LITERATURE REVIEW OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING, LEARNING, BUSINESS

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
            Literature review is one of the most essential aspects of any research work. It enables both the researcher and the reader to make critical incursions into the vital realms of the subject matter. This is why a wider and greater expansion of knowledge is created which facilitates a greater understanding of the issues at hand.
            In our effort to review the subject of instructional materials and teaching vis a vis the impact on secondary school students, the work shall be organized along the following headings:



BUY THE COMPLETE WORK: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN IMO STATE

Conceptual Framework
Instructional materials can be considered as consciously planned programme for the improvement and consolidation of instruction and for effective teaching and learning.
            Ughammadu (1992) defined instructional materials as the resources that the teacher and students uses to influence the effectiveness of teaching and earning process. It is the creative use of probability of the students which will make them learn and improve their performance of the skills that are to develop.
            Nnoli (1988), stated that Instructional materials as the resources that the teacher and students uses to influence the effectiveness of teaching and learning process. It is the creative use of probability of the students which will make them learn and improve their performance of the skills that are to develop. Further more, Instructional materials or teaching aids means, materials aid the teaching of a subject. This does not do the whole teaching in its own only but by the methods. It is been administered by the model and controlled by the model which is the teacher who directs and control.
            It is an intrinsic part of the teaching and learning process. The achievement of the aims and objectives of education depends primarily on instructional materials.          Kay (1971), instructional materials are things which are intended to help the teacher to teach more effectively, or better skill which enable the pupils to learn moral readily. Egwu (2008) defined instructional materials as audio visual materials or as innovations in teaching and learning. This involves the use of human effort, appropriate choice design and utilization of objects to ensure effectiveness. Equally, it is defined as anything (Human effort, Hardware, software, improved materials) used to satisfy the educational means of the learners. It is an instructional device or technique or an expert brought into teaching and learning interaction to facilitate sharing of experience, knowledge skills, attitudes and value.
            Akpan (1987), instructional materials are however alternative channels of communication used by adult educators to concretize teaching of subjects, problem concept and educational objective to ensure better understanding. Again, the use of instructional technology increases students interest and satisfaction.
            Oshibodu (1984) sees instructional materials as materials used to facilitate teaching and learning by way of saving instructors, time and effort by a way of capturing learners interest, a means of promoting effective retention of subject matter learned, a way of keeping students baby, active and a way of stimulating imagination.
            Kofar (1999) defines teaching resource materials as veritable channels in the classroom. Instructions given in form of practical work improve the learners level of understanding. There are the resources that the teacher uses in presenting his lesson so that the students can easily understand what is being taught. It is a means of making teaching and learning process more meaningfully, effective, productive and understandable. The end result is the attainment of educational goals.
            Eya (2004), instructional materials stimulate teachers interest, help both the teacher and learners. To overcome physical limitation system of the teaching and learning process. As a system, it cannot be separated from classroom teaching, otherwise, it could paralyze the entire system or  process when neglected. The use of instructional resources is often bogged by teaching problems such as inadequate materials, economic recession and un-relatedness of the educational resources; the student population explosion and accessibility of local materials network.
            Okorie (2010), improvisation is the sourcing, selection and deployment of relevant instructional elements of the teaching and learning process in the absence or shortage of standard teaching and learning resources for meaningful realization of specified educational goals and objectives. It is the act of using materials obtainable from the local environment or design by the teacher or with the help of local personnel to enhance instruction. Most of the teachers still do not teach with instructional resources on the excuses that they are not available.
            Emezie (2010), stated that Instructional materials include those materials and services used in learning situations to supplement the written or spoken words in the transmission of knowledge, attitude and ideas. It is a material that facilitates teaching and learning activities and consequently the attainment of the lesson objectives. It helps in making teaching and learning real and meaningful.

