CHAPTER 4: THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE PLANNING ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY ACCESS BANK PLC, OKPARA AVENUE ENUGU)


CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION
According to Kerlinger, (1973: 134), data analysis involves the categorizing, manipulating and summarizing of data to obtain answers to research questions. The purpose of this research analysis is to reduce data into intelligent and interpretable form so that the related questions of the research problem can be studied and tested. Moreover, the data collected from questionnaires administered will be tabulated and analyzed statistically for the presentation analysis, we would simply tabulate the responses and construct a frequency table for close ended questions. We would now present and analyze each question using simple percentage and construct frequency table.

4.1.1Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to Sex.
Table 4.1.1
Sex
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Male 29 43
Female 38 57
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011. 

From the table above, 43% of the respondents are male while 57% are female. This shows hat female out-numbered male in payroll of Access Bank Plc, Okpara Avenue, Enugu.

4.1.2Frequency Distribution of Respondents According to
Age

Table 4.1.2
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
26 - 35 years 35 52
36 - 45 years 22 33
46 and above 10 15
Total 67 100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.

In the above table, 52% of the respondents fall between age bracket of 26 - 35 years, 33% fall between 36 - 45 years and 15% are 46 years and above.

4.1.3 Frequency Distribution According to Qualification
Table 4.1.3
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
O/A Level 12 18
OND 30 45
HND/B.Sc 15 22
Masters and above 10 15
Total 67 100
Source: Field Survey, 2011

The above table shows that 18% of the Access Bank staff have O/A Level and constituted the cleaners, securities and drivers. 45% are OND holders and Constituted the Cashiers and Tellers. 22% are HND & B.Sc holder and these handle cheques payments, fund transfer, bureau de change and the ICT and marketers. Finally 15% have masters degrees and above, this group constituted the head of operations, managers and other top executives.

4.1.4Frequency Distribution Showing How Long the Staff
Have Been in the Organisation.
Table 4.1.4
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
1 - 4 years 30 45
5 - 8 years 26 39
9 and above 11 16
Total 67 100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.

This table shows that 45% of the respondents have been in the organisation for 1 - 4 years, 39% have stayed for 5 - 8 years and 16% have stayed for 9 years and above.

4.1.5Frequency Distribution Showing to What Extent the Bank Engage in Corporate planning.

Table 4.1.5
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
To a very great extent 43 64
To a great extent 14 21
To an extent 10 15
Undecided 0 0
Total 67 100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.

From the above table, 64% of the respondent agreed that the bank engage in corporate planning to a very great extent, 21% said they engage to a great extent, and 15% said to an extent.

4.1.6Frequency Distribution Showing What is the Relationship Between Corporate Planning and
Achieving the Objective of the Organisation.
Table 4.1.6
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Positively correlated 50 75
Negatively correlated 12 18
No relationship 5 7
Undecided 0 0
Total 67 100
Source: Field Survey, 2011

This table show that 75% of the respondents opined that corporate planning and achieving the objectives are positively correlated, that means that they have a direct linear relationship with each other. 18% agreed that they are negatively correlated and that there is no direct linear relationship between them, 7% opined that there is no relationship at all between the two variables.

4.1.7Frequency Distribution of How Does Corporate Planning Affect the Performance of the bank
Table 4.1.7
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Positively 50 75
Negatively 1 2
No effect 16 23
Undecided 0 0
Total 67 100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.

From the table it is seen that corporate planning have a direct positive effect on organisational performance. 75% of the respondents supported this, only 23% agreed that there is no effect and 2% said it has negative effect.

4.1.8What are the Causes of Deviations from Planned Courses of Actions
Table 4.1.8
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Too broad and ambiguous plan 22 32
Lack of communication 21 31
Lack of monitoring and control 25 37
Total 67 100
Source: Field Survey, 2011

This table shows that making plans that are broad and ambiguous, lack of communication of plans and lack of monitoring and control of the plans, all are the reasons why there are some deviations from planned courses of action.

4.2 TEST OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To ascertain the hypotheses, the chi-square (X) method 2 was used.
The formula for the calculation of chi-square is as follows:
X=• (Oi - ei) 2  2 ei
where
oi = Observed frequency
ei =expected frequency
4.2.1 Hypothesis I
H : Corporate Planning has no impact on the performance of the organization.
H : Corporate Planning has impact on the performance of the organization.
Computation of How Corporate Planning Affect the Organisational Performance.

Table 4.2.1
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Positively 45 67
Negatively 6 9
No effect 16 24
Undecided 0 0Total 67 100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.

57 Computation of Chi-Square
Responses oi ei 0i - ei (oi - ei)
(oi - ei) 2  2 ei

Positively 45 16.75 28.25 798 47.65
Negatively 6 16.75 (10.75) 116 6.879
No effect 16 16.75 (10.75) 0.56 0.03
Undecided 0 16.75 (16.75) 281 16.75
Total 67 71.32

Computation of the critical value. The degree of freedom d.f = (R - 1) (C - 1)
where
R = no of row
C = no of column
In this case,
df = (R - 1)
= 4 - 1 = 3
The level of significance = 0.05 referring to the standard chi-square table, at 3 df = 7.815.

Decision Rule on the Hypothesis
To accept the null hypothesis, decision rule is that where the calculated value of chi-square is below the critical value of chi-square, the hypothesis is accepted, while it will be rejected when it is above the table value at a given level of significance and degree of freedom. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected as the calculated value of chi-square 71.32 is above the critical value 7.815. It is therefore, concluded that corporate planning has a lot of impact on the organizational performance.

4.2.2 Hypothesis II
H:Monitoring and controlling of organisational plans do not reduce deviations from planned courses of action and does not boost organisational performance.

H :Monitoring and controlling of organisational plans reduce deviations from planned courses of action and boost organisational performance. Computation of how monitoring and control of organisational plans reduce deviations from planned courses of action.

Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
To a very great extent 19 28
To a great extent 42 63
To an extent 5 7
Undecided 1 2
Total 67 100
Source: Field Survey, 2011 60
Computation of Chi-Square
Responses oi ei 0i - ei (oi - ei) 2 (oi - ei) 2 ei
To a very great 19 16.75 2.25 5.06 0.30 extent
To a great extent 42 16.75 25.25 638 38.08
To an extent 5 16.75 (11.75) 138 8.24
Undecided 1 16.75 (15.75) 248 14.81
Total 67  61.16
Calculated chi-square = 61.16
Computation of the critical value of chi-square.
The level of significance = 0.05

The degree of freedom d.f = R - 1 = 4 - 1 = 3
Referring to the standard chi-square table at 3 d.f under 0.05 level of significance , the critical value = 7.815.

Decision
The null hypothesis is rejected as the calculated value of chi-square 61.16 is above the critical value 7.815. Therefore, it is concluded that monitoring and controlling of organisational plans reduce deviations from 61 planned courses of action and also boost organizational performance.

4.2.3 Hypothesis III
H :Corporate planning does not contribute to the achievements of the goals and objectives of the organisation.

H:Corporate planning contributes to the achievements of the goals and objectives of the organisation.

Computation of how corporate planning contributes to achievement of the organisational goals and objectives.

Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Much 50 75
Little 10 15
Very Little 7 10
Total 67 100
Source: Field Survey, 2011 62
Computation of Chi-Square
Responses oi ei 0i - ei (oi - ei)
(oi - ei) 2 2 ei
Much 50 22.3 27.7 767 34.39
Little 10 22.3 (12.3) 151 6.77
Very Little 7 22.3 (15.3) 234 10.49
Total 67 51.65
Computation of the critical value of chi-square
The level of significance = 0.05
df = R - 1 = 3 - 1 = 2
Referring to the standard chi-square table at 2 df = 5.991
Therefore, corporate planning contribute heavily in achieving the organisational goals and objectives.


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