PROJECT REPORT ON STUDY OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES



Project Report on Study of Conflict Management Strategies
ABSTRACT
The Title of this project is Conflict management Strategies adopted by the employees in TANCEM. The main objective of the study is to analyses the various conflict resolving strategies. The research is based on through primary data. The assessment has been with reference to solution oriented, non-confrontational and control and also focused on giving specific suggestion to improve the relations in industrial sector. It is hoped the findings of the present study could provide an empirical bases upon conflict management strategies adopted by the employees has styled to meet their needs of the industrial people.



THIS IS A SAMPLE | WE ARE PROFESSIONALS IN WRITING


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
TITLE
PAGE NO

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF CHARTS




           I
INTRODUCTION
1.1  Profile of Organization
1
3


II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
10
III
OBJECTIVES
12
IV
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
13
V
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
21
VI

FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

35
VII
SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
39
VIII
CONCLUSIONS
40
IX
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
41
X
SCOPE FOR THE FUTHER STUDY
42
XI
ANNEXURE
  1. Questionnaire
  2. Bibliography

          43
49

LIST OF TABLES

S.no
TABLE NAME
Page No
1
Distribution of respondents by their Qualification

21
2
Distribution of respondents by their Place of birth

22
3
Distribution of respondents by their Type of family

23
4
Distribution of respondents by their Designation

24
5
Distribution of respondents by their  Department

25
6
Distribution of respondents by their Name of federation

26
7
Distribution of respondents by their Perception of their conflict management strategies.

27
8
Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation between the
Age of the respondents, No. of children, No. of dependents, Work experience and their conflict management strategies.

29
9
Inter correlation matrix between the major sub dimensions.

30
10
Association between educational qualification and their conflict Management strategies.

31
11
Association between Monthly Income and their ccondlict management strategies.

33
12
Association between place of birth of the respondents and their conflict management strategies.

34

LIST OF CHARTS

S.no

CHART NAME

Page No
1
Education qualification of the Respondents

21
2
Place and birth of the Respondents.

22
3
Type of family

23
4
Designation of the respondents

24
5
Department of the respondents

25
6
Federation of the respondents

26
7
Level of conflict management of respondents

28

 

CHAPTER - I

INTRODUCTION


 “When two people in business always agree, one of them is unnecessary “ - W. Wrigley Jr. 
               In any business concern, the four factors of production are man, machine, material and money that are very important to achieve the goals of the organization. Among the four factors, man is the living being and the prior cause for the success of the organization than the other factors, So any organization consists of number of human resources who move towards achieving the organizational goals. Thus group effort is needed for the smooth running of any business. But when there is more than one person involving in an activity, it is very clear that there may be chances for conflicts among them. Conflict is inevitable and necessary for the growth of any organization though it is harmful sometimes.

When people with different backgrounds, temperaments, points of views, values, needs, personalities and attitude interact, it is likely that some type of conflict may arise. The conflict may also develop due to perceptual differences of an individual. It is a conscious awareness of occurrences, events or happenings in one’s surroundings which may be considered as threatening and derogatory such as loss of authority, role conflict, unequal or unfair treatment, status incongruities and goal differences. Conflicts may also be encouraged by actions, constraints and demands of the organization and responsibilities to be performed by the worker.


CONFLICT - MEANING
Conflict is a process in which an effort is purposefully made by one person or unit to block another that results in frustrating the attainment of the other’s goals or the furthering of his interests.

DEFINITION OF CONFLICT
“A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affects something that the first party cares about”
                                                                                                                             -   K.W.Thomas
           
“The struggle between incompatible or opposing needs, wishes, ideas, interests, or people. Conflict arises when individuals or groups encounter goals that both parties cannot obtain satisfactorily”.
-          Chung and Megginson

“Conflict has been defined as the condition of objective incompatibility between values and goals.”
-          Kilmann and Thomas

“Good human relations can prevent conflicts, whether they are between Individual and organisational objectives, between line and staff personnel, between one’s ability and authority etc…”
                                -  William R. Scott

TAMILNADU CEMENTS CORPORATION LTD

PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION

     M/S Tamilnadu cements corporation ltd [TANCEM] Regional office is functioning at 735, Anna salai, chennai-2. TANCEM’S Ariyalur unit was commissioned on 1st August 1979 and commercial Production commenced on 9th september,1979.

     TANCEM owned two cement units, one at Ariyalur and another at Alangulam. In addition to cements units TANCEM is having one Asbestos sheet unit at Alangulam. Asbets pressure pipe factory at Mayanur in Karur District and Stoneware pipe unit at Virudhachalam.

     TANCEM plant installed capacity of the cement plant is 5 lakhs tonnes per annum. It’s a modern dry process cement plant.

     The cement plant is located about 3 kms eat of Ariyalur on Kallakurichi road. Ariyalur is on broad gauge section of TIruchirapalli – Virudhachalam chord line of Southern Railways. It is well connected by road. Trichy is about 60kms south of west and Thanjavur is about 45kms south of Ariyalur.

     The raw materials used for the manufacture of cement are limestone, reversand and Gypsum. Limestone is the chief raw material for the process and it is available in plenty.
Since Ariyalur cement factory is Government owned plant the major consumer was TamilNadu Government. Nearly  80 to 85% of its Production was consumed by the Government departments, at a fixed price mutually agreed by the supplier and consumer.

     Now the policy is completely changed. There is no preferential purchase of cement from Tamilnadu cements. All departments of the Government of Tamilnadu has gone open tender system to purchase cement.

    In the above said circumstances, Tamilnadu Cements Corporation is to depend only on its dealers to sell most of its production in the open market. So for the cement plant was selling nearly so to 85% of its Production to the Government departments, it has not motivated the existing dealers and now the time has come to revitalize the dealers network to achieve maximum sales.
     The positive and negative attitudes of the dealer towards various aspects of ‘Arasu Cement’ can be studied. Based on the study we can improve the positive attitudes of the dealers and eradicate or minimize the negative aspects that will result in better sales.