Impact of Instructional Materials on Students
            Ewudo (2009), stated that instructional materials help students to improve in their learning procedure. Through the use of instructional material, skills are developed. It help students range of experiences and to achieve their desired aim.
            Urom (2010), stated that Instructional materials stimulate students desire to learn. It equally assist the student learning process by making assimilation and memorization of materials easy and help to hold attention as well as longer retention of information.
            Ogbu (2006), stated that instructional material develop students ideas through the creation of events and objectives which will improve the students continuity of thought. Equally, instructional material facilitates, stimulates and aids students to take active interest in the subject under study. It improves the emotional instruct of students by providing them with the required knowledge. Students by providing them with the required knowledge. It improve students from understanding the working model introduced by the teacher. The student captures the true picture of what is taught by the teacher. In presenting subject content and motion pictures, instructional material plays an efficient role by making sure students captures the main points or the subject matter. Patterson (1977), stated that instructional material is instrumental to impacting positively to the students survival and choice of career in tertiary institution. It improves students attitudes, skills and knowledge.
            Weston (1952), stated that instructional material help students attain to his high level of effective development through the use of appropriate instructional objectives and use of material. Students who manifest a lot of inconsistencies in their behaviours are those who are not able to attain enough development in this aspect of the affective domain.
            Ukpata (2005), stated that Instructional material took into account the background material took into account the background of student in the secondary schools. It adequately modify students by providing instructional media together with sound institution management techniques.
Impact of Instructional Materials on Teachers performance
            Hitchens (1963), stated that Instructional material help to improve the intellectual power of the teacher. As the teachers studies the instructional materials it will help to build their intellectual power and help them to impact the knowledge on students.
            Ani (2006), stated that Instructional materials help the teacher in presenting the subject matter effectively before the students. This is because before the teacher could come to the class, teacher will study the subject and prepare a lesson note. He will study the lesson note before coming a lesson note. He will study the lesson note before coming to the class. In the end, it help the teacher flow very well before the students.
            Abdullahi (2008) stated that Instructional material help teachers to make use of the working model. In this case, the teacher will be properly organized in impacting the actual course content to students. Teacher using instructional materials efficiently will help the students perform well in external examinations and compete favorable with their competitors from other schools. A teacher who fails to teach according to the instructional materials will be making the students tired, but because the teachers makes use of the approved instructional material, it paves way for the students to learn excellently.
            Orumbata (2004) stated that Instructional material help teachers in improving their skills and widening of their knowledge. This is because the teacher is closed with the teaching apparatus and when studied it, can experiment it before the students such that all will understand the teacher. Instructional material also help the teacher to study a head of time. This help the teacher to memorize what is meant to teacher in the class and will be ready to entertain any question from the students where by the student is confused and not following the trend again.
            Chima (2009) Instructional material help the teacher to have better understanding with his students. In this case, students would be very proud of their teacher and goes to the teacher even after teaching to obtain from the teacher the area they failed to understand in their previous class. The teacher will as well calmed down to explain to the student in the language the student will understand.
            Oluwate (2010), Instructional material improves teachers creativeness. As the teacher studies according to instruction he assimilates easily what knowledge to impact to students. The best method to achieve this scope and this will definitely improve his creativeness and may lead the teacher to another level greater than where the teacher expects.
            Adewale (2011), instructional material will help the teacher to hold students attention in the class. This  because students believe in their teacher who teachers objectively as it will help students understand the  mechanism of learning.
            Ugwu (2008), Instructional material help the teacher to control the pace of learning. As the teacher goes into the class, the students wait for his approach. If the teacher is flowing very well, the entire class will be clamed and every student will open the listening ear. The students and teacher may not know that they have exceeded the time needed for that lesson.
Challenges Faced by Students on Impact of Instructional Materials
            The education sector has been played by various problems while undermined its optimal development over the years. In general terms, the education sector of the Nigeria economy faced (and still faces some of) the following problems:
1.         Public Control and Bureaucracy
            Orji (2003), the post primary schools management board (PPSMB) is controlled by the Education ministry. It lacks autonomy, as a result of which decision taking is often bureaucratic and unnecessarily delayed. Therefore, the operation to the education ministry is characterized by inefficiency. To this end, most instructional materials believed to have been sent to schools are lairs. Media will announce that instructional material have been sent to all the secondary schools whereas most schools will not receive it.
2.         Poor Funding of Schools:
            Agom (2011), poor funding of schools have affected the rate of students learning. The government should endeavour to pay attention to students instructional material to enable the teachers impact the meaningful knowledge required by students. The delay in providing the materials even when the ministry have provided it affects the students.
3.         Employment techniques:
            Aruka (1998); The employment technique in the education sector is biased. Most of the teachers are sub-standard and claims not to have instructional material meant for teaching of students. The ministry should interview thoroughly the applicants before employing them. This will help the ministry to have teachers who are challenging and who are willing to deliver the services. To this end, students will be glad to bend down and learn and, as well compete favourably among themselves.
4.         Corruption:
            Patrick (2011), corruption is everywhere and this affects the teaching pattern in our educational sector. Even when the instructional materials are provided, what most principal does is to package it and sale to those private schools and use the money for their private predicaments. As teachers and students awaits for the instructional materials to guide them in teaching and learning, the principal keeps telling them one reason or the other and this affects students method of learning and teachers means of impacting the knowledge.
5.         Students Inability to Listen to Teaching
            Omebe (2001), modern students are not interested in learning. Even when the instructional materials are not ready, the teacher can decide to make use of the old materials the students may prefer staying out of teaching. This affects students method of earning.

BUY THE COMPLETE WORK: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN LAGOS STATE


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