INSTITUTIONS IN MICRO AND SMALL AGRO – ALLIED PROCESSING ENTERPRISES: IMPLICATIONS FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA.

A Thesis submitted to the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT AND EXTENSION of EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY, ABAKALIKI in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of doctor of philosophy (Ph.D) in agricultural economics


Abstract
The growth of agro-allied processing enterprises in Ebonyi State seems not to be developing at the same rate as farm production aggregates inspite of the fact that the state is highly agrarian.  This could be attributed to the lack of development of other complementary aggregates of agribusiness other than the farm aggregate, thereby resulting to a low value addition to farm output and a high level of poverty in the state.  The central objective of the study was to establish the roles of institutions in the development of micro/small agro processing enterprises and implications for poverty alleviation.  Cassava, Rice, Oil palm fruits processing enterprises were used as case study.  Data were collected from 264 processors from nine (9) Local Government Areas of the state.  Data collected was through the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules administered to the processors and credit institutions.  Data analysis involved the use of descriptive statistics, cross tabulation, multiple regression analysis, likert scale techniques, impact assessment model using scheffe test and the use of factor analysis.  The major findings showed that out of the 37% mean loanable fund for micro/small enterprises, only 8% was disbursed by banks.  Majority of the processors had low educational status with a mean of 9 years, a mean age of 44 years and a mean family size of 9 persons.  The mean loan obtained was N72,972 with no significant difference between those who accessed loan from formal and non formal sources.  Mean size of capital, value of Enterprise Assets and Monthly Revenue from enterprises were N68,936, N195,204 and N33,379 respectively for the three enterprises with significant differences in their mean values.  The coefficient of determination (R2) on the influence of socio-economic characteristics of the processors on the amount of credit obtained from financial institutions was 76%.  Many social amenities were not functional while some were non existent.  Banking Institutions and Electricity Supply had no effect on the development of micro/small enterprises.  There were significant differences in the level of access to institutional facilities by male and female processors, which reflected on their access to education, formal credit, acquisition of land and raw materials among others.  All the institutional facilities were highly significant to poverty alleviation but the most important ones were access to credit, improvement on safety and security, improvement in public transport and quality of infrastructure.  Enhanced income had significant effect on entrepreneurs’ households, businesses and neighbourhood but was not significant on their self-esteem.  Rice processing enterprise had the highest impact among the three enterprises.  Six factors were identified as constraints to enterprise development using varimax rotated factor matrix.  They are issues of inappropriate and high cost of equipment, sustainability and business environment factors, socio-infrastructural problems, economic/financial setback, marketing inhibitions and government policy issue.  It is recommended that Government empowers Micro Finance institutions (MFIs), improves on the provision of basic infrastructure and encourages local fabrication of equipment.  Processors should form genuine and functional cooperatives to benefit maximally from government programmes and related institutions, thereby alleviating poverty in the State.

Table of content

Title:                                                                                                             Pages:
Cover Page: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -        
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                    i
Approval Page:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                    ii
Certification Page: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                    iii
Acknowledgement:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                    iv
Dedication:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                    v
Abstract:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                    vi
Table of Content: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                    vii
List of Tables: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                    xiv
List of Figures:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                    xviii

Chapter One
1.0             Introduction: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - -                   1
1.1             Background:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                   1
1.2             Problem Statement:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                   7
1.3             Objective of Study:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                   11
1.4             Hypotheses of Study:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                  12
1.5             Justification for the Study:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                  13

