RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY OF IMPACT OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY ON IMPLEMENTATION OF NIGERIA POLICY



CHAPTER THREE
3.1        RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
            This chapter dealt with the research mythology and procedure for gathering and analyzing data used for this study for the purpose of charity this chapter was discussed under the following heading.

1.      Design of the study.
2.      Area of the study
3.      Population of the study
4.      Sample and sampling techniques
5.      The instrument
6.      Administrative of instrument
7.      Validation of instrument
8.      Method of data analysis.
3.2 DESIGN OF THE STUDY
            The study was a survey research designed to identify the impact of political instability on the implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education in Izzi local government.

3.3 AREA OF THE STUDY
            The research was carried out in Izzi local government a geo-political entity located in Ebonyi State. It has about fifteen (15) secondary schools. It is located at Ebonyi central zone and is one of the oldest local government created in then Anambra state. 
            The population of study is one landred and (150) participants. All were from Izzi which made up of (7) schools and (7) principals inclusive.
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
            The research used all the principal and teachers from the seven (7) selected secondary schools in Izzi local government area. Since the population is small. Seven (7) principal and one hundred and thirty six teachers were randomly selected.
3.5 THE INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
            One set of questionnaire was designed for the study. Principals and the teachers formed the entire population used for the study.
            The content of the questionnaire reflected the researcher objectives and research questions. All the items of the questionnaire were structured along like scale type as shown below.
i. Strongly Agree      =          SA
ii. Agree                                 =          A
iii. Undecided                       =          UD
iv. Disagree               =          D
v. Strongly Disagree =         SD
3.6 ADMINISTRATIVE OF INSTRUMENT
            The questionnaire was personally administrated by the researcher in the selected schools. This ensured that all the respondents, were grinded and  maxim return. A brief introductory letter was made to ensure that the respondents fill appropriate.
3.7 VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENT
            Prior to administration of the questionnaire. It was examined by the project supervisors for face validity of the instrument. Besides some experts in measurement and evaluation in the institution of education did the content validation.
3.8 RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
            Data collected are presented in frequency distribution table 1-5 and discipline statistics using mean and frequencies are adopted in the analysis to determine the degree of agreement of disagreement on the subject response.
Mean              value                          weight of 
5                      SA                               -                       seriously Agree
4                      A                                 -                       Agree
3                      UN                              -                       Undecided
1                      SD                               -                       Seriously  Disagree
            Also subject mean responses were calculated respectively; using 0.5 confidence level of the mean, the cut off point for agreed statement was any mean below 3.5



CHAPTER FOUR
4.1                     PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
In the presentation and analysis of data for this research work about one hundred and fifty (150questionnaires are filled and return.
The education qualification of the respondents form national certificate of education (NCE). Bachelor in education, which represent officers of grade level 07 and above i.e principals and teachers.
However, the emphasis on the analysis will be placed on hose questions, which have direct bearing, or revenues on the formulated hypothesis or objective of this study. The sample of the questionnaire used is made available in the appendix.
Research question 1, does political instability affect the educational polities in Izzi Local government area.
Table 1 (1tem 1-3) the first basic research question seek to find out whether political instability affect the educational policies of Nigeria with particular reference to Izzi local government  are.
S/N
QUESTION
SA
A
UD
D
SD
Mean
Decision
1
Essential teaching and materials in your school appear to be inadequate

70

70

0

9

1

4.32

A
2
Inadequate funds militate against the implementation of the policy on secondary education in Izzi local government area


60


70


2


10


8


4.09


A
3
Inadequate accommodation facilities in schools effect the policy on secondary education

90

50

-

10

-

4.46

A
The table above represents the mean responses, of principals and teachers on the effect of political instability on the implementation of the Nigeria policy on secondary education with particular reference to Izzi Local government area. The data shows that lack of adequate essential teaching and learning materials impede successful implementation of policy on secondary education. The respondent, also agree that inadequate funds and lack of accommodation facilities in secondary schools poses threats to the implementation  of the policy. From the responses, in the table 1 above, the basic research question which seeks to know if political instability affect the implementation of Izzi local government area policy on secondary education have been answered.
Research question two
Does political instability affect the teachers’ productivity in local government area?
Table two (items 4-6)
The research question seeks to find out, if political instability affect the teacher’s  productivity in Izzi local government area.

S/N
QUESTION
SA
A
UD
D
SD
Mean
Decision
4
Incessant changes of government affect training of teachers
50
86
-
9
5
4.1
A
5
Teachers do not receive their salaries and allowances as and when due
106
20
-
13
11
4.3
A
6
Condition of services of teachers does not receive desired attention from government
50
80
40
10
6
4.05
A
From the table 2 above the mean responses, from data show that, the principles and teachers agreed the change in government affect training programme of teachers. The table also reveal the teacher do not receive the adequate attention they deserved from the government.
            The response also reveals that the three items measured hinder educational progress as well as teacher’s  productivity. Therefore we can conclude that the table answer the question that political instability affect production of teachers in Izzi local government area.
Research question three
            Is indiscipline among students examination malpractice linked to political instability? The third research question seeks to discover if indiscipline among student are as a result of political instability.
S/N
QUESTION
SA
A
UD
D
SD
Mean
Decision
7
There are constant student unrest in schools as a result of frequent changes in power
60
50
10
15
15
3.83
A
8
There are prevalent indiscipline among student  schools are closed
60
55
-
15
0
4.3
A
9
Form most parts of the academic session as a result of student unrest
70
55
5
20
0
4.1
A

In table 3 above, the data shows the reactions of respondent to the various items, which attempt to answer the research, question three. The table reveals that the respondents agreed that constant student unrest are occasioned by frequent changes of power. Also there is prevalent indiscipline among students. Schools are closed for most pare of the academic session as evidence in the table above.
            The result of table prevailed that the above items, jugging from the high range of agreement answer the research question which stated the indiscipline among student are as a result of political instability.
Research question 4.
Does political instability cause teachers industrial action and in academic calendar?

S/N
QUESTION
SA
A
UD
D
SD
Mean
Decision
10
Incessant change of government affect educational policies
65
45
0
20
20
3.76
A
11
Successive government does not consider teacher’s welfare equally
60
70
10
15
5
4.37
A
12
Some political programme  make impossible demand of teachers
55
45
10
20
20
3.63
A
The data in table four above, show that the mean responses agreed that incessant change of government affect the educational policy. Successive government also not consider teachers welfare equally while majority agreed that some political programmes make teachers demand impossible.
The result therefore shows that political instability cause teachers industrial actions and disruption of academic calendar.
Research question 5
Does political instability cause the production of poor quality student?
Table v (items 13-15)
The research question 5 sought to find out the extent in which political instability contributed to production of poor quality of students.
S/N
QUESTION
SA
A
UD
D
SD
Mean
Decision
13
Succession of government often affects the quality of education
60
67
0
13
10
4.02
A
14
Every government does not give equal attention to educational development
55
60
5
20
10
3.87
A
15
Political disruption makes it impossible for student to remain in school
60
80
0
10
0
4.26
A
            In table five above, the mean response for the respondents agree that succession of government affect quality of education. Every government does not give equal attention to education development and political instability make it impossible for student to remain in schools. The above therefore answered the researcher question 5.

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