IMPACT OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY ON IMPLEMENTATION OF NIGERIA POLICY ON SECONDARY EDUCATION



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Impact of political instability on implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education cannot be fully discussed without briefly highlighting the  circumstance  and the environment with which  the  education system operates the settlement  described today as Nigeria started with  annexation of Lagos by John Beecroft  in the year  1951.
According to Onwubiko (1973)  ‘Beecroft  intervention in Lagos was the first importance towards the subsequent colonization of Nigeria by British government, on the conquest of Lagos, the British government sought to establish and  maintain  a colonial  state in Nigeria. With the introduction of  British rule,  western education followed  suit.

Nigeria came into being in its presents status  in  1914, when the two protectorates of northern and southern Nigeria were  amalgamated by Sir Fredrick Lugard. As reported by crowther  (1978).  Florashaw,  the wife  of lord Lugard  suggested in an articles ‘the  time”   of  London  that the several British protectorates  on the Niger are known collectively as Nigeria. In  1947, the British colonial government  divided the country into three regions, the northern, the eastern and the western regions. Each region had its own legislative at the centre  Onwubiko (1983) in 1951 the regions  were granted internal  self –government and  in 1960,  Nigeria gained her independence  from British government.
When  Nigeria got her independence  in 1960  there was a consideration about   Nigeria’s union was so sudden and  included widely different groups of people that not only  the British created it but the citizen themselves had doubted whether it could survive  as  a political  entity.
The three government parties in the region were the northern, peoples congress (NPC) in the north. The national council of Nigeria citizens (NCNC) in the east and action Group  (AG)  in the west.
All these inherited and adopted the western style of parliamentary democracy   and educational system, unlike most African states, Nigeria had a viable and diversified economy  with great potentials for development, giving size of its net and  substantial resources.
Bishop Crowther (1979) maintained  that ‘Nigeria appeared in its first ear of  tranquility “yet within less than seven years  of sovereignty , Nigeria was lunged  into a thirty months  civil war. Forty two years after independence Nigeria is yet to be articulate the most  effective peaceful  and acceptable method  of changing its leadership. Over the years  election results in the country were usually greeted with   protest and often  carry the hangovers  of their political  misfortune into the corridor of governance.  
The unconstructive criticism of government  in three power made it impossible to achieve the objective of educational civilian political   leadership led the political conditions  that  adversely affected the educational system.
Within  the period, government had promulgated a number of laws, decrees, and  edicts to guide the operation of education ordinance   continue to be used as law and executive  rules in the operation in the country. The  end of civil war in  1970   and  the take  over of schools by various states government  brought with it the introduction of  decrees  and edicts as laws guiding operation of the schools.
The east central states (ECS) inevitable took the lead by promulgating   its public education edict the other states   in time made one amendment or another as the need arose. The edict of the east and Midwestern states replaced completion. The old laws had some common now features namely a unified teaching services.  The take over of schools by the state government.
The establishment of school board and the abolition or educational functions of the   local authorities 
In another development, the federal government, in 1979 constitution placed education on serious list because of its dividing resources.  The constitution spelt out of education was the full responsibility of the federal states and local government. it also  empowered the federal ministry of education to control and monitor education. Similarly, the education Act of 1985 cited as the education decree No. 16 of 1985. A committee was appointed to advice” the government. Following the report of the committee decree No 31 of 1999, I established, the national primary education to affect the new policy on managing and funding primary education.
            The decree endorsed the establishment of poor management levels. The decree also spelt out the statutory allocation by the three tiers thus federal. 65%, state 20% and local government 15%.
            All states of the federation enacted relevant edicts to reflect the current trend. Each state has its own state primary education Board.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
            According to the national policy on education (2001) “education in Nigeria is more private enterprises, it is a huge government venture that has witnessed a progressive evolution of government complete and dynamic intervention and active participation” in the new swatch editorial of December 12 2001:3 it states that Nigeria funded about thirty four thousand, two hundred and forty (34, 240) primary schools with an enrolment of eleven million, five hundred and forty thousand one hundred and seventy eight (11,540, 178) pupils and has 3, 105, 239 secondary school student and fifty (50) Tertiary  institution. Even at this, we cannot pretend that it is well with our educational system. This is because of political instability. The root I our educational system has gone too far. Political instability has hindered effective implementation of the national policy on education by inadequate provision of resources. There an object lack of funds, personnel equipment and infrastructure almost in all secondary school in particular and other higher institutions in general especially in the east. The effect of this is the massive production of scientist who have never seen elaborates engineers who were never in any workshop and graduate that cannot solve problems of their immediate environment.
            The resulted in educational crisis. A crisis that will continue to stare the nation straight on the face until we rescue education form politics.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
            The purpose of the study is to highlight the effects of political instability on implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education. The study will specifically find out the effect of
i.        Political instability on the education policies in Nigeria with particular reference to Izzi Local Government.
ii.                 Political instability on the production of teachers in Nigeria.
iii.               The impact of political instability on assumption.
iv.               The impact of political instability on the student general performance.
v.                  To find out the impact of the political instability on examination
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Ukeje (2002) education is our future; He described education as “wheat based, which can carry any nation to her development “centre” education is an instrument  which various nations have devised for their progress. The results of these study will be of immense value to education practitioners and politicians/both civilian  and military regimes) because it will help them identify the problems that hinder the successful implementation of the 6.3.3.4 system of education.
It will make the government find a better way and means to mobiles resources, and to drams up and implement, integrated programmes aimed at coal cost without detriment to qualify provision of education services. The study will help Izzi local government and others to tent itself to the solution of adequate supply of equipment facilities and infrastructures in our secondary schools, the problems of shortage of staff personnel in our schools, particularly secondary schools will receive priority attention by government.
            Lastly, it will create new hope of employment for thousand of his country in general who graduate from school through practical learning experience created  in our schools.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study covers impact of political instability on implementation with particular reference to Izzi local government especially some of the issue and politics that tend to cause instability since independence. The study will look at how  political instability has affected secondary education implementation and suggestions on how to solve such problems.
1.6 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
Theory of structural functionalism: this theory as a concept was however, adopted in political science and specifically in the field of comparative  politics. The concept sees the education as a system that need maintenance  that brought about the stability of the secondary education in order words where the system fail to function result to the instability of the secondary education.
            According to Nwosu and Ofoegbu (1986) functions a generally used by scholars in political science refers to the contribution of a activity or partners of behavior to the maintenance of education in a given society. Precisely in Izzi local government area as a case study: they went further to state that, it is the  observable effects of an activity that are necessary to the maintenance  of education. According to them,  function implies a positive contribution towards system maintenance of political stability on secondary education, while days functions is used to refer to negative contributions, that is, contributions that lead to the breakdown of the system to political instability.
            According to Olaniyi (1997) structural functionalism when related to the political instability on implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education can be described as a means of explaining basic functions of the political structures in the political system and it is a tool of investigation. He further stated that it explains the relationship between the parts (structures)  on one hand and between the parts and the other hand, the relationship is explained in line with the basic functions of each. This  is because it is the contribution of each structure (part) that helps to sustain the political system of secondary education in order worlds were the whole part fail to function will results to the political instability on secondary education.
            So, the theory of structural functionalism is of the view that the implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education gave rise to the stability of the political system which entails the structural arrangement of educational policy or policies in Nigeria, but in order words where the whole parts of the system. Education in Nigeria fail to function in respect to the policies and programmes of educational system will result to the political instability which does not favour Nigeria especially Izzi local government area as a case study.

1.7       RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
In order to elicit necessary information for the study of the following research question are asked:
1.      Does political instability affect educational policies in izzi Local Government Area.
2.      Does political instability affect the teachers productivity in Izzi Local Government Area.
3.      Does political instability affect the teachers productivity in Izzi Local Government Area.
4.      Does political instability affect the production of quality students.
Is examination malpractice linked to political instability on Izzi Local Government Area.


THIS IS A SAMPLE | WE ARE PROFESSIONALS IN WRITING
Share on Google Plus

Declaimer - MARTINS LIBRARY

NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin