BUREAUCRACY AND PROBLEMS: PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA: IN NIGERIA’S CIVIL SERVICE


CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

            This chapter analyses the data and the interpretation of the respondents. By so doing the study shall summarizes some of the data’s collected through the questionnaire items, and interviews schedules were analyzed using statistical tables. In the process of doing this, the research questions of study will be answered on how certain structural variables of bureaucracy affect the effective implementation of government programme will be answered. This presentation was expressed in simple percentage and in tabular form. The percentage were determined by using the formular:
 
 
% = R x 100
       N       I
 
Where %=percentage

            R=Number of responses in each option

            N=Total respondents.

The number of frequency in each option in any of the question were represented in the table as Responses (R)  out of the four hundred questionnaires items distributed, three hundred and sixty were only completed and returned which represented a 90% of the total size.

            ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL DATA

 
CATEGORIES OF STAFF
NO OF STAFF
1.
Management staff GL 13 and above
50
2.
Senior staff GL 08-GL12
70
3.
Middle management staff GL06 -07
140
4.
Junior staff GL 01-06
400

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

    Based on the number of questionnaire (360) returned, the researcher analyzed the data collected as follows:

AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS

Age
M
Percentage
F
Percentage
Total
19-29
72
20%
28
85
100
30-41
130
36.1%
60
17%
190
42-52
38
10%
10
2.8%
48
52& above
18
5%
4
1.1%
22
 
258
71.1%
102
28.9%
360

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

            The above result represented age and sex distribution of respondents, 258 were male representing (71.1%) while 102 were female representing 28.9% with different age groups respectively:

LENGTH OF SERVICE OF OFFICERS

Length of service
Junior staff
%
Senior staff
%
Total
5-10yrs
55
15.2
15
4.2
70
15-20
118
32.8
42
11.7
160
25-30
58
16.1
24
6.7
82
30& above
36
74.1
93
25.9
48
 
267
74.1
93
25.9
360 (100%)

Source: Onah Celestine C. 2008

From the above figure, we as ascertained that 55 junior officers have put in length of service between 5and 10 years, while 118 junior officers have put in length of service between 15 and 20 years. 58 junior officers have put in between 25 and 30 years, while 36 junior officers put in length of service between 30 years and above, representing a total of 267 junior officer with a percentage of 74.1% 15 senior officers have put in a length of service between 15 and 20 years, 24 senior officers put in a length of service 25 and 30 years, while 12 senior officers put in a length of service between 30 years and above representing a total of 93 senior officers with a percentage of 25.9%.

QUESTION I

            Does bureaucracy in Enugu Stat modern organization in variation with the ideal type bureaucracy?

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
280
77.8%
No (negative)
80
22.2%
No Response
-
-
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

 The analysis shows that 280 representing 77.8% of the respondents agreed by saying “Yes” while 80 representing 22.2% marked “No” that they do not agree with the motion. None of the workers did not respond. They are all enlightened about the issue. Therefore, based on this analysis, we can therefore state that bureaucracy in Enugu State modern organization vary with the ideal type bureaucracy.

QUESTION II

            Does ideal type of bureaucracy and its principles not well understood in Enugu State.

 

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
300
83.3%
No (negative)
40
11.1%
No Response
20
5.6%
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

From the table 300 or 83.3% marked “Yes” 40 or 11.1% marked “No” while 20 or 5.6% respondents did not respond. This finally indicates that a greater number of the respondents agree that the ideal type of bureaucracy and it’s Enugu State.

            This is true because bureaucratic principles is a legacy left by the colonial masters, it is inherited from colonial (British). Some Civil Servants in Enugu State are still afraid and inferior about the bureaucratic principles.

QUESTION III

Does Enugu State environment not allow proper institutionalization of bureaucracy and its principles?

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
290
80.5%
No (negative)
50
13.9%
No Response
20
5.6%
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

The analysis shows that 290 or 80.5% of the respondents agreed by saying “Yes” while 50 representing 13.9% marked “No” that they do not agree with the notion. While 20 representing 5.6% did not respond. Therefore based on this analysis, we can finally state that Enugu State environment does not allow proper institutionalization of bureaucracy and its principles.

QUESTION IV

Are there some socio-cultural factors in Enugu State that impinge on ideal bureaucratization as it is in developed world?

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
310
86.1%
No (negative)
50
13.9%
No Response
--
--
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

  A glance at the table shows that 310 representing 86.1% agreed by saying “Yes” while 50 representing 13.9% marked “No” that they do not agree with the notion. None of the workers did not respond they are all enlightened about the issue. Therefore based on this analysis, we can state that socio-cultural factors in Enugu State impinge on ideal type bureaucracy as in the developed countries.

QUESTION V

Is bureaucratic inefficiency of Enugu State Civil Service rooted in the element of its variation with the ideal type (Weberian) bureaucracy?

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
250
69.4%
No (negative)
80
22.2%
No Response
30
8.4%
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

      From the above table 250 or 69.4% of the respondents ticked “Yes” 80 or 22.2% of the respondents ticked “No” while 30 or 8.4% of the respondents did not respond with the following record, we can deduce that since a greater number of the respondents 250 said yes, therefore, we can agree that bureaucratic inefficiency is rooted in the element of its variation with the ideal type (Weberian) bureaucracy.


QUESTION VI

Could it be possible for Enugu State Civil Service or public administration to render service without Bureaucracy inefficiency?

RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
40
11.1%
No (negative)
320
88.9%
No Response
--
--
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

  40 or 11.1% of the respondents ticked “Yes”, while 320 representing 88.9% of the respondent ticked “No” and none of the worker did not respond. They are all enlightened on the issue. It then signifies that it is not possible for Enugu State civil service to survive without bureaucratic problems.

QUESTION VII

Is bureaucracy the best solution to our public administrative system?

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
240
66.7%
No (negative)
120
33.3%
No Response
--
--
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

    On this table, 240 or 66.7% of the respondents ticked “Yes”, 120 or 33.3% of the respondents ticked “No” and none of the respondent or the workers did not respond. Therefore, we can say that bureaucracy is the only solution to our public administration.

            This is true because, if bureaucracy is not adhered strictly, the institution will lack people with pioneering instinct and the Enugu State as a whole will produce authoritarian personalities who lack self confidence and who are content to preserve the status quo.

QUESTION VIII

Do several bureaucracy reforms in Enugu State civil service yield positive result?

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
60
16.7%
No (negative)
280
77.7%
No Response
20
5.6%
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

  From the table 60 representing 16.7% of the respondents ticked “Yes”, while 280 or 77.7% of the respondents ticked “No” and 20 or 5.6% did not respond. It then signifies that all the bureaucratic reforms made, contributed to the inefficiency in Enugu State civil service.

QUESTION IX

Does promotion through seniority lessen competitive anxieties among bureaucrats and enhance administrative efficiency?

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
190
52.2%
No (negative)
130
36.1%
No Response
40
11.1%
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

 A glance at the table shows that 190 or 52.2% marked “Yes”, 130 or 36.1% marked “No”, while 40 or 11.1% respondents did not respond. This indicates that a greater number of the respondents agreed that promotion through seniority lessen competitive anxieties and enhance administrative efficiency.

QUESTION X

Do the structural variables upon which bureaucracy is built militate against public bureaucracy from rendering efficient and effective service delivery in Enugu State?

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
230
63.9%
No (negative)
100
27.8%
No Response
30
8.3%
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

230 or 63.9% of the respondents ticked “Yes”, while 100 or 27. 8% ticked “No” and 30 or 8.3% did not respond. Therefore, this means that the structural variable upon which bureaucracy is built militates against public bureaucracy from rendering efficient and effective service delivery in Enugu State.

QUESTION XI

Does hierarchical arrangement of staff introduce communication problem, reduce social interaction and social support and also limit the use of initiative at the lower level of the organization hierarchy.

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
305
84.7%
No (negative)
45
12.5%
No Response
10
2.8%
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

 305 or 84.7% of the respondents ticked “Yes” while 45 or 12.5% of the respondent ticked “No” and 10 or 2.8% did not respond. Therefore based on this analysis hierarchical arrangement of staff introduces communication problem, reduce social interaction and social support and equally limit the use of initiative at the lower level of the organization hierarchy.

QUESTION XII

Does specialization increase problem of coordination and generate apathy in public bureaucracy in Enugu State?

RESPONSES
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes (positive)
300
83.4%
No (negative)
45
12.5%
No Response
15
4.1%
Total
360
100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

 On the table, 300 or 83.4% of the respondents ticked “Yes”, 45 or 12.5% of the respondents ticked “No” and 15 or 4.1% of the respondents did not respond. Therefore, based on this analysis, we can state that specialization can lead to greater productivity and efficiency but increase problem of coordination which can generate apathy in Enugu State public bureaucracy.

TEST OF HYPOTHESIS

            In testing the formulated hypothesis, the researcher shall employ the use of the chi-square as a measure of assessment. The chi-square decision rule states that Accept Ho if the calculated value of X2 is less than the table value, otherwise reject Ho.

Formular

X2 = E (OF – EF)2 / EF

 

HYPOTHESIS ONE

Hi: Several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu State Civil Service have yielded positive results.

Ho: Several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu State Civil Service have not yielded positive results.

RESPONSES
HO
HI
Total
Yes (positive)
160
40
200
No (negative)
30
120
150
No Response
--
10
10
Total
190
 
360


RT x CT

    CT

For 160 = 200 x 190 / 360 = 105.6

For 40 = 200 x 170 / 360 = 94.4

For 30 = 150 x 190 / 360 = 79.2

For 120 = 150 x 200 / 360 = 83.3

For 10 = 10 x 200 / 360 = 5.6


Fo
Fe
Fo – Fe
(Fo – Fe)2
(Fo – Fe)2 (Fe)
160
105.6
54.4
2959.4
28
40
94.4
-54.4
-2959.4
-31.3
120
79.2
-49.2
-2420-6
-30.6
10
5.6
4.4
19.4
3.5
 
 
 
 
109.6

DF= (R-1) (C-1)

            =(3-1) (3-1)

            =(2) (2)

            =4

            :. 95% (DF) under 4=9.49

Decision

            Given a 95% confidence level lower of 9.49 degree of freedom (DF) and 109.6 table value. We therefore reject Hi and accepted Ho. And concluded that several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu State Civil Service have not yielded positive result.

HYPOTHESIS TWO

Hi: The rigid bureaucratic structure enables the public bureaucracy to render efficient and effective service delivery in Nigeria.

Ho: The rigid bureaucratic structures do not enable public bureaucracy to render efficient and effective service delivery in Nigeria.

RESPONSES
HO
HI
Total
Yes (positive)
160
60
200
No (negative)
30
110
140
No Response
--
--
--
Total
190
170
360



RT x CT
    GT

For 160 = 220 x 190 / 360 = 116.1

For 60 = 220 x 170 / 360 = 103.9

For 30 = 140 x 190 / 360 = 73.9

For 110 = 140 x 170 / 360 = 66.1


Fo
Fe
Fo – Fe
(Fo – Fe)2
(Fo – Fe)2 (Fe)
160
116.1
43.9
1927.2
16.6
60
103.9
-43.9
-1927.2
-18.5
30
73.9
-43.9
-1927.2
-26
110
66.1
43.9
1927.2
29.2
 
 
 
 
90.3

DF= (0-1) (C-1)

            =(3-1) (3-1)

            =(2) )(2)

            =4

 Decision

Given a 95% confidence level under 4 of 9.49 degree of freedom (DF) and 90.3 table values. We therefore reject the Hi and accepted Ho. And concluded that the rigid bureaucratic structures do not enable public bureaucracy to render efficient and effective service delivery in Nigeria.

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