Chapter Two
2.0             Literature Review and Conceptual Framework:                      16
2.1             Introduction:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                16
2.1.1       Concept of Micro and Small Enterprise Development: - - - -               19
2.2             Policies for Revitalizing the Industrial Sector:  - - - - - - - - -               21
2.2.1       Status: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                26
2.2.2       Raw Materials utilization:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               27
2.2.3       Infrastructure:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                27
2.2.4       Investment in Economically Disadvantaged Areas:  - - - - --               28
2.2.5       In – Plant – Training:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                28
2.2.6       Local Value Addition:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --               28
2.2.7       Export Oriented Industries:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               28
2.2.8       Research and Development (R & D):  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --               28
2.2.9       Abolition of Excise Duty:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                29
2.3             Definition of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises:  - - - - -              30
2.4             Definition and Importance of Agro-Allied Based Enterprises:-                     32
2.5             Characteristic or features of Micro/Small Enterprises:  - - - -                          34
2.6             Contributions/Importance of Micro/Small Enterprises:  - - --                          36
2.7             Definition and Concept of Institution: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                          40
2.8             Institutions and Micro/Small Enterprises Development:  - --              42
2.8.1       Government or Government Agencies:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - --             43
2.8.2       Ministry of Education:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --             43
2.8.3       National Directorate of Employment:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --             43
2.8.4       Ministry of Health:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              44
2.8.5       Ministry of Works, Transport and Housing:  - - - - - - - - - - -              44
2.8.6       Ministry of Public Utilities:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              45
2.8.7       Ministry of Justice:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             45
2.8.8       Ministry of Science and Technology:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --             45
2.8.9       Ministry of Agriculture:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --              45
2.8.10  Democracy:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              45
2.8.11  Financial Institutions:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               46
2.8.12  Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs):   - - - - - - - - - - -               47
2.8.13  Management Training Institutions:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                           49
2.8.14  Market and Marketing Institutions:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             49
2.8.15  Policy Framework:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             50
2.9             Problems confronting Micro/Small Enterprises Development:                       51
2.9.1       Inadequate and Inefficient Infrastructural Facilities:  - - - - -               51
2.9.2       Constrained Access to Credit:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --             52
2.9.3       Poor Management practices and Low Entrepreneurial Skill:                           53
2.9.4       Financial Indiscipline:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                           53
2.9.5       Poor Implementation of Policies:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                            54
2.9.6       Restricted Market Access:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              54
2.9.7       Overbearing Regulatory and Operational Environment:  - - -                          55
2.9.8       Problem of Machinery and Equipment:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - --             56
2.9.9       Human Development:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                         56
2.10         Women and Micro/Small Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                         58
2.11         Financial Institution and Micro Finance for Micro/Small
Enterprises Development in Nigeria:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                        64
2.11.1  Central Bank Credit Guideline:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                        65
2.11.2  Small Scale Industries Credit Guarantee Scheme:  - - - - - - - -             65
2.11.3  Establishment of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (1979):                   65
2.11.4  The Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industry (NBCI) (1973):                     65
2.11.5  The Nigeria Industrial Development Bank Ltd (NIDB):  - - - -             66
2.11.6  The National Economic Reconstruction Fund (NERFUND): -             66
2.11.7  World Bank – Assisted SME II Loan Project:  - - - - - - - - - --              67
2.11.8  Rural Banking Scheme:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --             67
2.11.9  People’s Bank of Nigeria (PBN):  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              68
2.11.10                     Community  Banks:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                        68
2.11.11                     National Directorate of Employment (NDE): - - - - - - -             68
2.12         Micro Finance for Micro/Small Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - -                       71
2.13         Definition and Concept of Poverty:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                       76
2.14         Agro-Allied Enterprises and Income Generation:  - - - - - - - --                       78
2.15         Strategies for Poverty Reduction:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             82
2.16         Industrialization Process in Ebonyi State Food Sector:  - - - - -                       85
2.17         Conceptual Framework:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                        88

Chapter Three
3.0             Methodology: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --               94
3.1             Study Area: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --               94
3.2             Sampling Techniques:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              95
3.3             Method of Data Collection:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               99
3.4             Nature of Data Collected:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --              100
3.5             Method of Data Analysis:  - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -              102
3.5.1       Use of Descriptive Statistics:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --             102
3.5.2       Multiple Regression Model:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              102
3.5.3       Test of Hypotheses:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             109
3.5.4       Use of Cross – Tabulation:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              110
3.5.5       Likert Scale Technique:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --            111
3.5.6       Impact Assessment Model:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              112
3.5.7       Use of Factor Analysis:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --             114

