RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: EFFECTIVENESS OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA

3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
This research work will make use of questionnaires, based on stratified sampling procedure. Delta State is made up of 25 local government council areas. A total number of 250 questionnaires will be administered in which 10 questionnaires will be administered to each local government council. However, the questionnaires that will be analyzed are those ones that are actually completed and returned.

3.2 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN
The questionnaire design comprised of different questions, which made it possible to elicit important information on this study. Information could be received because the researcher tried to use closed ended questions in some areas. Some of the questions were ranked to give the respondents a choice to pick and these were mainly those that were used to test the maintained hypothesis.
The questions were pretested before administration to ensure validity, reliability and clarity.

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3.3 DATA COLLECTION METHOD
In this research work, the researcher used the survey method with the use of a well-developed questionnaire to sample the operations of respondents on this study.
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE
In testing the various hypotheses of the study, the technique and tool employed for data analysis is the chi-square method. This is simply expressed below:
 fe¤2 ] fe-fo [ åX2 =
X2 = Chi-square
fo =Observed frequency
fe = Expected frequency
3.5 DATA REQUIRED AND SOURCES
The data required for this study is the cross-sectional data based on primary sources.
The need for the primary data has arisen from the need to get the direct impact of poverty alleviation programmes.
The Chi-square (X2) is a test of goodness of fit. It is a statistical distribution that can be used to test if an observation of value differs significantly from what was expected. The implication of the X2 formula is that if the actual results are exactly as expected (fo – fe) = 0 for each item in the series, and X2 works out to be zero. On the other hand, the bigger the differences between observed and expected values, the bigger the square of these differences and therefore the bigger X2 becomes.
REFERENCE
Abonyi O. S. (2002), Educational Measurement & Evaluation: Fred-Ogah publishers, Enugu.
Abonyi O. S. (2002), Research & Statistics: Fred-Ogah publishers, Enugu.
Nwabuokei P. O. (2001), Fundamentals of Statistics: Chuka Printing Company Ltd, Enugu.
Nworgu B. G. (1990), Educational Research: Basic Issues and Methodology, Nsukka: University Trust Publishers.
4.0 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE
A number of two hundred and fifty questionnaires were administered to the respondents and only two hundred and thirty questionnaires were returned. The sample size for this is two hundred and thirty.
Tables will be used to present the data.
TABLE 4.2.1
QUESTION ONE
Is poverty alleviation programmes achieving its objectives?
Variables Response Percentage (%)
Yes 180 78.3
No 50 21.7
Total 230 100
Source: Computed from questionnaire.
Form the above table 4.2.1, 180 respondents representing 78.3% of total respondents said that poverty alleviation programmes is achieving its objectives gradually while 50 respondents representing 21.7% of the total respondents said it is not achieving its objectives.
TABLE 4.2.2
QUESTION TWO
What are the problems militating against poverty alleviation programmes?
Variables Response Percentage (%)
Corruption 110 47.8%
Poor Funding 90 39.1%
Lack of follow up 30 13.0%
Total 230 100%
Source: Computed from questionnaire.
From the table above, 110 respondents representing 47.8% of the respondents said that corruption is a major problem militating against poverty reduction programme. While 90 respondents representing 31.9% of the total respondents said that poor funding is a major problem militating against the programme, while 30 respondents representing 13.0% said that it is lack of follow up (monitoring by government officials).
TABLE 4.2.3
QUESTION THREE
Has the poverty alleviation programmes have any effect on your economic life?
Variables Response Percentage (%)
Yes 190 82.6%
No 40 17.4%
Total 230 100%
Source: Computed from questionnaire.
From the above table, 190 respondents representing 82.6% of total respondents agreed that the poverty alleviation programme has affected their economic life while 40 respondent representing 17.4% of the total respondents said no.
TABLE 4.2.4
QUESTION FOUR
Has the poverty alleviation programme been able to increase the level of rural development?
Variables Response Percentage (%)
Yes 170 73.9%
No 50 21.7%
Not sure 10 4.3%
Total 230 100%
Source: Computed from questionnaire.
From the table above, 170 respondents representing 73.9% of the total respondents said that poverty alleviation programme has increased the level of rural development, while 50 respondents representing 21.7% of the total respondents and 10 respondents representing 4.3% of the total respondents said that they are not sure if the poverty alleviation has really increased the level of rural development.
4.2 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
The use of the chi-square may be considered as a measure of discrepancy between O1 and E1. The significant level of 5% and degree freedom will determine the region of acceptance and rejection. The test statistics,  fe¤2 )fo ¬- fe(Schi-square relevant to the hypothesis is given by X2 =
Where X2 = Chi-square
Fo = Observed frequency
Fe = Expected frequency
HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Poverty alleviation programme has not been significantly effective in reducing poverty in Nigeria.
Hi: Poverty alleviation programme has been significantly effective in reducing poverty in Nigeria.
Variables Fo fe fo-fe (fo-fe)2/fe
Yes 180 115 65 36.7
No 50 115 -65 -36.7
 X2=73.4¾Total 230 230
Source: Computed from Table 4.2.1
Therefore, the (calculated) X2 value = 73.4.
The tabulated value of X2 is read from the table of X2. We have X2 (d.f) = 1 with 0.05 level of significance.
X20.05 = 3.841
Decision:
Since X2 calculated is greater than X2 tabulated. That is 73.4 > 3.841. Therefore, we reject the Ho> hypothesis and accept the Hi: hypothesis with the conclusion that poverty alleviation programme has been effective in reducing poverty in Nigeria.


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