)  mixed (d)  other specify
18. What appraised method would you prefer management  to adopt? (a)  open appraisal        (b)  confidential appraisal          (c)  mixed method 
19. Promotions and advancements   are usually based on (a) year  of services (b) Which of them would you prefer as the basis for  employees   promotion? 
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