BOTANICAL EXTRACTS ON SEED INFECTION WITH DIFFERENT FUNGAL SPECIES

INTRODUCTION
Many centuries ago, countries like Bangladesh peasant farmer are not too worry as their   environment. They are indiscriminately using different types of dangerous and poisonous chemicals in their field for controlling diseases especial fungal diseases. This fungi are attacked or harbor in the seed during grouting stage, storing, were after sowing of seeds. Plant metabolites and plant based pesticides appear to be one of the better alterative as to monaural environmental impact and to the consumers in contrast to synthetic pesticides. This make me to screen in vitro large number of plant for antifungal potential against impost seed funged species such as phomopsis vexan, aspergillus glavus etc.


MATERIAL AND METHODS - PLANT MATERIAL
Fresh diseased free leave and fruits of twelve plant species were collected from Botanical garden of (Bangladesh Agricultural University. A specimen of plant image has deposited in the refrigerator of M.S laboratory act department of plant pathology Bangladesh Agricultural university EBSU Agricultural science department.


LIST OF PLANT SPECIES TESTED FOR ANTI FUNGI ACTIVITY
S/N
Local name
English name
Scientific name
Family
Plant parts used
1
Vadmordan
Candle bush
Senna alata
Leguminose
Leaf
2
bid mirca
Croton plant
Croton spariftorow
Euphorbia-cease
Leaf
3
Lantana
Lanatana
Lantana camara
Verbincease
 Leaf & seed
4
Paten Java
Paten Java
Pcitranjiva roxburghii
Euphorbiacease
Leaf & seed
5
Givon
Givon
 Trema orientales
Ulmaceae
leaf
Preparation of extract (apueous extracts)
Collect green leaf and fruit sample from different pland, wash careful with distilled water.
This the plant parts are ground with conventional grounder called “HAMAN DISTA” which is available and popular in EBSU famers. The grounded will dipped in 100 me of distilled water for its hours. Practicing technological troubles for preparing a plant extracts for using in their field crops.
Test fungi
Farmers’ stored (Soloanum melongena) seed were collected from the farmers’ house. The tested seeds were not treated with any seed treating chanical. Then the seed were placed in blotter method and place in incubation at 22/20c for 10 days platting of seeds was recorded. Infected seeds are mark and place it in pofato Dextrose agar (PDA). The inocula of fungi will be growing in the PDA medium. Finally, the inocula was isolated and set in PDA medium for pure culture. The individual pathogenic fungi were identify after 5 days of inoculation with the aid of stereomicroscope.
Antifungal activity assay (seed treatments)
A required amount of seeds were treated in the aqueous botanical extracts for some minutes. The concentration of the solution was 100% (√/√). For all twelve individual plant species were separately done. Then, to observe the comparison between botanical and chemical seed treating material, vitravax 200 was seed to treat the seed for 30 minutes  with recommended dose (25% of seed lot), and in another plate seed are dipped in distilled water for some minutes as  control treatment.
TESTING POTENTIALITY
After treatment of seed, the seed will placed in sterilized dishes and four layers of blotting paper were soaked into distilled water and placed into the petri dishes. Each dish containing 25 seed and 3 dishes were selected as replica for each extract. Then, the petri dishes were kept in the incubation chamber at 22 +20c at light circle 2 hours and data were recorded after 7, 10, days after sowing. The total seed germination and percent seed infection are counted manually. But the seed infected by specific fungi will be indentifies and counted by observation of the petri dishes under sterco Bincular microscope (mathur et al…, 1994).

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
In using randomized design with four replication and treatments were designed as follows:- T7 = leaf extract of 5. Alata T4 = leaf extract of C. proecra
T3 = leaf extract of S. persica
T2 = leaf extract of P. roxburghii,
T1 = leaf extract of A. indica etc.

