INFLUENCE OF OWNERSHIP ON MEDIA CREDIBILITY: A STUDY OF EBONYI BROADCASTING CORPORATION, (EBBC), ABAKALIKI

A MASTER'S DEGREE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF 
MASS COMMUNICATION
FACULTY OF ARTS
ABSTRACT
Conscious of the far-reaching effects audience trust and confidence could have on the  effectiveness of mass communication, there is perennial craving for credibility on the part of mass media organizations. Media credibility consciousness derives from its proclamation as corporate citizens and the fourth estate of the realm. This study focused on the influence of ownership on the corporate image of media organizations. It considered ownership structures not as adjunct, but the major factor of credibility of media messages. The survey method was used to get analyzable response from the audience of Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation (EBBC) Abakaliki. And the findings showed that while significant value is attached to mass media ownership patterns and structures by audience, there is, at present, predominantly a negative ownership influence on credibility of most Nigerian media organizations. The findings also pinpointed that undue ownership interference in media operations is the major factor responsible for widening credibility gaps between media organizations and their audience and posited that such credibility slump can be corrected by adopting total quality management.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of Study
Statement of Problem
Objectives of Study
Significance of Study
Research Questions
Scope of Study
Definition of Terms.
References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Focus of Review Media Ownership in Nigeria: Historical Perspective Credibility: Its Components Credibility and Media Ownership: A Critical Analysis Implications of Low  Credibility on Media Organization
Theoretical Framework
References

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design:
Population of the Study
Sample Size
Sampling Technique
Instrument of Data Collection: Procedure for Data Collection Validity of Research 
Instrument Reliability of Research Instrument
Method of Data Analysis
References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Tables/Graphs/Research Questions for Analysis
Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Findings
Conclusion
Recommendations
Suggestion for Further Research

BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Gender Classification
Table 2: Age Distribution
Table 3: Educational Qualification
Table 4: Occupational Distribution
Table 5: EBBC Programme Listenership
Table 6: Level of Listenerhip
Table 7: Message Trustworthiness
Table 8: Reasons for Low Audience Trust
Table 9: Relationship between Media Ownership and Audience
Table 10: Nature of Relationship
Table 11: Relationship between Ownership and Media Credibility
Table 12: Reason for Ownership Influence on Media Credibility
Table 13: How Ownership Influences Media Credibility
Table 14: Problems of Media Credibility
Table 15: Nature of Problems
Table 16: Solutions to Credibility Slump

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure I: Pie chart showing relationship between media ownership and audience
Figure II: Bar chart showing the relationship between ownership and media credibility
Figure III: Pie chart showing problems of media credibility
Figure IV: Bar Chart Showing Solutions to Credibility Slump


BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
Anaeto, S. G., Onabanjo, O. S. & Osifeso, J. B. (2008). Models and theories of  communication. Lagos: African Renaissance Books, Inc. Anyaegbudike, V. (2002). Radio/Television production and broadcasting in Nigeria: A book of reading. Enugu: Vigil consultants (Nig). Baran, S. J. (2009). Introduction to mass communication: media literacy and culture. New York: (5th ed.) MacGraw-Hill. Dinkpa, P. (1997). Media management in Nigeria. Lagos: Clear Copy Ltd. Dominick, J. R. (1996). The dynamics of mass communication. (5th ed.) New York: McGraw Hill Companies Inc. Lewis, S. (2003). Reputation and corporate responsibility. London: MORI. MacBride, S. et al (1981). Many voices, one world. Ibadan: University of Ibandan Press. McQuail, D. (2005). Mass communication theory. An introduction. Berverly Hills: Ca Sage publications. 
Nwogbunyama, E. (2009). Media organization and management. Enugu: Zik chuks Publications. Ogunsiji, M. A. (1989). Introduction to print journalism. Lagos: Nelson Publishers Ltd. Ohaja, E. U. (2003). Mass communication research and project report writing. Lagos: John Letterman Ltd. Okafor, G. O. (2002). Communication research. In Okunna (Ed.) Teaching mass communication. A multi-dimensional approach. Enugu: New Generation Books. Okenwa, S. N. (1995). Perspectives in media management. Enugu: Zik ­ chuks Communications

 Okereke, C. (2003). Method of social investigation. Owerri: First Word Publication Omu, F. (1978). Press and politics in Nigeria 1880 ­ 1937. Bristol: Western Printing Services Ltd. Owuamalam, E. O. (2006). Introduction to broadcasting. Owerri: Top Class Agencies Ltd. Severin, W. and Tankard, J. (1991). Mass communication theories. New York: Hastings House. The New international webster dictionary of the english language, 2003 (ed.). Trident Press International. Udoakah, N. (1998). Development communication. Ibadan: Stirling ­ Horden Publishers (Nig) Ltd. Wimmer, R. D. & Dominick, J. R. (2011). Mass media Research: An Introduction. (10th ed.) California: Wads worth.