     Ariyalur cement works, now delivers three types of cement viz., Grade-33,43 and Arasu super star cement. M/s Tamilnadu cements corporation Ltd., (Tancem) registered their brand name as ARASU CEMENT and TANCEM has a separate Trademark and Emblem to distinguish its products from others.

     The trademark ‘ARASU CEMENT’ symbolizes that the product is from Government Company, as Arasu is the Tamil name for Government.

     The cement is packed in two types of bags. They are paper bags and HDPP bags. They are attractive in appearance and safe to handle. Each bag is carrying 50 kgs of cement. Bureau of Indian Standards Specified +/- 200kgs weight difference per ten metric tones. Recently Ariyalur works has commissioned a new Electronic packer. It is having accuracy of +/- 50 Gms per bag. In addition to it all loaded lorries are weighed at the weigh bridge to ensure correct weigh to the consumer.

      The prices of the cement are highly fluctuation. There is a heavy competition in the field. Restricted credit facility is available to some stockiest, according to their performance level. The present cash discount system is as follows.

     Rs.10 per bag for advance payment (by means of DD/Cash). Detailed range of discount is furnished in the table given in the table.

Off –Take Discount Quantity Vs Discount Rates
Quantity
(In Metric tones)
Discount per Bag
0-20
Rs.2.00
21-50
Rs.2.50
51-100
Rs.2.75
101-200
Rs.3.00
201-300
Rs.3.50

Mode of Dispatch
     TANCEM is dispatching cement to the public/private parties by using two types of transports. One by Road transports and another by rail.

     The freight charges for all rail is some what higher than the road transport mode so the maximum  quantity is moved by road only, through lorries by authorized forwarding agents and the remaining quantity is moved by rail.
 
Marketing Network
     TANCEM has two regional offices, one at Trichy and another at Madurai and Six branch offices cum depots at Punalur(kerala), Pondicherry and Coimbatore.

      Recently in each district head  quarters and official is posted to look after the marketing activities in that district.

     There are about 250 dealers in Tamilnadu. As there are consignment agents only in Kerala, the dealers in Tamilnadu only are considered for this study.

      The dealers are appointed on the basis of their financial background, ability and go down facilities etc. To move cement through road transport forwarding agents are appointed. Those who are having their own fleet strength and field experience are considered for the appointment of forwarding agents.
 
DEPARTMENT OF THE TANCEM

1)      Personnel and Administrative Department
2)      Finance Department
3)      Technical
Ø  Plant
Ø  Kiln
Ø  Civil
Ø  Electrical
Ø  Instrumentation
4)      Auto Garage
5)      Mines
6)      Process & Quality Assurance
7)      Materials
8)      Purchase Department
9)      Sales Department
10)  Marketing Department

MAN POWER OF THE TANCEM

S.No

Category

No.of Employees

1.
Officers
148
2.
Staff
140
3.
Workers
320
Total
608
                        Source: Primary data collected from personnel department of TANCEM

     The man power planning is looked after by the administrative on department and the factory manager, is acting as an advisor in this matter. This department is to prepare man power plans for the optimum utilisation of the personnel employed in the TANCEM covering all categories of employees like technical, non-technical, official etc..

     TANCEM has total strength of 608 employees and is functioning on shift basis without any stoppage of machines during the normal conditions. The timing of the shift area as follows.

SHIFT TIMINGS OF THE TANCEM

A  Shift
12.00 P.M     to       8.00 A.M
B  Shift
 8.00 A.M      to       4.00 P.M
C  Shift
 4.00 P.M      to      12.00 A.M

                   Office hours:                9.30 a.m      to          5.00 p.m
           Source: Primary data collected from personnel department of TANCEM.

LEAVE AND HOLIDAYS         
                           Number and Nature of holidays

S.No

Nature of Holidays
No.of Days
1.
Government holidays
4
2.
Festival holidays
4
            Source: Primary data collected from personnel department of TANCEM.

     The government holidays are Republic day, Independence day, Gandhi Janyanthi and May day. The festival holidays are Deepavali, Pongal, Tamil New Year, Pooja holidays.


Cadres
Casual Leave
Medical Leave
Earned Leave
Officers
15 days
18 day
1/11
Staff
15 days
18 day
1/11
Workers
15 days
18 day
1/20
CEM

The management provides the following leave to their employees,

Casual Leave to the officers, staff and workers yearly 15 days.

 Medical leave to the officers, staff and workers yearly 18 days.

Earned leave to officers and staff are same. Also one day earned leave is  granted   for an every working  days.

In the case of workers the earned leave is granted 1day for an every 20working days. If a workers does not want to avail the leave and attends work on that particular religions day of his any religion he will be paid extra wages.
The employees are entitled to surrender 15 days to their earned leave year and paid for that period.
 
 
TRADE UNION

The eleven trade unions of the TANCEM are as follows:
  1. Desiya cement thozhilalar sangam [INTUC] Reg.No 335/TRI.
  2. Perambalur Mavatta cement Alai Thozhillargal Sangam [AITUC] Reg.No 398/TRI.
  3. Ariyalur cement Alai Uzhaipalar sangam [CITU] Reg.No TRI/427.
  4. Thozhilalar Munnetra sangam [DMK] Reg.No 1125/TRI.
  5. Anna Thozhilalar Munnetra sangam [ADMK] Reg.No 2941/CNI.
  6. Marumalarchi Thozhilalar Munnetra sangam [MDMK] Reg.No TRI/1080.
  7. Pattali Thozhilalar sangam Reg.No 756/88/TRI.
  8. Ariyalur cement Alai Mattrum surangam Dr.Ambedkar Thozhilalar sangam Reg.No 824/TRI.
  9. Nilamkodutha cement Thozhilalar sangam Reg.No 424/81/TRI.
  10. Ariyalur cement Alai Parivallal Thozhilalar sangam Reg.No 834/TRI.
  11. National cement employees Union. Reg.No 11/PLT.

NEED FOR THE STUDY

Every individual has his or her own viewpoints towards a similar issue. Hence, there is similar issue. Hence, there is enough and more scope for men who are interwoven in the organizational structure to enter into conflicts while working together. Thus conflict is inevitable whenever two or more human beings work together. For healthy and effective functioning of a human being in an organization one should be adept in handling conflicts. An in resolved conflict might trigger a along line of troublesome consequences for the person as well as to the organization. Hence it is imperative to study about the various techniques and strategies adopted by persons in conflict resolving strategies among the organizational supervisors. Therefore a scientific enquiry in this area is meaningful and essential. The present study is one such attempt.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

     This review of literature involves collection of some literature and works previously done in the same area and other related areas. By doing this the researcher can make a study to explore new dimensions in the same area and add to the body of knowledge..
Several approaches to conflict management have been proposed
Thibant and Kelly (1956) is there study that have mention of three problems associated with pressure tactics
The cost of surveillance over the other party’s behaviour.
    1. When threats punishment and rewards and
    2. The unpleasantness of having to capitulate when the other party is unknown.

Walton and Mckersie (1965)  Have used the term “integrative bargaining” which comes closes to what is referred to have as negotiation in integrative bargaining, new and better options are generated.

Thompson.V.A (1965) This however should not be surprising, since a review of the relationship between bureaucracy and innovation has found that conflict encourages innovative solutions.
Lawrence and Losch (1967) examined the effectiveness of various styles for handling conflicts and fond that each of these techniques was used in organisation to handle conflicts. The distinction was that the high performing used more.

Lewis and Pruitt (1971) found that when the bargainers placed heavy reliance on pressure tactics, it resulted in failure to reach and agreements.

Thomas (1976) has suggested two main dimensions of approaching conflicts, cooperativeness using a grid model. Three two dimension give strategies avoiding (low-low), accommodation (high-high) and compromise (medium-medium).

Cohen et al (1977) have described a problem-solving workshop as an international resolution based on intervention at the inter-group level and designed to provide inputs into policy processes.

Filley (1978) controlled power oriented methods with problem solving methods of conflict management. Filley calls the functional method of conflicts  resolution a “problem solving methods”. According to him problem-solving methods evoke intellectual intensity rather than emotional intensity or power.

Derr (1978) has argued in favour of a contingency approach. He has suggested their main strategies of conflict power play, bargaining and collaboration.

CHAPTER – III

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To study the socio-demographic characteristics of the employees.
  2. To analyze the various conflict resolving strategies.
  3. To find out the association or relationship between the  selected
      socio-demographic variables and conflict resolving strategies.
  1. To suggest suitable measures to overcome conflict in industries.

CHAPTER - IV

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


 Introduction                                                                                                                                     
     This chapter deals with the methodology adopted by the researcher for the study. The significance and  scope  of  the study  have been highlighted, the aim and objectives, hypotheses, research design, universe and sampling, pilot study, pre testing, tools of data collection, difficulties encountered by the researcher and limitations of the study have been explained.                                                    
Significance of the study
     Conflict in organization are inevitable. An accumulation of unsolved or poorly resolved conflicts can create diminished performance and low morale. The capability of members of an organization to bring up issues with others and resolve conflicts in a way that ensures both members share some ownership of the solution is critical.

     The management members develop tangible skills to effectively resolve conflicts by assuming that both parties needs are understood and that potential solution are created jointly. This shared ownership contributes to better solutions and increased commitment from both parties to implement the  mutually created solution. So all these depends on the management. The present study is an attempt to find the perception towards conflict-handling intention.

     Life without stimulus would be incredibly dull and boring. Life with too many stimulus becomes unpleasant and tiring ultimately damaging ones well being. Most people realize those aspects of their work and life style can cause conflict. While this is true, the researcher is interested to explore some of the socio-demographic factors such as years of experience, income, area of domicile,
 
Research Design
     As the researcher aims to study and describe the various aspects of conflict management strategies adopted by the employees and also seeks to find out the association if any with selected socio-demographic variables with regard to conflict management. Hence the researcher has adopted descriptive cum diagnostic research design.
 
 
Universe
     The universe of the present study includes all the employees working in different departments of TANCEM, Ariyalur namely
³   Personnel and Administrative Department
³   Finance Department
³   Technical
Ø  Plant
Ø  Kiln
Ø  Civil
Ø  Electrical
Ø  Instrumentation
³   Process & Quality Assurance
³   Auto garage
³   Materials
³   Purchase Department
³   Sales Department
³   Mines
³   Marketing Department
So the universe comprises of 608 employees.

Sampling method
     The researcher got the name list from the all department and by using it as a base, the respondents were selected. The researcher used simple random sampling method (lottery method) to select 120 respondents from the universe, where in the researcher gave an equal chance for all the  members to be included in the sample. The total sample size is 120.

Statistical Tools
            To arrange and interpret the collected data the following statistical tools were used.

            1. Percentage Method.
            2. Correlation
3. Chi-square.

1. Percentage Method:

            The percentage method was extensively used for findings various details. It is used for making comparison between two or more series of data. It can be generally calculated.
      
                                                               No. of respondents favorable                                    
            Percentage of Respondents =                                                                x 100
                                                               Total no. of respondents

2.      Co-Efficient Of Correlation
Karl Pearson’s Co Efficient Of Correlation
     It is the most widely used method of measuring the degree of relationship between two






 
r =    ∑ (Xi – X) (Yi – Y)
           n. σ x . σ y

  1. CHI-SQUARE

     Chi-square test is an important test amongst the several tests of significance developed by statisticians. Chi square is a statistical measure used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing a variance to a theoretical variances.

   2                                    2
X     = ∑   (O – E)
                                                                                         E
Pilot study
     The researcher made many visits to the TANCEM industry and discussed with the employees in the all department to findout feasibility of the study, from the suggestions expressed by the people of the all department the researcher found that it would be feasible to  conduct the study in the organization.

Pre-Testing
     In order to find out the accessibility and feasibility of the questionnaire the researcher did pre-test with five respondents to make it more practicable. Since the respondents did not find an difficulty in answering the questions there was no need to do modifications in the schedule.

Source of data collection
     The source of data collection is primary. The researcher collected the information directly from the employees. The information regarding the number of employees employed in the various departments were obtained with the use of register which is a secondary source.


Tools of data collection
     The researcher used standardized scale which was developed by Stephen Robins in the year 1991.  The questionnaire consists of 45 questions measuring three dimensions namely solution orientation, non-confrontational and control.  The questionnaire consisted of 59 questions which also includes 14 items as personal data.

 

   Data collection

     The researcher collected the data during the month of July 2006 using the  questionnaire method. It took almost three weeks for its completion. The respondents were contacted individually during their leisure hours and the data were collected. The aim of the study was briefly explained to them and they were assured about the confidentiality. Then the questionnaire was administered individually and was collected.
 
Scoring procedure
     There are 45 questions in the conflict management strategies inventory. Each statement is followed by seven points response mode. Each response mode is assigned a specific score.  There are three dimensions

Ø  Solution-oriented
(Questions:1,4,6,8,9,11,13,16,19,20,21,32,33,34,38,39,41,42,44)
Ø  Non-confrontational
(Questions: 2,5,7,12,14,15,23,24,25,27,28,29,40,45)
Ø  Control
      (Questions: 3,10,17,18,22,26,30,31,35,36,37,43)


The details of the scores are given below
            Response Mode                                                         Scores Assigned
            Always                                                                                    1
            Very often                                                                               2
            Often                                                                                       3
            Sometimes                                                                               4
            Seldom                                                                                    5
            Very seldom                                                                            6
            Never                                                                                      7

Ø  Lesser the score greater the conflict management abilities.
Ø  The reliability of the scale is 0.889
Ø  The researcher applied median test to categorize the conflict management strategies into two levels namely low and high.

DIMENSIONS

SOLUTION ORIENTED
     It refers to the conflict management strategies used by the respondents like collaboration and compromise.

Low solution oriented
     The score is upto 62 it is considered as low solution oriented conflict management.

High solution oriented
     If the score is 63 and above it is considered as high solution oriented conflict management.

NON – CONFRONTATIONAL
     It refers to the conflict management strategies used by the respondents through avoidance and accommodation.
Low Non-Confrontational
     The  score is upto 54 it is considered as low non-confrontational conflict management. 
High Non-Confrontational
     If the score is 55 and above it is consider as high non-confrontational conflict management .


CONTROL
     It refers to the conflict management strategies used by the respondents which is synonymous with competition.
Low control
     The score is upto 46 it is considered as low control conflict management.
High control
     If the score is 47 and above it is considered as high control conflict management.

OVERALL
Low
     The score is upto 169 it is considered as low overall conflict  management.
High
     If the score is 170 and above it is considered as high overall conflict management.

Conceptual definition
Conflict
     “The struggle between incompatible or opposing needs, wishes, ideas, interests, or people. Conflict arises  when individuals or groups encounter goals that both parties cannot obtain statisfactoly”.
-          Chung and Megginson


Strategy
     “Strategy refers to the basic goals and objectives of the organization, the major programmers of action chosen to reach these goals and objectives and major patterns of resource allocation used to relate the organization to its environment“.
                                                                                                                   -    Schendel and Hatten
Operational definition
Conflict
     In this present study conflict means that with in an individual when there is incompatibility between his own goals or events; between two groups in an organisations.

Worker
     A worker refers to a person employed in an organization who does not hold any position of a manager or an officer but one who uses the machines for the manufacturing process at TANCEM.

Staff
     It refers to a person who got any formal education and one who is not concerned with the operation, maintenance and use of machines for the manufacturing process but one who does clerical and supervisory works at TANCEM.  

Executive
     It  refers to person who got any formal education and does administrative works like leading, planning and controlling at TANCEM.

Solution oriented
     It  refers to the conflict management strategies used by the respondents like  collaboration and compromise.

Non-Confrontational
     It refers to the conflict management strategies used by the respondents through avoidance and accommodation.

Control
     It  refers to the conflict management strategies used by the respondents which is synonymous with competition.

Statistical Analysis
     The end result of the data collection is the accumulation of raw data, in a quantitative form, such data are then summarized and subjected to statistical analysis. Standard scoring procedure was adopted and data was analysed statistically by using the SPSS  [Statistical Package for Social Sciences].  For the quantitative data the researcher applied various tests like ‘t’-test, median test, correlation one way analysis and chi-square test to measure the degree of relationship and difference  of the data collected.

Difficulties Encountered

·         The researcher was not able to find some of the employees in their work spot due to their work schedule during the data collection process.
·         Therefore researcher waited for their leisure time and met the employees and personally got the questionnaire filled by them.  
·         The researcher found it difficult to travel such a long distance to the industrial sector from his place



CHAPTER -V
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Table: 1 Distribution of Respondents by their Educational Qualification

Sl. No
Educational Qualification

No. of Respondents
(N = 120)
Percentage
1
SSLC
36
30.0
2
ITI
28
23.3
3
Diploma
14
11.7
4
UG
30
25.0
5
PG
12
10.0

INFERENCE:

     It is inferred from the above table that 30 percent of the respondents are SSLC, 25 percent of the respondents are graduates, 23.3 percent of the respondent are ITI and more or less equal number of the respondent are Diploma (11.7%)and 10% of the respondents are PG.

Table: 2 Distribution of Respondents by their Place of Birth

Sl. No
Place of Birth
No. of Respondents
 (N = 120)
Percentage
1
Village
72
60.0
2
Town
42
35.0
3
City
06
05.0

INFERENCE:
     It is observed from the above table that more than half of the respondents (60%) are from village where as 35 percent of the respondents from Town and only few percent of the respondents (50%) come from city.

 Table: 3 Distributions of Respondents by their Type of Family
 
Sl. No
Type of Family

No. of Respondents
 (N = 120)
Percentage
1
Joint Family
32
26.7
2
Nuclear Family
88
73.3

INFERENCE:
      It is noted from the above table that great majority of the respondents (73.3%) are from nuclear family and only 26.7 percent of the respondents from joint family.
           

Table: 4

Distribution of Respondents by their Designation

Sl. No
Designation

No. of Respondents
 (N = 120)
Percentage
1
Workers
60
50.0
2
Staff
30
25.0
3
Executive
30
25.0

INFERENCE:

     It is found that half of the respondents (50%) are at worker, and equal member of the respondents (25%) are staff and executive.

 Table:  5 Distribution of Respondents by their Department

Sl. No
Department

No. of Respondents
 (N =120)
Percentage
1
Mines
10
08.3
2
Technical
56
46.7
3
Auto Carriage
08
06.7
4
Quality Control
11
09.2
5
Marketing
08
06.7
6
Finanace
15
12.5
7
Personnel and Administration
12
10.0

INFERENCE:

     It is seem from the above table that little less than half of the respondents (46.7%) are from technical department and more or less equal member of the respondents are from finance department (12.5%) personnel and administrative department (10.0%) and 09.2 percent from quality control, 08.3 percent from mines department and equal member of the respondents (6.7%) are from Auto carriage and marketing.
           
Table: 6 Distribution of Respondents by their Name of the Federation to which they belong

Sl. No
Name of the Federation
No. of Respondents
 (N = 120)
Percentage
1
Nil
26
21.7
2
INTUC
13
10.8
3
CITU
19
15.8
4
ADMK
23
19.2
5
DMK
24
20.0
6
TANCEM Officers Association
15
12.5

INFERENCE:

     It is noted from the above table that 21.7 percent of the respondents are not member of any association and move or less equal member of the respondents are DMK (20%), ADMK (19.2%), 15.8 percent are CITU, 12.5 percent are TANCEM officers association and 10.8 percent are INTUC.

Table: 7  Distribution of Respondents by their Perception of Conflict Management  
 Strategies

Sl. No
Various Dimensions of conflict Management Strategies
No. of Respondents
(N = 120)
Percentage
1
Solution Orientation

Low

Moderate

High




32

59

29




26.6

49.2

24.2
2
Non Confrontational

Low

Moderate

High



30

62

28




25.0

51.7

23.3
3
Control

Low

Moderate

High



31

57

32


25.8

47.5

26.7

4
Conflict Management Strategies
(Over all Total)

Low

Moderate

High






46

44

30







38.3

26.7

25.0

INFERENCE:

     It is evident from the above table that little less than half of the respondents (49.2%) have moderate level of solution oriented perception where as 26.6 percent of the respondents have low level of solution oriented attitude and 24.2 percent of the respondents perceive high level of solution oriented strategies.

     It is observed from above table  that more than half of the respondents (51.7%) have moderate level of non-confrontational strategies. Where as more or less equal number of the respondents perceive low (25%) high (23.3%) level of non-confrontational strategies.

     It is also seen from the table that little less than half of the respondents (47.5%) have moderate level of control where as more or less equal member of the respondents perceive high (26.7%), low (25.8%) level of control oriented strategies.      It is noted from the table that less than half of the respondent  (38.3%) perceive low level of conflict management  strategies with regard overall score. It is also clear that 26.7 percent of the respondents perceive moderate level of conflict management strategies and 25 percent of the respondents perceive high level of conflict management strategies with regard to over all score.

 Table: 8 Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation between the Age of the respondents, No. of Children, No. of Dependents, Work Experience, and their Conflict Management Strategies

Sl. No
Dimensions
Correlation Coefficients (N = 120)
Age
No. of Children
No. of Dependents
Work Experience
1.
Solution Orientation
-0.011
-0.025
-0.026
-0.056
2.
Non Confrontational
0.082
-0.072
-0.185*
0.102
3
Control
0.092
0.107
-0.013
0.094
4
Conflict Management Strategies
(Over all Total)
0.015
-0.017
-0.052
-0.024

*significant at 0.05 level
INFERENCE:
     It is noted from the table that there is no significant relationship between the age, No of children, work experience of the respondents and various dimensions of conflict management strategies and over all score.

     It is also no significant relationship between No. of dependents and solution oriented, control oriented and overall score of conflict management strategies.

     However there is a significant relationship between No. of dependents and non-confrontational of conflict management strategies.


Table: 9 Inter Correlation Matrix between the Major sub Dimensions

Dimensions
Solution Orientation
Non Confrontational
Control
Conflict Management Strategies
(Over all Total)
Solution Orientation
1.000



Non Confrontational
0.210*
1.000


Control
-0.002
0.390**
1.000

Conflict Management Strategies
(Over all Total)
0.971**
0.394**
0.204*
1.000


*significant at 0.05 level
** Significant at 0.01 level
INFERENCE:
The inter correlation matrix between the various dimensions of the conflict management strategies were drawn and significant correlation were found. A high level of positive correlation is seen between the various dimensions with their overall conflict management strategies. Where in as the solution oriented non-confrontational and control increased and the overall conflict management strategies also increases.
table: 10 Association between Educational Qualification and their Conflict Management Strategies
Sl. No
Educational
Qualification
Conflict Management Strategies
 (N =120)
X2
Low
Moderate
High

1.
Solution Orientation
SSLC
ITI
Diploma
UG
PG




13

09


01

06

03




15

15


09

17

03




08

04


04

07

06






11.597
df = 8
P >0.05
Not Significant


2.
Non confrontation
SSLC
ITI
Diploma
UG
PG




11

07

03

07

02





19

05

09

14

05





06

06

02

09

05






5.240
df = 8
P >0.05
Not Significant


3
control
SSLC
ITI
Diploma
UG
PG



09

06


05

08

03




17

16


04

14

06



10

06


05

08

03




3.132
df = 8
P >0.05
 Not Significant


4
Conflict Management (Total)
SSLC
ITI
Diploma
UG
PG






16

09

05

13


03






10

03

06

10


05








10

06

03

07


04








3.922
df = 8
P >0.05
Not Significant

           
INFERENCE:
     The above table shows that there is a no significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and solution oriented, non-confrontation, control dimensions of conflict management strategies and overall score.

Table: 11 Association between Monthly Income and their Conflict Management Strategies

Sl. No
Monthly Income
Conflict Management Strategies
 (N =120)
X2
Low
Moderate
High
1.
Solution Orientation
5000-10000
10001-15000
15001-20000
20001-25000



24

07

01

01



41

13

04

01



20

04

02

03




7.213
df = 6
P >0.05
Not Significant


2.
Non confrontation
5000-10000
10001-15000
15001-20000
20001-25000


20

07

02

01


45

13

03

01


20

04

02

02




2.747
df = 6
P >0.05
Not Significant


3
Control
5000-10000
10001-15000
15001-20000
20001-25000


20

08

03

00


43

10

02

02


22

06

02

02



4.263
df = 6
P >0.05
 Not Significant


4
Conflict Management (Total)
5000-10000
10001-15000
15001-20000
20001-25000



31

12

00

00



30

09

02

02



24

03

02

02




5.992
df =6
P >0.05
Not Significant

INFERENCE:
     The above table indicates that there is no significant association between monthly income of the respondents and solution oriented, non-confrontation control of conflict management strategies and over all score.

Table: 12
Association between Place of Birth of the respondents and their Conflict Management Strategies
Sl. No
Place of Birth
Conflict Management Strategies
 (N =120)
X2
Low
Moderate
High
1.
Solution Orientation
Village
Town
City




20

11

01





36

19

04





16

12

01






1.367
Df = 4
P >0.05
Not Significant


2.
Non confrontation
Village
Town
City



19

10

01




38

22

02




15

10

03





2.683
Df = 4
P >0.05
Not Significant


3
Control
Village
Town
City



18

12

01




36

18

03




18

12

02




0.862
Df = 4
P >0.05
 Not Significant


4
Conflict Management (Total)
Village
Town
City





31

14

01






23

18

03





18

10

02





20786
Df =4
P >0.05
Not Significant
INFERENCE:
     The above table shows that there is no significant association between the place of birth of the respondents and solution oriented non-confrontational, control of conflict management strategies and overall score.


CHAPTER - VI
 FINDINGS

FINDINGS RELATED TO SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES

*                 30% of the respondents are SSLC

*                 More than half of the respondents (60%) are from village.

*                 Majority of the respondents (73.3%) are from nuclear family.

*                 Half of the respondents (50%) are at workers.

*                 Little less than half of the respondents (46.7%) are from technical department.

*                 21 percent of the respondents are not member of any association

*                 Less than half of the respondents (38.3%) perceive low level conflict management strategies.

FINDINGS  RELATED TO RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Research hyposthesis-1

     There is a significant relationship between no.of dependents and non-confrontational of conflict management strategies.
Null Hypothesis
     There is no significant relationship between no.of dependents of the respondents and solution oriented, control oriented and overall score of conflict management strategies and the age, no.of children were experience of the respondents and various dimensions of conflict management strategies and overall score.
Findings
     Karl pearson’s co-efficient of correlation test was applied and significant positive correlation was found no.of dependent of the respondents in non-confrontational.                        
Hence Research hypothesis is accepted null hypothesis is rejected. (TABLE:8)

Research hypothesis-2
    Higher the adoption of solution oriented and non-confrontational strategies by the respondents higher will be their conflict management.



Null hypothesis
     There is no relationship between the solution oriented and non-confrontational strategies by the higher will be their conflict management.
Findings
     Inter correlation matrix test between was applied and significant was found in solution oriented and non-confrontation oriented strategies.
Hence Research hypothesis is accepted and null hypothesis is rejected.(TABLE-9)
Research hypothesis-3
     There is a significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and overall-score of conflict management strategies.
Null hypothesis
     There is no significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and overall score of conflict management strategies.
Findings
     Chi-Square test was applied and significant positive correlation was found educational qualification of the respondents.
Hence null hypothesis is accepted and the research hypothesis is rejected.(TABLE:10)

Research hypothesis-4
      There is a significant association between Monthly income of the respondents and overall-score of conflict management strategies.

Null hypothesis
      There is no significant association between Monthly income of the respondents and overall score of conflict management strategies.

Findings
     Chi-Square test was applied and significant positive correlation was found monthly income of the respondents.
Hence null hypothesis is accepted and the research hypothesis is rejected. (TABLE-11)
Research hypothesis-5
     There is a significant association between the place of birth of the respondents and overall-score of conflict management strategies.
Null hypothesis
     There is no significant association between the place of birth of the respondents and overall score of conflict management strategies.
Findings
     Chi-Square test was applied and significant positive correlation was found the place of birth of the respondents.
Hence null hypothesis is accepted and the research hypothesis is rejected.(TABLE- 12) 

FINDINGS RELATED TO VARIOUS DIMENSIONS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES.

·         There is a significant relationship between no.of dependents and non confrontational of conflict management strategies.
·         There is a significant higher the adoption of solution oriented and non-confrontational strategies by the respondents higher will be their conflict management.
·         There is a significant difference between type of family of the respondents with regard to their control oriented of conflict management strategies.
·         There is no significant relationship between no.of dependents of the respondents and solution oriented, control oriented and overall score of conflict management Strategies and the age, no.of children, work experience of the respondents and various dimensions of conflict management strategies and overall score.
·         There is no relationship between the solution oriented and non-confrontational strategies by the higher will be their conflict management.
·         There is no significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and overall conflict management strategies.
·         There is no significant association between monthly income of the respondents and overall score of conflict strategies.
·         There is no significant association between the place of Birth of the respondents and overall score of conflict management strategies.
·         There is no significant difference between the designation of the respondents with regard to the over all conflict  management strategies.
·         There is no significant difference between type of family of the respondents with regard to their control oriented of conflict management strategies.


CHAPTER VII
SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION

·         Training programmes can be organized based on interpersonal development.
·         Opportunities for overall development must be provided in different areas, such as technology, team work, personality etc..
·         Counseling programmes can be arranged to make the employees emotional independent.
·         The organization can organize programmes like meditation, yoga and other recreation programmes to their employees at different levels to reduce their job stress.
·         Considered difficult adverse are demanding job situations as inevitable part of the job to overcome the hardships.
·         Personality development programmes must be given to the employees to attain a uniqueness.
·         The organization can organize training programmes to their employees about the recent trends in industrial sector.
·         Don’t be rigid in the ways of functioning attitudes and decisions.
·         Employees must be motivated through monitory benefits as well as other welfare services.
·         The industrial social worker must be appointed to look on the labour problems.
·         The working conditions of the employees must be improved to enhance the turnover of the industry.
·         Workers participation must be encourage to have a overall conducive working milieu.
·         Trade unions must be strengthen based on the needs of the employees and numerous trade unions.
·         Grievance handling procedure must be properly adopted and rendered to the employees.

CHAPTER-VIII
 CONCLUSION
           
     Conflict is a part of everyday life of an individual or of an organization. Conflict has considerable influence on employee behaviour, performance and satisfaction. It also affects an organization’s effectiveness.
     Conflict is understood as a struggle between incompatible or opposing needs, wishes, ideas, interests or people. Conflict differs from competition. In competition one party does not try to frustrate the attempts of another, but it happens in conflict.
Energizing conflicting parties, promoting change and increasing organization effectiveness are some of the positive consequences of conflict.

1. CONFLICT IS UNVOIDABLE
     It is evident that conflict is inevitable and is integral of the nature of change. It is also important to understand that minimum level of conflict is optimal and if viewed positively is a vital factor to have a competitive edge in organizational functioning.

2. CONFLICT CAN BE USEFULL FOR ORGANISATION IF CONSTANT.         
     The attitude about conflict has changed overtime. Earlier, conflict was considered to be unnecessary and harmful. Now conflict is held to be inevitable and desirable.
           
Since conflicts are indispensable in an organization it becomes imperative that these conflicts are confronted than being avoided.           
           
The researcher has gained enriching knowledge on conflict management in industrial sectors. Which has made him to know the different style of handling conflict and strategies?







 

CHAPTER – IX


LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY



Ø  The researcher has included only the limited employees for the study and so it cannot be generalized to all other cadres.

Ø  The researcher has adopted only Conflict management strategies and was unable to concentrate on solution job stress related areas.

CHAPTER – X
SCOPE OF THE STUDY

     The present study attempts to find out the extent of conflict management strategies adopted by the employees in TANCEM, Ariyalur. The assessment has been made with reference to solution oriented, non-confrontational, control and also has focused on giving specific suggestions to improve the relations in industrial sector.
  
     It is hoped the findings of the present study could provide an empirical bases upon which conflict management strategies adopted by the employees has styled to meet their needs of the industrial people.

      It gives them the intricate details that they actually need to take their organization to greater      heights. It also helps them to  know where do they actually stand  what do they lack and they find it easier to improve upon themselves in a way they help their workman and their sub-ordinates in maintaining a problem free organization. This study helps the personnel department to identify the various tools and techniques and the type of training programme that are to be conducted for their employees.

CHAPTER – XI
ANNEXURE – I

QUESTIONNAIRE

Conflict Management  Strategies  Adopted by the Employees in
Tamil Nadu Cements Corporation Ltd.,

 

Personal Data

Age                                                                             :
Sex                                                                              :           Male / Female
Educational Qualification                                           :
Native background                                                     :           Village / Town / City
Marital Status                                                              :           Married / Unmarried
No. of Children                                                           :
No. of Dependence                                                     :
Type of Family                                                            :           Joint / Nuclear
Year of Experience                                                     :                                                          
Designation                                                                 :
Department                                                                 :
Monthly Income                                                         :
Are you member of any Association                          :
If yes, Specify the Name                                            :
1- Always       2-Very often               3-Often           4- Sometimes
5- Seldom       6- Very Seldom          7- Never

Encircle the appropriate one            :

1. I blend my ideas with my supervisor’s to
    create new alter native for resolving a
    disagreement.                                                          1          2          3          4          5          6          7         
2. I shy away from topics that are sources of            
    disputes with my supervisors.                                 1          2          3          4          5          6          7

3. I make my opinion known in a disagreement        
    with my supervisors.                                               1          2          3          4          5          6          7

4. I suggest solutions that combine a variety of        
    view point.                                                              1          2          3          4          5          6          7

5. I steer clear of disagreeable situations.                   1          2          3          4          5          6          7

6. I give in a little on my ideas when my
    supervisor    also gives in.                                        1          2          3          4          5          6          7

7. I avoid my supervisor when I suspect that
    he or she wants to discuss.                                      1          2          3          4          5          6          7

8. I integrate arguments into a new solution
    from  the issues raised in dispute with my
    supervisor                                                                1          2          3          4          5          6          7

9. I will 50-50 to reach a settlement with my                        
    Supervisor.                                                              1          2          3          4          5          6          7

10. I raise my voice when I am buying to get
      my supervisor to accept my position.                    1          2          3          4          5          6          7

11. I offer one creative solution in discussion of       
      disagreements.                                                      1          2          3          4          5          6          7

12. I keep quiet about my views in order to
      avoid the disagreement.                                        1          2          3          4          5          6          7

1- Always       2-Very often              3-Often           4- Sometimes
5- Seldom       6- Very Seldom          7- Never

13. I give in if my supervisor will meet me
      halfway.                                                                1          2          3          4          5          6          7

14. I down play the importance of
      disagreement.                                                        1          2          3          4          5          6          7

15. I reduce disagreements by making them
      seem  insignificant.                                               1          2          3          4          5          6          7

16. I meet my supervisor at a midpoint in our           
      differences.                                                           1          2          3          4          5          6          7

17. I dominate arguments until my supervisor           
      understand my position.                                       1          2          3          4          5          6          7
           
18. I suggest we work together to create
      solution to disagreements.                                    1          2          3          4          5          6          7

19. I try to use my supervisor’s ideas to
      generate     solution to problems.                           1          2          3          4          5          6          7

20. I assert my opinion forcefully.                              1          2          3          4          5          6          7

21. I offer made – off to reach solution in a              
      disagreement .                                                       1          2          3          4          5          6          7

22. I argue insistently for my stance.                          1          2          3          4          5          6          7

23. I with draw when my supervisor comforts
      me about controversial issue.                                1          2          3          4          5          6          7

24. I side step disagreements when they
       arouse                                                                   1          2          3          4          5          6          7

25. I try to smoother over disagreement by
      making them appear unimportant.            1          2          3          4          5          6          7

26. I insist my position be accepted during a 1          2          3          4          5          6          7
      disagreement with my supervisor.

27. I make our difference seem less serious.               1          2          3          4          5          6          7
  

1- Always       2-Very often               3-Often           4- Sometimes
5- Seldom       6- Very Seldom          7- Never

28. I hold my tongue rather than argue with my       
      supervisor.                                                             1          2          3          4          5          6          7


29. I case conflict by damning our difference
      are trivial.                                                              1          2          3          4          5          6          7

30. I stand firm expressing my view points
      during a disagreement with my supervisor.          1          2          3          4          5          6          7


31. I argue my case with my co-workers to
      show  the merits of my position.                           1          2          3          4          5          6          7

32. In negotiate with my co-workers so that a          
      compromises can be reached.                                1          2          3          4          5          6          7
33. I try to satisfy the expectation of my
      co-workers.                                                           1          2          3          4          5          6          7

34. I try investigate an issue with my
      co-workers to find a solution acceptable
      to us.                                                                     1          2          3          4          5          6          7

35. I am firm in pursuing my side of the issue.           1          2          3          4          5          6          7

36. I attempt to avoid being “put on the sport”
      and try to keep my conflict with my co
      workers to myself.                                                1          2          3          4          5          6          7

37. I hold on to my solution to a problem.                 1          2          3          4          5          6          7

38. I use “given and take” so that compromise
      can  be made.                                                        1          2          3          4          5          6          7

39. I exchange accurate information with my
      co-workers to solve a problem together.               1          2          3          4          5          6          7

40. I avoid open discussion of my difference
      with my co-workers.                                             1          2          3          4          5          6          7


41. I accommodate the wishes of my
      Co-workers.                                                          1          2          3          4          5          6          7

1- Always       2-Very often               3-Often           4- Sometimes
5- Seldom       6- Very Seldom          7- Never

42. I try to bring all our concerns out in the
      open so that the issues can be solved in
      the possible way.                                                   1          2          3          4          5          6          7

43. I propose a middle ground for breaking
      dead  locks.                                                           1          2          3          4          5          6          7

44. I go along with my suggestions of my                 
      co-workers.                                                           1          2          3          4          5          6          7

45. I try to keep my disagreement with my               
      co-workers to myself in order to avoid
      those hard feelings.                                               1          2          3          4          5          6          7

ANNEXURE – II

BIBLIOGRAPHY
·         Aswathappa.K, 1999, Organisational Behaviour, Himalaya PublishingHouse, Bombay.
·         Fisher.K and Rayner.S, 1995, Tips for Teams, TATA McGraw Hill Book Company, New Delhi.
·         Ghosh.P.K, 2000, Strategic Planning and Management, Sulthan Chand and sons, New   Delhi.
·         Kothari.C.R, 2003, Research Methodology, Wishwa Prakashan Publishers, New Delhi.
·         Luthans Fred, 2002, Organisational Behaviour, TATA McGraw Hill publichers Ltd, New Delhi.
·         Ramaswami.N, 1997, Organisational Behaviour, Chennai.
·         Robins Stephen, 1997, Organisational Behaviour, Prentice Hall of India Ltd, New Delhi.
·         Sekaran Uma, 2000, Organisational Behaviour, TATA McGraw Hill publichers Ltd, New Delhi.
·         Tripathi.P.C, 2004, Personnel Management and Industrial Relations, Sulthan Chand and sons publishers, New Delhi.

Journals
·         Morshima.M and Belsheim.J.A [1997] - International Journal of Conflict Management.
·         Tjosvold.D [1982] - Journal of Applied Psychology.

Website
·               www.google.com
·               www.gordontraining.com
·               www.education_world.com
·               www.conflictatwork.com
·               www.workteams.unt.com
·               www.tancem.com

Share on Google Plus

Declaimer - MARTINS LIBRARY

NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin