SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF BUREAUCRACY AND PROBLEMS: IN NIGERIA’S CIVIL SERVICE


CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1             DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS


            Under this chapter, the findings obtained from the results of the research data analyzed in chapter four are discussed. And explains why bureaucracy that is said to function more efficiently in the developed countries is said to be synonymous with inefficiency in Enugu State Civil Service. It was discovered from the analysis of the data collected that;

i.                    Bureaucracy in Enugu State modern organization is in variation with the ideal type bureaucracy. Where offices are not filled on merit, but on basis of other extraneous criteria, written examination is not considered before employment. But the basic criterion for employment is to know the right persons. This situation perverts the Weberian bureaucratic edifice.

ii.                 Ideal type of bureaucracy and its principles are not well understood in Enugu State Civil Service and it lead to lack of team spirit among workers.

iii.               Enugu State environment does not allow for proper institutionalization of bureaucracy and its principles. Just as Riggs said, that the bureaucratic institutions of less developed countries are weak because of the ecological constraints that impinge on them. It was discovered that there is corruption in the system, where for instance officers who reached the age of retirement are left to constitute “dead wood” impairing efficiency in the system.

iv.               There are some socio-cultural factors in Enugu State that impinge on ideal bureaucratization, such as favoritism etc.

v.                  Bureaucratic inefficiency in Enugu State Civil Service is rooted in the elements of its variation with the ideal type Weberian bureaucracy.

vi.               The Enugu State Civil Service hardly renders service without bureaucratic inefficiency as a result of recruitment of unqualified staffs.

vii.             The several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu State Civil Service have not yielded positive result. Mostly because of political interference in the activities of bureaucratic.

viii.          It is discovered that those who are less qualified are promoted to superintend over those who are qualified than they are.

ix.               The hierarchical arrangement of staffs resulted to the problem of communication overload.

x.                  There is over rigidity in the Enugu State Civil Service as a result of centralization.

xi.               Specialization and division of labour in the Enugu State Civil Service increase the problem of lack of coordination.

5.2             SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION


            The Enugu State Civil Service is governed by a set of laid down rules which dated back to the colonial period. There are rules and regulations compiled in a big document called the General orders.

            The general order has provision for every aspect of the Civil Service career from recruitment to retirement. Even though many changes have been made in the general orders since independence, the document remains largely unchanged and still contains rules and regulations considered irrelevant to present situations, thereby encouraging inefficiency.

            Bureaucracy is not problematic but it adversely affects the attitude of the people who practice it. What is condemned in bureaucracy is when these practice and operatives are overdone. For example when the use of filling forms is needlessly multiplied and elaborated or the adherence to circulars is so rigidly enforced even when they have outlived their usefulness.

            It is important to note that while bureaucracy has inherent elements that makes its processes often cumbersome or distrustful to its clients the public; yet it is indispensable and indeed an instrument for the achievement of efficiency in all large organizations. It is concerned with the most efficient means of planning and control, and the fact that these processes are often misused and abused by inefficient, corrupt, and stubborn officials is not a case for the total condemnation of bureaucracy.     

5.3             RECOMMENDATIONS


            In view of the findings so far made, there is need to establish sound and efficient public bureaucracy in Nigeria. To this end, bureaucratic inefficiency has to be eradicated in Nigeria Public Administration. It is an attempt to realize this noble objective that the researcher recommend the following:

i.                    A thorough and well articulated reforms which will enshrine the proper institutionalization of Weberian ideal principles of bureaucracy should be made.

ii.                 Entrance into public bureaucracy should be properly guided by meritocracy.

iii.               Nigeria Administrative institution should evolve an administrative model suitable for her administration.

iv.               There should be periodic trainings and workshops for staffs.

v.                  Government should provide special reward for bureaucrats who live above aboard in the Civil Service.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Blau, D.M and Mayer, M.W (1966) Bureaucracy in the modern society; New York, Prentice Hall.       

 

Chukwu, L (2002) the Civil Service system. Enugu Computer Edge publisher.

 

Dimmock, M.E. (1960) Bureaucracy self examined Administration and management. Oxford, 1BH publishers.

 

Duru, E.J.C et al (2004) Nigeria Local Government and Rural Development Administration; Onitsha Cymart Venture.

 

Eldridse, G. (1967) Bureaucracy and innovation, Home word, illion Irwin Pub.

 

Ezeali, B.O and Edeh, J.N (2007) Comparative Public Administration; Onitsha, chambers Book Ltd.

 

Ihejamaizu, E.C. (1996) Comprehensive Test Administrative and Organization theory; Calabar, Executive publishers.

 

Maheshwani, S. and Avasthi; A. (1962) Public Administration: Agra, Lakshmi narain  Argawak Pub.

 

Obi, E.A and Chukwuemeka, J.N (2006), Development Administration theory and application; Onitsha, Abbot Communication.

 

Onah R.C. (2005) Public Administration Nsukka, Great AP Express Publishers.

 

Okpata, F.O (2006) Bureaucratic communication and information management; Enugu, Jones comm. Publishers.

 

Perrow, C. (1970) Organization Analysis A socio-logical view, California, wards worth publishing.

 

Presttius, R. (1962) The organization society: An analysis and a theory, New York, Alfred A.K Pub. 

 

Ralph, N. (2001) Elements of Public Administration Enugu, John Jacob’s publishers.

 

Tyagi R. (2004) Public Administration principles and Practice, Deli, B.K Offset Pres.

 

Uduma, D.O (2003) Contemporary Public Administration; Enugu, Agasun Publishers.

 

APPENDIX


QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear Respondents,

            I am a final year student of the above named department carrying out research on bureaucracy and problem of inefficiency in Nigeria Civil Service. A case study of Enugu State Civil Service. I therefore solicit for information which will assist me in this research.

            The facts supplied will be treated with utmost confidentiality.

            Thanks for your co-operation

PERSONAL DATA

1.                  Sex

a.                  male

b.                  female  

2.                  Age

a.                  19-29

b.                  30-41

c.                  42-52

d.                  52 and above

3.                   Category staffs

a.                  GL 13 and above

b.                  GL 08-GL 12

c.                  GL 06-07

d.                  GL01-GL06

SECTION B

QUESTION

1.         Does bureaucracy in Enugu State modern organization in variation with the ideal type bureaucracy a Yes         No       

2. Does ideal type of bureaucracy and its principles not well understood in Enugu State? (a) Yes         (b) No       

3. Does Enugu State environment not allow institutionalization of bureaucracy and its principles? (a) Yes       (b) No       

4. Are there some socio-cultural factors in Enugu State that impinge on ideal bureaucratization as it is in developed world?  (a) Yes       (b) No

5. Is bureaucratic inefficiency of Enugu State civil service rooted in the element I of its variation with the ideal type (Weberian) bureaucracy?

(a) Yes        (b) No

6. Could it be possible for Enugu State civil service or public administration to render service without bureaucratic inefficiency (a) Yes        (b) No

7. Is bureaucracy the best solution to our public administrative system?

(a) Yes        (b) No   

8. Do several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu Stage civil service yield positive result? (a) Yes        (b) No      

9. Does promotion through seniority lesson competitive efficiency? (a) Yes        (b) No      

10. Do the structural variables upon which bureaucracy is built militate against public bureaucracy from rendering efficient and effective service delivery in Enugu State?

(a) Yes       (b) No

11. Does hierarchical arrangement of staff introduce communication problem, social interaction and social support and also limit the use of initiative at the lower level of the organization hierarchy? (a) Yes       (b) No

12. Does specialization increase problem of co-ordination and generate apathy in public bureaucracy in Enugu State? (a) Yes         (b) No
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