JOURNALS
 Hovland, C. I., & Weiss, W. (1951). The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness. Opinion quarterly 15:633-650. Olson, J. M. & Zanna, P. (1993). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 44:117-154.

NEWSPAPERS
Agbese, D. (1995). The commercial imperatives and news management. Daily Times, June 26.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Mboho, M. (2004). Introduction to communication research. (Unpublished Lecture Notes, Abia State University, Uturu).

GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS
N.P.C. (2006). National population census data: National Population Commission. Abakaliki Office. NBC (2006). The national broadcasting code. Abuja: National Broadcasting Commission. NPC (1998). The Nigeria press council The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999.

INTERNET SOURCES
 Abdulla et al (2002). The credibility of newspaper, television and on-line news. School of Communication, University of Miami. Retrieved Dec. 24, 2009 from http.com.miamied.
Bellow III, J. R (1998). Definite ruling. A paper submitted to securities and exchange commission, Philippines on March 19, 1998. Retrieved Dec. 24, 2009 from www.google.massmediaandinternet.com Haruna, G. (2008). Nigeria: corruption-how far can the media go? Retrieved February, 9, 2010 from www.allafrica.com/storeis.
Nworah, U. (2007). Segun Adenyi and the village square trap. Retrieved December 24, 2009 from www.nigeriavillagessquare.com. Savolain, R. (2007). Media credibility and cognitive authority: the case of seeking orienting information. Retrieved, 24 Dec. 2009 from www.britainnica.com Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ), Code of ethics. Retrieved 19, April 2010 from www.spj.org.ethicscode.asp Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ), The role of value equivalence in news media selection. Retrieved Dec, 24, 2009 from www.allacademic.com Wilson, P. (2009). Second-hand knowledge. An enquiry into cognitive authority. Retrieved April 19, 2010 from www.britainnica.com.

APPENDIX
Department of Mass Communication,
Faculty of Arts,
University of Nigeria,
Nsukka.

Dear Respondent,
I am a post graduate student of the above university, carrying out an academic research on "Influence of Ownership on media Credibility: A study of Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation (EBBC), Abakaliki". The questionnaire is designed as an instrument for gathering information for the research. I solicit your cooperation, by filling-in the questionnaire, to enable me carry out the work effectively. I promise that every information you give will be treated confidentially. Thanks for your cooperation.

Yours faithfully,

QUESTIONNAIRE
You are required to answer or tick the one that appropriately applies to you. 1 2. . Sex (a)  Male Age (a) 18-24 (d) 50 and above 3. Educational Qualification: (a) SSCE (c) Degree and above 4. Occupation (a) Civil Servant (c) Businessmen/women 5. (b) Student (d) Others (b) Diploma (b) Female (b) 25-34 (c) 35-50
Do you listen to programmes on Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation (EBBC) Abakaliki? (c) Sometimes (a) Yes (b) No
6. How often do you listen to programmes on EBBC (a) Regularly (b) Occasionally (c) Rarely
7. Do you trust the messages you hear from EBBC? (a) Yes (b) No (c) Sometimes
8. If the above is No, what makes you not to trust the message? a. Bad presentation b. Undue ownership influence c. Issues discussed are not topical d. Lack of touch with the station'saudience need
9. Does ownership affect your relationship with EBBS? (a) Yes (b) No (c) Not really
10. How does ownership structure affect your relationship with the station? a. Familiarity with the station programmes b. Credibility problems for the station's programmes c. Interest in the stations programmes d. Respect for the station.
11. Does ownership affect credibility for a media organization? (a) Yes (b) No
12. (c) Not sure
Why do you think ownership influences media credibility?
13. In your opinion, how can ownership influence media credibility?
14. Are there problems to owner's efforts to boost the credibility of mediated messages?  (a) Yes (b) No (c) Not sure
15. What can be responsible for a widening credibility gap between media organizations and their audiences? (a) Undue ownership interference in media operations (b) Lack of touch with audience needs & aspirations (c) Social irresponsibility (d) Lack of requisite expertise
16. What do you think is the solution to negative ownership influence on media credibility?


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