LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Literature Review (Empirical Literature)
In this section, attempt is made to review the existing literature on the aged and factors that are associated with the aged as a social category. The review will summarize the literature under the following sub-heading.
1. Historical perspective of the aged.
2.1.1 The Concept of Aged:
According the Rogers (1979) in every social system, people are classified according to their age or sex.These distinctions are one of the bases for the differentiation of social roles in most social structure and societies are generally classified in line with these category, via children, youth and aged, however, the author stressed that definition of people as old is arbitrary and varies from one society to another as well as from time to time within a given social system.
Therefore, aging implies chronological advancement in year coupled with physical incapacitation as a result of “wear and fear” of the body from daily activities. Kessler (1976) defined aged as the developmental stage in emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspect of an individual personality.
THIS IS A SAMPLE | WE ARE PROFESSIONALS IN WRITING
At Martins Library, We provide Informative Materials for Writing Books, Projects, Seminars, Journals, Articles, Proposals, Feasibility Study Etc For Business And Educational Purposes.
From this definition, it is obvious to state that for a person to be regarded as aged, his emotional, cognitive state of mine and behavioral pattern must have been loosed or pattern less. Although this definition could be fraught with distortion of reality since the definition of age goes beyond psychological interpretation, therefore a more liberal interpretation will be preferred. For bailey (1976), signs of approaching old age are easily identifiable. For instance the death and degenerative illness of a relative or close friend approximately of the same age, an increase in aches and pains. From this definition, provision attempt is shifted to symbolic interpretation of achieving the states of aged, but the definition is faulty because the rational for this approach restrictive to sign of actualizing the status of aged. Palmour (1978) focused on the visible aspect of aging. To him, physical and individual body does not age in homogenous fashion because it may decline sooner than others. However, his exposition seems to be interesting but has failed to include both psychological and social aspect of tracing the basis of aged he attention on the process of systematically stereotyping and discriminating against people simply because they are old. They stressed that older people are often viewed as inflexible in thought and manner senile, and old-fashioned in their skills and morality. Moron, the scholars equally described ageism as against people simply because they are old just as racism and sexism applies in relation to skill colour and gender. However, this expression can also be perceived to be fraught over generalization since rigidity and senility is not enough to describe the position of the aged. Hay flick (1984) opinioned that aging cannot be considered to begin when there is any simple biological change occurrence in the human, for instance the turning of hair into grey do not seems to prove that an individual is aging, rather beings when there is a determinant of longevity and assurance genes cases to function although hayflick has neglected other ingredients of getting to older stage such as emotional and cognitive disabilities Rogers (1979), also opined that the aged are discriminates against in many areas that affect their wellbeing and life style for example, many employers discriminated against their living and he emption. Also many medical personnel’s prefer treating the youth than the elderly. Some avoid the elderly by not feeding them as well as not medicating them. Be that as it may. Oyeneye (1990) stressed that there is no universally accepted definition of the concept aged. This is one starts is because there is no universally accepted criteria for defining certain category of people as old or aged. But it is pictured that the aged are a social category founded in every human society.
2.1.2 Reasons for Studying the Aged
According to Adegbuyi (1995), one will straight forwardly said that we study the aged so as to know them find out their needs and see what can be done to bring their needs to their grip. But the author stressed that the answers go beyond this, although these points make sense, the answers will sound more scholar if one starts by identifying this group of persons as a social problem. This group of persons aged the aged have become a problem for study because of the following:
1. the growing population of the aged and
2. the social cost of the aged and
3. ideological consideration
2.1.3 Cultural Roles of the Aged
John (1985) says in African society, the aged play significant cultural roles. There are indeed very functional therefore their cultural roles which are very essential for the continuity of the society cannot be overlooked. According to the author, some of the roles played by the elders in Africa society include the following
1. Advisory roles
2. integration role
3. Political role
4. Transmission of knowledge and skills as well as
5. The religious role
2.1.4 Privileges an Obligate one of the aged in African Society
According to Oyenye (1990), prior to the influence of western culture in Africa society, the aged had several privileges which were associated with their status. One of such privileges was the right to received obeisance from younger persons who in some groups squatted or knelt to greet them. He further states that another privilege enjoyed by the aged was freedom from the criticism of others while they themselves freely criticized and admonished others,
Furthermore, the aged in African society had the privilege of sending other persons on errands for themselves. In addition in societies in which gerontocracy existed, older men especially if they are affluence or title, had more access to beautiful woman than younger uninfluential man. Also, the aged especially family heads or elders had privileged access to motional resources like certain kinds of food and special portion of meat which was presented first to them before younger persons could take their shared. Perhaps, one of the greatest privilege which the aged enjoyed was the expectation that they will be well looked after old age and that their medical and societal needs will be fully met. However, the author established that the aforementioned privileges of the aged were accompanied by certain obligations such obligation include teaching the young and initiated adjudicate fungi conflicts and guards between family and community members, and counseling persons in emergencies an crises as well as normal times.
2.1.5 The needs of the aged.
According to Leonard (1984), no one ever dies of “old age” there is no such diseases, all according to the America medical association. Yet, almost invariably, aging results in physical changes in the individual. For the author, about 75 percent of the elderly have suffered one or more chronic illnesses by age 75. among the more common ailments are the same diseases that affect younger peoples cardiac diseases, hypertension, asthma, diabetes arthritis as well as the disables usually associated with old age age-loss of heaving, impartial eyesight, mental disorders, including senility and disabilities resulting from accidents, particularly falling which accounts for the hospitalities of percents of the elderly. However, for clarity, the author categories the need of aged in the following heading social, economic and psychological.
2.1.6 Modernization and the Problems of the aged.
According to Vern and Haber (1978), the impact of modernization industrialization and the accompanying strong western influence have brought about changes in the structure of African society. Thus, this phenomenon has also brought about changes in the structure and socio-economic functions of the family. In fact, now in African society, the modernization process is directing attention towards the establishment of European and America social structure. However, the forgoing have serious implications for the general attitude toward the aged. Increasingly, people are beginning to see old age as an age of increasing tension and insecurity. Also, as society terms to forget or to discount the contribution of its past heroes, so also peoples are becoming factory about the prospects of growing old. Also the engagement in work activity far way from home has led to the increase isolation of the aged and the attention health problems often wrongly attributed to the aging process. Finally, the neglect or at least, the reduced respect accorded the wisdom and experience of the aged is increasingly cutting them off from participation in important interests and activities of the society, thereby resulting in the loss of the sense of significant membership of the society. Kimmel (1974) agreeing with the above discussion established that it is obvious that rather than alleviating the which the aged in African society, modernization has brought about the evocated of certain problems of the aged in Africa society did not experience prior to contact with the western culture.
The author was able to outline the problems of the aged as follows:
1. health care
2.1.7 Social Security and the Aged
Social security according to Charles (1963) is a programme of protection provide by social legislation against sickness unemployment, death of wage earner old age or disability, dependency and accidents. (Contingencies against which the individual cannot be expected to project himself). From the definition above, social security is a programme of protection and helps initiated by public legislations. It is geared towards proving for the sick, disabled, unemployment and the employed aged and destitute. Social society is thus a welfare programme. It exists in every society but differs in coverage, emphasis and even in implementation.
2.2 Review of Relevant Theories.
In order to understand the aged and social society, a review of theories that are relevant in explaining the phenomenon of old age now becomes necessary.
Age Stratification Theory
The principal predict of the theory is that every society has a hierarchy of age sets with each stratum having particular social determining roles’ duties and privilege.
A major good point of this is the specification factor in understanding the social standing of and individual including the aged. The theory is of the opinion that in every society, there is a role discharged according to age set.
The theory goes further to say that old age is associated with knowledge and wisdom. Thus, the number of years a person lives gives him wealth of experience which increases his wisdom; the aged person knows the law and tradition of his society which makes him distinguishes.
A major limitation of this theory is the fact that introduces the aged into the age structure by acknowledgment. This neglect limit the unit of the theory in the context. It has also been suggested that the nature of age stratification in modernize societies tend to undermine the status of older persons participating fully in the social structure.
THE DISENGAGEMENT THEORY
The disengagement theory propounded and developed by Cumming and Henri (1961) that it is normal and desirable for people to withdrawn form society as they grow old.
According to this theory, elderly persons welcome disengagement since it retrieves them of roles and responsibilities they have became unable to fulfill. Likewise, society benefits from disengagement as younger persons with new energy and skill fill positions vacated by aging individuals.
In our society today, many young people if not all of them support the disengagement theory, This is evident in the number of petitions levied against older adults who though may have reached retirement age falsity their years as to continue in their jobs. The various saying that ‘he is too old to continue to teach, his time and knowledge is absolute, he should better give way for now hands’ among others, support the view that younger people see disengagement as a welcome path for their growth in terms of their career.
The claim that the elderly themselves welcome the disengagement principle an ordeal way of adjustment renders the theory baseless this subject to attack. In fact, critics have argued that disengagement theory merely describes successful theory aging as a retreat without seeing the external force behind such a retreat.
THE ACTIVITY THEORY
The activity theory propounded and developed by Hag Huts (1961), assumes that activety is the essence of life for the people of all ages. Activety theory predicts that people who remain active physically, mentally and socially will adjust better to aging. Proponent of active theory believes that aging person should maintain the active of their earlier year for as long as possible. If a person is forced to give up particular roles or activities it is recommended that these attacked on the ground or roles be replaced by others.
Although, activity theory is that simply put, it has been attacked on the ground that not all tasks have the same value for the aged and the value placed on withdrawal and or disengagement by some elderly people is enough to show that the elderly the measles need rest whatever be the case, successful aging pick baby requires a combination of activity and disengagement.
For example, one research found that the elderly tend to disengage from acuities that are no longer satisfying while maintaining those that are satisfier.
It is necessary to pin point the main element of modernization theory so as to understand its application. The distinction between “tradition” and modernization societies was derived from Marx Weber viaticum parson.
As society called “tradition” is one which most relationship was particularistic rather than numeral, e.g. based on the ties to particular people such as kin, rather than general criteria designating whole case of person also, in one’s feeling rather than objectivity governed relationship of all sort (the distinction between a destiny and mentality, one which entails birth ascription) rather that achievement was there general ground for holding a job or an office areas in which roles were not clearly separated, for instance, the royal household was also the state apparatus.
Other features general seen as characteristics of tradition societies include things like low level of division of Labour dependence on agricultural products low rate of growth of production largely local network of exchange and restricted administration competence.
A society, according to Samuel Huntington (1970), in which will the position of all the above was true is said to be modern but, he went further to say that modernization referred to all the process of transition from tradition and modern principal of all social organization. This theory relates to industrialization, urbanization and in crease former educational and greater rationality in social-economic concern.
The modernization theory could perhaps be adopted in explaining difficulties of the aging process. The modernization theory argues that industrialization itself determines the state of the aged.
For instance, noticeable crucial aspect of urbanization and industrialization calls for physical movement from one location to another which provide the young generation a greater opportunity to free themselves from the authority of the aged ad leave the elderly lonely with no one to keep them occupied except same concern neighbors.
In pre-modern societies the function of the aged are to be viewed as vital social function which in modern societies tend to by unimportant.
Murkowski’s pre-occupation was with the study of culture as a totality. He formulated the theory of functionalism in which attempts to explain the parts institutions play with in the interrelated the theory whole of culture Murkowski assumes that culture traits are useful traits of a society in which they occur, and that the institution or traits of a culture operate to satisfy the needs of the individuals and that of the society as a whole in his analysis, culture is the out growth of three kind of human needs:(1)basic (2)derived (3) integrative. Basic needs relate to the survived of human beings as biological organisms. This refers to the need for food; shelter and physical protection Derived needs are the problem of social co-ordination humans must solve in order to satisfy their basic needs.
This includes the division of work the distribution of food, defiance, regulation of reproduction and social control. Integrative needs are needs of knowledge, law religion, magic, myth, art etc.
This theory believes that as a social category and institution, the aged in African society function to satisfy different categories of needs of the society.
This is the reason why in African culture the aged are respect and regarded and their opinions are highly rated in the community. They are seen as embodiment of wisdom and valuable experiences hence, they serve as advisors to the young ones and the society at large in critical times. They also serve as political and religion heads of communities.
They determine the source of any calamity in the society and find solution to it. These and other function performed by the aged in African society makes them feel proud and happy to be old. They are honored to the extend that their views are never question.
In fact, they are seen as next gods who should not be questioned for any of their action. Consequently, when the aged die, they become ancestor or living dead and are worshipped with prayers and sacrifice made to them from time to time.
2.3 Theoretical Framework
From the discussion above the study adopted MALIMOWSKI FUNCTIONALISM THEORY which is the view that the operation of social security programme is geared towards satisfying the needs of the aged as a social category and that of the society as a whole.
Paramount, the theory believes that the aged as society function to satisfy different category of needs of the society. This is the reason why in African culture they are respect and renewed and their opinions are highly rated in every community including Nwangele.
The theory further stressed that the aged are seen as embodiment of wisdom because of their valuable experience in society. Thus, they serve as advisors to younger generation and the society at large especially in critical times. They also serve as political and religion heads of their various communities.
More so, it is the aged that determine the source of any calamity in their communities and as well proffer solution to such misfortune. Therefore, since this category of people are seen as next sacrifices should not be question for any of their action and they are been worshipped with prayer and sacrifices when ever they transit to ancestors in the next, word it becomes function that the government private bodies, non-governmental organization (NGOs) should imitate programmers such as social security in order to protect, safeguard and better living standard of this great people called the “aged”
2.4 Study Hypothesis
The purpose of this research, the researcher considers it necessary to make some hypothetical statement that will be tested in this study
(a) There is no significant relationship between economic situation and improvement of aged and social security.
(b) There is significant relationship between economic situation and improvement of aged and social security.
RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
Niagara (2001) defined a research design as the programmer guides the researcher in the process of collecting, analysis and interpreting data. This it demonstrated how the variables of a research would be observed, controlled or manipulated to generate necessary primary data for the study.
As a quantitative research, the study adopts the survey research design which is seen as a mode of inquiring that combines a distinct method of data collector with a distinct form of analysis.
They survey designs seen as the test method variable to the social scientist who is interested in collecting original data and des signing a population too large to observe directly. More so, the essence of choosing this type of design is because it is particularly well suited for the study of individual’s attitudes, feelings and opinions.
3.2 Area of Study
The area of study is basically Nwangee local government area of lmo state. The local government is made up of the following communities. Amaigbo lsu, abba Agbaja, Umuozu, Ummichoke, Umuorla, Elsialaumuozu and Amagu. Geographically, the Nwangele people are situated in the south eastern part of Nigeria. A significant number of them is found also in other Igbo speaking states such as Abia, Enugu, Anambra and Ebonyi. The Nwangele people speak the Language of Nwangele called “lgbo ‘’ and from where their name is derived.
The language belong to the kwa sub family of the Niger Congo language group, with in the language are found wide range of dialects which differ significantly.
The Nwangele people of Imo state have many customs e.g. birth custom, death custom, kola nut custom, wine custom, hunting custom, marriage custom, masquerade custom etc. these custom are very interesting for example, in kola nut custom, one kola nut can be broken in such a way that over 100 people present in the ceremony will have a share each from it.
However, with the arrival of missionaries most Nwangele people are Christians today “but” there is rarely nwangele Muslim. Religiously, the Nwangele people are very tolerant, hence the live amongst and welcome non Christians in their midst. Traditionally, young ones greet the older ones first as sign of respect. When Nwangele woman meet, they greet according to time and embrace each other their men shake hands as they greet. The men are greeted with their titular names. There is no public embracing or kissing man and a woman in Nwangele, there is no kneeling down nor prostration. Greet men first unless the woman is older than the man. But wives re expected to greet husband first whether they are older than the husband.
Economically, the Nwangele man and women do almost any type of work. They are very hardworking no matter the category of work. The economy of Nwangele people is organized around trading and farming. They are also noted for domestic technology in bronze casting ironwork and pottery which dates back to the 9th century A.O.