EFFECT OF DIFF BOTANICAL EXTRACTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDS INFECTION

Treatment
Greminaiton %
Seed infections %
T1
Azadirachta indica
78.67 cd
4.00f
T2
Putranjiva roxburghii
74.67 cd
4.00f
T3
Salvadora perica
77.33cd
5.33 cf
T4
Calotropic procera
86.67 ab
5.33 ef
T5
Lantana camara (fruit)
70.61e
6.61 de
T6
Clerodenclron SPP
82.67 bc
6.67 de

EFFECT OF BOTANICAL EXTRACTS AGAINST INDIVIDUAL SEED BORNE FUNGI
The extract of A. indica, P. persica, C. procera, clerodendron spp, L. camara etc. the vitavax 200 showed the highest intubation of P. veans. These selected were completed inhibited of P. veaan on seed treatments with extracts of M. oleiferas, alata, C. spasriglorou L. camara, P. roxburghii that showed seed infection at 1.33%, 2 66%, 2.66%, 2.6% and 4% respectively, whereas the control treatment 21.33% seed infection. For leaf extracts A. indica treated seeds was the lowest infection of F. oxysporum, which completely eliminated in all inocula of F. oxysporum.

Conclusion
All the plant extract brinial seeds with leaf extract of M. oleifera showed high percentage of seeds germination at least (92%). The treated sees with leaf extract of C. procera, clerodention SSP. S. alata, T. orientales, C. spariflorous, seed extract P. roxburghii, leaf extract of L. amara and vitavase 200 showed over 80% seed germination of 86.61%, 82.67%, 82.67% respectively the leaf treated with A. indica, leaf extract of putranjiva Roxburghii, leaf extract of S. persica, seed extract of 2. Amara, Leaf extract of L. cyhiidirca and T. and T. dioicahae showed seed germination of 76. 67%, 74.67%, 77.33%, 70.67% 70.67%, 70.67% and 78.67% respectively untreated control seed was 50.67% seed germination.
These result shows that the treated seed with botarvical  extracts gave a very good effect on germination. It also indicated that increased in seed germination rather initibited seed germination.

Result of an agreement with finding
The plant extracts completely inhibited A. flavus as also reported by Howard et al (2002) who stated that botanical extract of some higher plants can inhibit the growth of P. vexan. F. oxysporum. Antifungal  effect of leaf extract of some medicinal plant against F. oxysporum causing  with desease of  solanwm melogena. L sival, et al 1992 and majid Avijgan et al (2005) found that some antifungal effect of botanical extracts against C. Lunata, A. niger, pevicillium SPP. P. vexans. A flavus are manaed by itsing botanical extracts plant DEVI, et al (1999). Exploitation of naturally available chemicals from plant protection would be a prominent role in development of future commercial  pesticides for crop protection strategies with the special reference to manage the plant diseases  (vauma and Dubey, 1999 Gottileb, et al 2002).

EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT BOTANICAL EXTRACTS ON SEED INFECTION WITH DIFFERENT FUNGAL SPECIES.  
 Seed infection (%)
No
Treatmenta
Phomopes veans
Fusgrum oxysporum
Carvulana linata
Asp. Flavus
Asp. Niger
Pensci SPP
T1
Azadirachta indica
0
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.33
0
T2
Putanjiva roxburghii
0
0
0
0
1.33
0
T3
Salvadora persica
0
0
0
0
0
1.33
T4
Calotropic proceva
0
1.33
1.33
2.66
0
0
T5
Lantana camara
0
2.66
2.66
1.33
0
0
T6
Clerodendon SPP
0
2.66
2.66
0
1.33
0
T7
Senna alata
2.66
2.66
2.66
0
0
0
T8
Trema orientales
0
0
0
0
2.66
0
T9
Luffa cyudrica
0
1.33
1.33
0
16
0
T10
Moringa Oleifera
1.33
0
0
0
1.33
0
T11
Croton spasriflorous
8
0
0
0
0
0
T12
Putranjiva roxburghii
4
0
0
0
0
1.33
T13
Trichosanthes chioca
0
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.33
0
T14
Lantana camara
2.66
0
0
1.33
0
0
T15
Vitavax 200
0
0
0
0
5.33
1.33
T16
Control
21.33
10.66
10.66
9.33
9.33
6.66
The present investigation is important in developing plant pesticides and seed testing chemicals which are Eco-friendly for the management of the important seed borne fungi and development of commercial formulation of field trial and toxicological experiment.

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