THE CAUSES OF STUDENT UNREST IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
A STUDY OF SANGA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE
1.1 Background to the Study
For some years now students’ activities or unrest has become a permanent feature of our schools, especially in the University. Like the strike actions by teachers, students’ unrest has from time to time led to the loss of sizeable proportion of the school year. In some instances, whole academic sessions have been lost because of the unrest in our schools. Odo, Ede and Ezike (2000). In line with the above assertion, Aguene (1999) noted that students’ unrest has been on the increase in recent years in the University or Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education. According to him, students’ unrest is a social or political situation in which people protest and tend to behave violently.
In his own view, Okadigbo (1998) defined students unrest as a psychological and physical conditions or demonstrations that arrest public attention or dramatize the condition between the students and the authorities Hart (2000) observed that students unrest in society is a social act which has to do with the demonstration by the students as a result of inadequate management by the authority. Hart further stage in human life. According to him, it can take place even in the family, school, church and society at large.
According to him, Nwogu (1992), the schools is on the increase and many people are becoming worried due to its effects in Nigeria. He noted that students unrest have claimed life and properties resulting to disruption of academic programmes, payment of damages by parents of the students unable to finish their secondary education within the given period.
Students’ unrest in our secondary schools are brought about by many factors such factors as identified by Aguene (1999) includes civil rights activities, renewed interest in political affairs, educational reform and social restriction upon the students’ individual behaviour.
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Akukwe (1998) posited that students’ unrest is likely to occur when certain demand of the students are turned down. In some cases as Akukwe further stated students’ protests and demonstration facilities improvement or challenges. In line with the above, Adibe (1997) opined that students’ protests and demonstration are ways of getting attention denied them at home, at school and even the society at large.
In his own view, Aguene (1998) noted that following causes of students’ unrest in schools, exploitation of student, inadequate facilities in schools, lack of proper management, autocratic system of leadership in school as well as insecurity of the students.
Students unrest has debilitating effects on the standard of education as noted by Odo et al (2002), the leadership potential of our tomorrow’s leaders are modeled in the school environment and if our young stars should be taken to the streets in the violent demonstration if simply means that the future of our great nation is black.
It was also observed by Nwogu (1998) that students unrest has resulted to the destruction of laboratories, libraries and even burning down of schools’ building beyond repair which is likely to affect many people as well as the academic calendar. In the heights of the above effects of students unrest and many others that have been left out for reasons of time and space.
The standard of education in Nigeria as noted by Odo et al (2000), has been on a steady decline. They went further to state that there is no doubt that a lots needs to be done to correct this ugly situation.
To get rid of this trend, Onum (1993) pointed out that the government should provide adequate infrastructures to schools such as laboratories, libraries, classroom, sport facilities etc. In line with the above assertion, Aduia (1998), maintained that there should be provisions of conducive teaching and learning environment that facilitates learning and enhance the attainment of educational objectives. He equally stated that guidance services should be introduced in schools to reduce the incidence of unrest among the students. All these strategies appear to be lacking in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kadunna State with a view to improving or promoting academic excellence among the students.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is a serious concern about the falling standard of education owning to increase students’ unrest in our secondary schools. According to Odo et al, sizeable proportion of the school year or even a while session have been lost because of unrest in our schools and this has a debilitating effects on the standard of education.
Students’ unrest as a matter of facts have claimed many lives and properties in our school today. School principals, teachers etc, are being wounded or even killed in some instances. Even parents suffer payment of damages done by their children during or after demonstration. It is high time the government as well as private individuals and organizations rose to their responsibilities because if nothing is done to correct this ugly situation, more damages will be done to our education standard. The result will be the production of graduates who cannot defend their certificates.
It is based on this background that the researcher is motivated to investigate the causes of students’ unrest in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State with a view to evolving ways of controlling students’ unrest in secondary schools in the areas.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to find out the causes of students unrest in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State specifically the study is designed to:
1. Find out the extent to which lack of teaching staff leads to poor performance of students in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
2. Find out the extent to which mismanagement of school fund and properties leads to students’ unrest in secondary schools in Government Area of Kaduna State.
3. Find out the extent to which lack of basic facilities in schools leads to students unrest in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
4. Find out the effect of students unrest on academic performance of students in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government of Kaduna State.
5. Find out the ways of controlling students’ unrest in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Incidence of students’ unrest in secondary school have made several headlines in our national dailies. This shows that the wave of students’ unrest is on the increase. The researcher is therefore motivated to carry out this study in order to find out the causes of students unrest in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government of Kaduna State.
The study will be significant to students, teachers to find the situation to promote academic excellence.
The result of the study will also help students to know the adverse effects of students unrest on them and their academic programmes. It will help them to develop good report with the school authority and resort to peaceful move in setting their differences through this; the goals/objectives of educations will be achieved without much job.