Marriage is a very strong and important institution among the Nwangele people. This is because it unites just not the two individuals involved, but also their families. In the typically tradition pre-colonial era, the first step in marriage take the form of the betrothal of a girl by an adult on behalf of his son. This usually done when the girls is very young. A man can also betroth a girl by himself. After this, the prospective husband will begin to occasionally offer girls both to the girl and to her family. The Nwangele arrangement takes place in Nwangele where the girls grows into maturity.
This involves the payment of an amount agreed upon by both the brides’ family and the groom’s family this amount is known as bride price and it is usually accompanied by other gift items such as kola nuts, palm wine, tobacco, local gin etc. The presentation of these and the payment of the bride price is followed by certain ceremonies after which the girl is usually accompanied by her relative and age groups to her new home taking alone some house hold utensils and farm implements which will enable her set up her own home.
In the event divorce which is very none among the Nwangele people, part or all of the bride price is usually refunded by the bride’s family depending on the custom. In terms of social, political and organization of the people, they practice matrilineal descent system. This means that individuals in Nwangele society trace their genealogy or descent to a made ancestor.
As a result, they live in small groups, each being made up of people who have a common male ancestor and each of the group is called “umunna” politically, Nwangele people are organized an autonomous village and each village is made up of several king group.
3.3. Scope of the Study:
Considering the nature of the project and other empirical reasons the study is limited for conference to available Nwangele communities viz: Amaubo, Isu, Abba, Agbaja,, Umuozu, Amaju and many others with a population of forty-six thousand, four hundred and ninety three (46,496) people made up of male and females as documented by the Imo State national population commission census (2006).
3.4 Population of the Study
By research population, we mean the areas that were concerned in data collection as well as the people who were involved in responding to the research questions. In the process of carrying out this project, one hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires were produced and administered to one hundred and twenty (120) old people accordingly. The research population was gotten from the area of study Nwangele local government area of Imo State of Nigeria, and also other neighboring villages within the area.
The research population was also gotten from old people home in Nwangele, where the aged are kept by some family that could not accommodate their aged parents due to certain reasons best known to them.
3.5 Samples Size
In the process of carrying cut this research project, one hundred and twenty (120) copies of questionnaires were used.
That is to say that the sample size is made up of one hundred an twenty (120) persons who belong to the social category of the aged.
Most of the questionnaires were actually administered by the researcher due to the fact that most of the respondents were illiterates and moreover very old. However, some of the questionnaires were administered by the respondents themselves because they have the ability to do so.
Concerning the illiterates, questions were translated into Igbo language for easy understanding by the aged.
3.6 SAMPLE TECHNIQUES
In seeking the respondents, the researcher adopted the accidental sampling technique. This kind of sampling technique include: anyone they meet on the street. This sampling technique has the advantage of being convenient, cheap and easy to use .One of the fact is that the study is focused to a particular segment of the population, that is (the aged as a group of chart beginning from 65 years and above). The researcher also added the adjusted sampling technique.
3.7 Instrument Data Collection
In the process of carrying out the research project, the main instruments used in gathering information needed for this study was the questionnaires interview and existing records which serves as supplements.
All these instruments play vital role to achieve the aim and objective of this research.
3.8 Data Collection Process
Data for this research started from July and ended in October, 2011. The major instrument used in the collection of these data Were the questionnaire. Interview method and existing records were equally used to supplement the questionnaire. The questions in the questionnaire were composed of both closed and opened ended questions. This was employed to collect different opinion and views of the research respondents.The method is used because it is easy to control the response pattern. Although out of the one hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires sent out, only one hundred (100) were successfully returned to the researcher.
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
Since one of the objectives of this research study is to test some hypothesis in relation to improving the aged and socials security, it becomes pertinent to state that this study will adopt the table presentation method to be used in analysis the data, and it will enhance easy interpretation an understanding of my findings.
THIS IS A SAMPLE | WE ARE PROFESSIONALS IN WRITING
At Martins Library, We provide Informative Materials for Writing Books, Projects, Seminars, Journals, Articles, Proposals, Feasibility Study Etc For Business And Educational Purposes.
Click on the related links below and read more.
We can keep you updated on this information, please Subscribe for Free by entering your email address in the space provided.
Do you like this article? Share this article