RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR NATIONAL POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMME (NAPAP) PROJECT

CHAPTER THREE
3.0              RESEARCH DESIGN/ METHODOLOGY
3.1                    RESEARCH DESIGN
            In this chapter, the methods used in analyzing the efficacy of poverty alleviation in dependent societies will be discussed, using NAPEP in Ebonyi State as a case study. For easy understanding, this chapter will be divided into four sections viz, sources of data collection, description of the population of study, method of data collection (Research Instrument), and finally method of data analysis, that is, the way the data is intended to be analyzed.

3.2              SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION
            In the course of this study, data will be collected through both primary and secondary sources.
3.2.1        PRIMARY SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION
            According to Udeze (1996:19) “Primary data includes all the pieces of information which the researcher collects fro the source to enable him carry out a research study.” It is also called “raw’ or “original data.” The data so collected from this source are usually fresh, and not stale or out dated. This source of data collection will therefore satisfy the needs of this study.
            Different sources of primary data used are:
(i)         Oral Interview:          The researcher applied the oral interview method of data collection where he met with some of the respondents and asked them some necessary questions. The responses from these respondents were instantly recorded. The researcher considered the oral interview necessary because some of his respondents who did not quite understand the objectives of the study avoided answering some of the questions in the questionnaire.
            The researcher also considered this method appropriate and useful because it gave him the ample opportunity to explain everything to his respondents as well as making the assessment of the situation on the spot.
(ii)        Questionnaire Administered: A well structured questionnaire was designed for and administered to a number of people in Ebonyi State.
The questionnaire was personally administered to the respondents by the researcher. It consist of printed questions in which the respondents were expected to fill in their choice options.
            In order to ensure correctness of the result of this study, the researcher made use of both structured and open-ended questions in the questionnaire. This is done to enable the respondents to give a sincere responses(s) tandem with the questions asked.

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SECONDARY SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION
            These involves data that have been collected, processed and kept by others in the past. Secondary data are collected from the following sources:
(a)                Internal records/documents of government ministries
(b)               Publications which include newspapers, magazines, handbooks, journals, and textbooks, etc.
3.3              THE POPULATION OF STUDY
            Uzochukwu (1994:27) defined population as “the aggregate or totality of the units in the universe of a study.” It defines the limit within which the research study findings are applicable. The target population of this research exercise is the entire citizen of Ebonyi state.
            According to Ebonyi State Local Government Service Commission, there are thirty-four (34) Local Government Councils in the three senatorial Zones of the state. The total population of which is over 1,736,541 million peoples.
            However, the respondents are categorized into illiterate and literate citizens who have at least a minimum qualification of elementary education. This is done in the belief that a reasonable Nigerian will at least be able to read and write. Nevertheless, the total populations of the study were 500 indigenes of Ebonyi State.
3.4              SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
            The researcher made use of the CLUSTER OR AREA SAMPLING TECHNIQUES which involves selecting members of a sample in groups rather than individually. The members of the target population are here, grouped on the basis of geographical clusters, occupational clusters, religious clusters etc. A random sampling method is usually used to select the sample from the identified clusters. Obasi N. Isaac (1999:140). This sampling techniques is used considering the number of the population involved.
3.5              DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE
            Odoh (1992:46) maintained that the maxim is “the lager the sample size, the better the characteristics are bound to be adequately represented, and the more authentic the findings to be discovered and internationally accepted. Statistical formula however exists for determining appropriate sample sizes.
            According to Churchill 91979:302), a typical formula requires knowledge of the level of significance and the amount of variation of the sample mean and estimate of population standard deviation.
            Hence, using Yaro Yameni’s formular 


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n          =         
Where
n          =          sample size
N         =          Total population
1          =          Constant, and
(e)        =          Limit of error tolerance (using assumed to be 10% or 0.1)
Therefore
            n          =         
            n          =         
            n          =         
            n          =          83
3.6              METHOD OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
            The methods used in the presentation and analysis of this research work are tables and simple percentages. To make issues clearer, the researcher may use pie charts where necessary.

CHAPTER FOUR
            DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
            In this chapter, efforts will be directed towards the presentation and analysis of data which were collected from our field survey. In the course of this presentation and analysis, tables and simple percentages will be used. Pie-charts may also be used where necessary so as to guarantee the simplicity, clarity and understandability of our analysis.
            AS AFonja (1975=35) rightly observed, tables are very useful in conveying a quick impression of any clustering, variations and possible trends in the values of and possible trends in the values of variables. And relationships among the variable and various other significant features which may lie hidden in the unsummarised data are also more readily appreciated through the tables:
            A total number of five hundred (500) persons were chose across the state and studied. This is in relation to the cluster or Area sampling technique adopted by the researcher. This method involves selecting members of a sample in groups rather than individually. A random sampling method was also used to select the sampling from the identified clusters. Obasi N. I (1999: 140).
            However, because of time and financial constraints, the researcher selected a total number of eighty-three (83) respondents as his sample size, using the Yaro Yamini (1964:280), to determine a sample size from a population, the following formula is used this;
            N =       __N__
                        1 + (Ne2)    
Where n = sample size
               N = Total population size
               1 = Constant, and
             (e) = Limit of error tolerance.
            This is based on the notion, that the large the population size, the smaller the sample size. Conversely, the smaller the population the larger the sample.
            Based on this sample size, a total number of eighty three (83) questionnaires administered, only seventy-two (72) copies were returned while eleven respondents failed to return theirs. This can be mathematically represented in simple percentages as shown below:
a. Numbers of returned questionnaires
            =72        x        100
              ­­­____             ___­­­__
               83                    1
            = 7,200
               _______        = 87%
                     83               ===
b. Number of un-returned question
naives = 11  x  100
                  __      ___
83                           1
  = 1100
     ______       = 73%


        
it therefore follows that, the number of returned questionnaire is seventy-two (72) forming 87% or 312o , while unreturned questionnaire is eleven (11) forming 13% or 480. The outcome of this development is that, the distribution, completion and return of the questionnaires were representative enough to guarantee a quality result. Because, according to Chukwu Emeka, E.E.O. (2002:101), “the larger the population size, the smaller the sample size and vice-versa”.
Presentation and analysis of personal data table 1:
sex distribution:
option
title
number of respondents
percentage
A
Male
57
79%
B
Female
15
21%

Total
72
100%

           





The table above shows that majority of the respondents are Male while the Female gender is in the minority. This is because it is widely believed in Ebonyi State that, man is the bread-winner of his family. However, cases exist where the reverse became the case when the man was incapacitated or dead. This is why the Female gender is included, albeit in the minority.
Table 2:
distribution on age.
Option
title
No of respondents
percentage
a
20- 40yrs.
60
83%
b
41- 60yrs.
12
17%

total
72
100%

            This table reveals the age bracket to which the questionnaire was administered. Majority of the respondent’s who were between the ages of 20-40 years forms 83% of the total population of our study.
            This is because, it was believed that those worst hit by poverty is persons below forty (40) years.
            However, it can be adduced that people within this age limit (20-40yeasr), are adversely affected by poverty in Ebonyi state.
Table 3:
Distribution on marital status:
option
title
no. of respondents
percentage
a
Single
17
24%
b

55
76%

total
72
100%
 
            It was assumed that the married and un-married alike can be under the grip of poverty. Ebonyians are known for early marriages, that is why, the number of those married is larger, forming 76% of the population.
The married are also worse off in the flare of poverty.
Table 4:
Distribution on occupation
options
title
no. of respondents
percentage
a
cicil/puldic ser
vants
8
12%
b
farmers
50
69%
c
studen
14
19%

total
72`
100%

            This table shows that the respondents are selected form three disciplines, which covers the whole of Ebonyi State. Majority of the citizens are farmers, hence this group represents the State Labour Force who are employable, but are not employed and therefore, depend on farming as a means of livelihood.
Table 5:
Distribution on education qualification
oprions
title
no. of respondents
percentage
a
illiterate
36
50%
b
wace
18
25%
c
degrees
18
25%

totl
72
100%

            The table shows that, respondents who are illiterate forms 50% of the total population. This is because the people within the lower rage are poorer than those above. The inclusion of Degree holders is because, this group are usually the people involved in the implementation of poverty alleviation programmers.
            It is hoped that, we will derive a lot from their wealth of experience.
Table 6:
Distribution on religious affiliation.
options
title
no. of respondents
percentage
a
christianity
50
69%
b
islam
2
03%
c
african traditional religion.
20
28%

total
72
100%

            This table shows that the Christian religion forms 69% of the population of student. Hence Ebonyians are mainly Christians.
Table 7:
Distribution on senatorial zones.
Options
Title (senatorial zones)
No of respondents
Percentage
A
Ebonyi north
27
38%
B
Ebonyi south
23
32%
C
Ebonyi central
22
30%

Total
72
100%
 

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            In Ebonyi State, we have thirty-four (34) Local Governments. The number of Local governments studied are however selected from each of the three senatorial zones. A total number of six (6) local governments are selected and studied, two from each senatorial zone. This is done so as to represent each of the zones. It is hoped that this will ensure a valid result.
            This is based on cluster (area) sampling technique, which according to Chukeuemeka, (2002:110). In his work ‘Research methods and thesis writing,’ “is more prevalently used in densely populated agricultural areas. The researcher who uses this method has to go a few steps – firstly, the researcher zones the area. After that, the units from the zones have to be selected randomly from each zone. Thirdly, individual’s elements have to be sampled and selected.”
Table 8:
Demographic analysis of data.
question1: Area you aware of the poverty alleviation programme in Ebonyi State?
options
Title
no of Respondents
percentage
A
Yes
65
90%
B
No
7
10%

Total
72
100%

            From the above table, 65 respondents representing 90% of the population agreed that they are aware of the poverty alleviation programme in Ebonyi State, while 7 respondents representing 10% denied being aware of the programme in Ebonyi State. This reveals that majority of the population of Study are aware of the poverty Alleviation programme in Ebonyi State.
  
QUESTION 2: what type of poverty Alleviation programme is in progress in your State?
ANSWER: Out of the 72 respondents I administered the questions and a handful of person selected and interviewed orally, majority of them representing 82% identified National poverty Eradication programme (NAPEP) as the type of poverty alleviation programme in progress in Ebonyi State as at the time of this research which is by June 2008.
Table 9:
Question 3: Do the Ebonyians give their support at the inception of the poverty alleviation programme?
options
title
No of respondents
percentage
A
Yes
60
83%
B
No
12
17%

Total
72
100%

            From this table, it can be seen that 60 respondents, representing 83% of our population of study are of the view that Ebonyi people accepted and pledged their un-alloyed support to NAPEP at its inception.
Table 10:
question 4: Have you benefited from the poverty Alleviation programme in your State?
Options
Title
No of respondents
Percentage
A
Yes
25
35%
B
No
47
65%

Total
72
100%

            Our table above shows that, only 25 respondents representing 35% agreed that they have benefited from the National poverty Eradication programme (NAPEP) while 47 respondents representing 65% denied having benefited from the programme.
            This reveals that the policy which was meant to benefit all and sundry in Ebonyi State only benefited a couple of persons, leaving the majority of the population to waste in abject poverty.
question 5: If you have benefited from the programme, State the name of the benefit you derived from it.
ANSWER: Out of 72 respondents who received my questionnaire, only 25 respondents admitted having benefited from the National poverty Eradication programme (NAPEP). From the people I orally interviewed, only one out of ten interviewees accepted that he benefited from the programme. Here-under is the name and nature of the benefits derived from the programme.
(a)  Five (5) respondents reported that they were employed to perform minor jobs in government ministries and departments. They said they were paid a monthly salary of three thousand, five hundred naira (N 3,500) per month.
            This exercise according to this people lasted for only twelve (12) mouths and was abandoned.
(b) Furthermore, five (5) respondents said they received “KEKE NAPEP”- a three – wheeled commercial motor-bike, on hire purchase basis. Three (3) persons out of this group however stated that, the “KEKE – NAPEP” were taken away from them by the government officials who own them; alleging that their weekly returns (installments) were poor and irregular.
(c) Three respondent said they were given credit (Loans) to establish personal business.
(d) Ten respondents said they received artisan training and skill acquisition after which they were promised “employment that never came”
(e) While the remaining three respondents benefited by receiving wheel barrows, cutlasses, electric irons and gas cookers.
able 11:
Question 6: Do you have any relationship with the implementation stake holders in your state?
options
title
no of respondents0
perCENTAGE
A
YES
25
35%
B
NO
47
65%

TOTAL
72
100%
            As can be seen from this table, 35% of the population accepted having relationship and/ or being related to the implementation stakeholders in Ebonyi State. However, 65% do not have any relationship with the implementation stakeholders.
            It can therefore be adduced from the table that, only people who are related to the implementation stakeholders and resources persons, representing 35% of the population benefits from NAPEP in Ebonyi state. It can also be adduced that the implementation of the programme in Ebonyi state is characterised by favouritism, nepotism, partiality, party line-up and I.M. syndrome.
TABLE 12:
QUESTION 7: Has the programme reduced poverty in Ebonyi State, b providing job opportunity to the Ebonyians?
options
title
no of respondents0
perCENTAGE
A
YES
17
24%
B
NO
55
76%

TOTAL
72
100%

            From this table above, it shoes that only 17 respondents representing 24% of our population accepted that the programme have reduced the rate o poverty in Ebonyi State in terms of provision of job opportunities, while 55 respondents representing 76% showed that the programme have not reduced the rate of poverty and unemployment in Ebonyi State.
            This reveals that greater number of Ebonyians are still under abject poverty, as majority of the respondents are still unemployed.

TABLE 13:
QUESTION 8: Did the programme provide social amenities to the Ebonyians?
options
title
no of respondents0
perCENTAGE
A
YES
07
10%
B
NO
65
90%

TOTAL
72
100%

            From the above table, 7 respondents representing 10% of our population accepted that the programme provided social amenities to the Ebonyians, while 65 respondents representing 90% of the population opined that the programme have not provided social amenities in Ebonyi State.
            This means that the programme have not achieved some of the objectives for which it was enunciated.
TABLE 14:
QUESTION 9: Does the programme really stand for the interest of the poor in Ebonyi State?
options
title
no of respondents0
perCENTAGE
A
YES
02
03%
B
NO
70
97%

TOTAL
72
100%

            From the table above, it can be seen that only 2 respondents representing 03% of our population accepted that the programme stands for the poor masses of Ebonyi state, while 70 respondents representing 97% of the population opined that the programme does not represent the interest of the poor but, that of the ruling class in Ebonyi state, with the following reasons in question 10 below.
Question 10: What do you think is/ are the factors responsible for your answer in question 9 above?
            Answer: Many factors are suggested as being responsible for the assertion that (NAPEP), in Ebonyi State is for the interest of the ruling class.
            Some of such factors/ reasons suggested by the respondents include the following among others;
(a)                Politicization of policies and programmes
(b)               Un-patriotism
(c)                Hypocrisy and insincerity of government functionaries
(d)               Greed, selfishness and wickedness
(e)                Embezzlement and diversion of fund.
(f)                Indiscipline and corruption, and
(g)                Over-bureaucratization of policies and programmes, etc.
Question II: What do you think is/ are the factors militating against the proper implementation of the programme (NAPEP), in Ebonyi State?
            Answer: out of the 72 respondents I administered the questionnaire and a handful of persons selected and interviewed orally, majority of them representing 92%, listed the following as the factors militating against the proper implementation of NAPEP programme in Ebonyi State.
Such factors include:
(a)                Poor orientation or enlightenment campaign on the importance of the programme on the masses.
(b)               Hypocrisy ad lack of commitment to implement policy goals.
(c)                Politicization of the government policies and programmes.
(d)               Nepotism, favouritism and partiality in the implementation of the policies,
(e)                Absence of effective communication
(f)                Institutionalized corruption
(g)                Lack of impact assessment and project monitoring team
(h)               Relative lack of clear objective/ programmes with ambiguous goals.
            The remaining 8% gave other reasons which include:
(a)                Strick application of the principles of the ideal bureaucracy during the implementation of NEPEP in the state.
(b)               Lack of induction training for staffs who are to implement the programme.
(c)                Poor feasibility studies on the implementation strategies of the implementers.
(d)               Selfishness and un-patriotism on the part of the programme implementers.
Question 12: What do you suggest/ recommend must be done to ensure the success of the programme in Ebonyi State?
            Answer: All the respondents to my questionnaire and those interviewed are harmonious in their suggestions that the following recommendation should be considered and adopted by government in a bid to ensure successful implementation of the programme in Ebonyi State.
(1)               Government should ensure the involvement of the people or communities in the execution of the programme concerning them.
(2)               Government should embark on an effective co-ordination and supervision of programmes to ensure compliance.
(3)               Government should embark on periodic review or evaluation of programmes in order to determine the progress or otherwise of a given policy or programme.
(4)               Target communities or beneficiaries should always pledge their solidarity and un-alloyed support to programmes.
(5)               Government should embark on an orientation campaign to fight against indiscipline and corruption in our polity
(6)               Government should introduce a more server and stiffer disciplinary measure(s) to deal with miscreants.
            Since these recommendations were suggested by rational, meaningful and healthy Ebonyians, we shall consider most of them in our recommendation in the next chapter.

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