Since, the study aimed at identifying and finding solutions to the causes of students’ unrest in secondary schools, parents and the government start the benefit of saving the money with which they pay for damages done by the students.
The study will also be of immense benefit to guidance and counselors who from the result of the study, will find out the causes and consequences of students unrest. They will device a rightful approach to such situation instill in the students a sense of work and responsibility. The students will also serve as a stepping stone to other researchers who would to carry out a study in other relevant areas.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study focused on analysis of students unrest causes, effects and control. The study also sough to find out how lack of teaching staff as well as performance in secondary schools. The study also –X-rayed the extent the extent to which lack of facilities and mismanagement of school funds and properties lead to unrest in school. The study evolved ways if controlling students’ unrest in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.6 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide the study-:
1. To what extent does lack of teaching staff lead to poor performance of students in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
2. To what extent does mismanagement of school fund and properties leads to students’ unrest in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
3. To what extent in schools lead to students’ unrest in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
4. What are the effects students unrest on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State?What are the ways of controlling students’ unrest in secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
This chapter dealt with the method employed by the researcher in the collection or gathering of information for the study. It is discussed under the dowelling sub-headings design of the study area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrument for date collection, validation of instrument, method of data collection data collection and method of data analysis.
3.1 Research Design
The design of the study was a descriptive survey. This according to Madubum (1999) is one that is directed toward determining the nature of situation as it exists at the time of the study or in other words, it determines the present status of given phenomenon.
3.2 Area of the Study
The area of the study in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State. It made up of fourteen secondary schools. The secondary schools, are stated as follows:-
1. Special science Igbeagu
2. Community secondary school Iboko
3. Boys secondary school Iboko
4. Ezza Inyimagu Community Secondary School Enyigwe
5. Ezza Inyimagu Community Secondary school Iziogo
6. Community Secondary School Nwofe
7. Ndiegu Agbaja Community Secondary school
8. Queen’s Secondary School Nwofe
9. Vocational Secondary School Nwofe
10. Aqunas Secondary School Sharon
11. John Calvin Secondary School Sharon
12. Twelve apostles secondary school Sharon
13. Holy child secondary school Sharon
14. Ndeze community secondary school
3.3 Population of the Study
The population of this study is made up of four thousand two hundred made and female students of fourteen public secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area.
The population compressed of boys secondary schools, girls secondary schools and mixed secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area. The contribution is as follows. Boys secondary schools have one thousand students, girls secondary schools have one thousand three hundreds and mixed secondary schools have one thousand nine hundred students.
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
The population was sampled using random techniques. The number of the students within the fourteen secondary school was too large so the researcher decided to use 5% of the entire population which is for hundred and ten students randomly sampled from the fourteen public secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
3.5 Validation and Reliability of the Instrument
A draft of the questionnaires was first presented to the project supervisor who made the necessary corrections based on the language, content and structure. The instrument wad equally presented to two senior lecturer in the educational field. These lecturers vetted each items in terms of adequacy of instrument and sentence structure.
Based on their comment and suggestions some of the original items were dropped meanwhile the idea and suggestions of those expected were incorporated in the final questionnaires shown in the appendix II methods of administration and data collection.
The copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the students (respondents0 in their respective schools by the researcher and four (4) secondary schools in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
Each respondent complied by filling the questionnaires while the researcher waited to collect after completion none of the questionnaires was lost.
3.6 Method of Data Collection
The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire designed by the researcher. It contained items divided section A, B, A and D which the respondents are expected to indicate by ticking the extent he or she agreed with each statement made, the scale is strongly agree (SA) of Agree (A) Disagree (D) or strongly disagree (SD). It was a twenty filed items questionnaire 1-15 in section (a) was structured to elicit information on the extent. To which students unrest in secondary schools. In section B, item 6-10 sought information on the extent to which mismanagement of school funds and properties lead to students unrest in secondary schools section C, through items 11-15 elicit information on the extent to which lack of basic facilities in the schools leads to unrest in secondary schools. Items 16-20 in section D, sought information in the effects of students’ unrest on the academic performance of students in secondary schools.
Finally, items 21-25 in section E sought information on ways of controlling students’ unrest in secondary schools.
3.7 Method of Data Analysis
The researcher questions were answered on individuals items basis using mean, standard deviation and frequently distribution to analyze the data collected. The means used for decision rule is 2.5 a means of 2.5 and above was accepted while a means below 2.5 was rejected. 4 points modified like; 4 scale was used thus: strongly Agree (SA) 4 points, Agree (A) 3 point, Disagree (D) 2 point and strongly Disagree (SA) 1 point.
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