Chapter Four
4.0             RESULTS: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              115
4.1             Socio – Economic Attributes of Micro/Small Agro Processors
in the State:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             115
4.1.1     Identification of Agro-allied processing enterprises in the
           state and related institutions:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                         115
4.1.2     Micro/Small Agro-allied processing enterprises and Banking
Institutions in the State:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --            117
4.1.3     Socio – Economic characteristics of Micro/Small Agro –
Processing Entrepreneurs in Ebonyi State:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                     118
4.1.4     Years in Skill Acquisition and processing:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                  120
4.1.5     Enterprise Characteristics:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                     121
4.1.6     Age of Enterprise and Registration with Agencies:  - - - - - - - - -                     121
4.1.7     Sources of Capital at Inception of Business:  - - - - - - - - - - - - --                    123
4.1.8     Loan obtained and Sources:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                     124
4.1.9     Number of Informal Credit Organisations:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                    125
4.1.10 Distance of Enterprise location from Banks:  - - - - - - - - - - - -                        126
4.1.11          Number and Types of Organisations Entrepreneurs belonged to: --                       127
4.1.12 Size of Working Capital and Value of Enterprise Assets: - - - -           128
4.1.13  Monthly Revenue from Enterprise:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                         130
4.1.14 Age and Cost of Agro-Processing Equipment:  - - - - - - - - - - -                        131
4.1.15 Number of Employees engaged by Entrepreneurs: - - - - - - - - -          132
4.1.16          Fulltime Workers, Apprentice, Casual and Unpaid Workers
engaged in Agro-Processing:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -       133
4.1.17  Assistance received by Processors:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --    135
4.1.18  Cross-Tabulation Results:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -     136
4.2.0      Results of Regression Analysis:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -     153
4.2.1      Summary of Regression Results in Regression 1 – Effect of
Socio – Economic characteristics of Entrepreneurs on Amount
of Institutional Credit for Enterprise Development:  - - - - - - - - - - -             154
4.2.2      Result of Second Regression – Effect of Socio – Economic
characteristics on the level of Assistance received from institutions:           157
4.2.3      Result of Inter – Correlation Analysis:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             160
4.3.0      Influence of Institutions on Establishment and Development of
Agro-Processing Enterprises: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             161
4.4.0      Assessment of Gender Issues that influenced Institutional involvement
in the Development of Agro-Allied Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - -            165
4.4.1      Cross-Tabulation between the Genders:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             165
4.4.2      Problems of Female Processors and Suggestions for Improvement: -             171
4.5.0      Effects or influences of Institutional Performance on Agro-
Processing Enterprise Development And Poverty Reduction:   - - -   -          173
4.5.1      Causes of Low Performance:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -   173
4.5.2      Description of Business Growth and Factors Influencing growth: -- 174
4.5.3      Effect of Enhanced Income on Agro-Processing Business, Family,
Neighbourhood and Self Esteem of Entrepreneurs:  - - - - - - - - - - -              176
4.5.4      Beneficiary Impact Assessment of Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - -- -              178
4.5.5      Respondents’ Perception of Relationship between access to
Institutional facilities and implication on Poverty Reduction:  - - - -             184
4.6.0      Results of Factor Analysis: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --  187

Chapter Five
5.0             Discussion:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -      191
5.1       Introduction:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -   191
5.1.1       Agro-Allied Micro/Small Processing Enterprises and Related
Institutions: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -     191
5.1.2       Micro/Small Agro – Allied Processing Enterprises and Banking
Institutions in Ebonyi State:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              196
5.1.3       Socio-Economic Characteristics of Respondents and Relationship
between the three Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --              197
5.1.4       Years in Skill Acquisition and Processing:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 200
5.1.5       Enterprise characteristics: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -  201
5.1.6       Age of Enterprises and Registration with Agencies:  - - - - - - - - - --   202
5.1.7       Sources of Capital at Inception of Business:  - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -  204
5.1.8       Loan obtained and Sources:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -  204
5.1.9       Number of Informal Credit Organisations:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -    206
5.1.10  Distance of Enterprise location from Bank:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              206
5.1.11  Number and Types of Organisations Entrepreneurs belonged to:  - -             206
5.1.12  Size of Working Capital and Value of Enterprise Assets:  - - - - - - -  207
5.1.13  Monthly Revenue from Enterprises:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              208
5.1.14  Age and Cost of Agro-Processing Equipment:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - --  209
5.1.15  Number of Employees engaged by Entrepreneurs:  - - - - - - - - - - - -             210
5.1.16  Fulltime Workers, Apprentices, Casual and Unpaid Workers
engaged in Agro-Processing:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- --  210
5.1.17  Assistance received by Processors:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- --              211
5.2.0       Result of Regression Analysis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -  214
5.2.1       Influence of some Socio-Economic attributes of Agro – Processing
Entrepreneurs on amount of Credit obtained from both Forma and
Non Formal Credit Institutions:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -    215
5.2.2       Influence of some Socio-Economic attributes of Agro – Processing
Entrepreneurs on level of Assistance received from Government
Agencies and Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs):  - - - - - -    217
5.2.3       Result of Inter – Correlation Analysis:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -    219
5.3.0       Influence of Institutions on Establishment and Development of
Processing Enterprises: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -    220
5.4.0       Gender Issues that Influence Institutional Involvement in the
Development of Agro- Allied Processing Enterprises: - - - - - - - - -    224
5.4.1       Cross-Tabulation between Male and Female Entrepreneurs with
Chi – Square output Result:  - - -   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  224
5.4.2       Problems of Female Processors and Suggestions for Improvement:-  230
5.5.0       Effects or Influence of Institutional Performance on Agro –
Processing Enterprise Development and Poverty Reduction:  - - - - - 231
5.5.1       Causes of Low Performance:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- --   231
5.5.2       Description of Business Growth and Factors influencing growth
of Agro-Processing Business:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --   232
5.5.3       Effect of Enhanced Income and Agro-Processing on Business,
Family, Neighbourhood and Self Esteem of Entrepreneurs:  - - - - - - 234
5.5.4       Beneficiary Impact Assessment of Enterprises: - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - 235
5.5.5       Respondents’ Perception of Relationship between access to
Institutional Facilities and Implication on Poverty Reduction:  - - - -             237
5.6.0       Identification of Factors that are Constraints to the Performance of
Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - -  -   239

Chapter Six
6.0             summary, conclusion and recommendation:  - - -          251
6.1            Summary: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -     251
6.2            Conclusion:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --    262
6.3            Recommendations:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  -    264
6.3.1     Recommendation to Government: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -    264
6.3.2     Recommendation to Processors:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  -    266
6.4            Suggested Areas for further Research: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -   267

References:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -     268

Appendix:
Inter – Correlation Analysis Table: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -     279
Research Questionnaire to Processors:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --                       281
Research Questionnaire to Banks:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                       299


LIST OF TABLES

Tables                                                                                                           Page
3.1    Production of Cassava, Rice and Oil Palm Fruits in Ebonyi
         State according to L.G.As in Metric Tonnes:  - - - - - - - - - - -                 97
3.2    Number of identified Processors according to L.G.As:  - - - -                 97
3.3    Number of Processors, Communities and L.G.As selected for
         the study:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              98
1.             Percentage Distribution of Loanable and disbursed Fund to
         Micro/Small Agro-processors by Banks:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                117
2.             Socio-Economic attributes of Entrepreneurs -Age Distribution,
Household Size, marital Status and Educational Status:  - - --                119
3.             Years in Skill Acquisition and Processing:  - - - - - - - - - - - - -               120
4.             Enterprise characteristics:  percentage Distribution According
to Gender, location of Enterprise, Primary occupation and
Enterprises chosen: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               121
5.             Age Distribution of Enterprises and Percentage Distribution of
Enterprises with Business Registration:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                 122
6.             Distribution of Respondents by sources of Capital at Inception
of Business:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               123
7.             Distribution of Entrepreneurs according to loan obtained and
sources:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              124
8.             Distribution of Entrepreneurs according to number of Informal
          Credit Organisation in their Community:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               125
9.             Percentage Distribution of Processors according to Distance of
Enterprise location from bank:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               126
10.       Percentage Distribution of Entrepreneurs according to number
         and Type of Processing Groups they belonged to: - - - - - - - -                127
11.       Percentage Distribution of Entrepreneurs according to size of
         Working Capital and Total Value of Capital Assets:  - - - - -                   129
12.       Percentage Distribution of Entrepreneurs according to
Monthly Revenue from Enterprise: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                130
13.       Percentage Distribution of Equipment according to years of
         usage and Cost:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - -                131
14.       Percentage Distribution of Entrepreneurs according to number
         of employees engaged:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                132
15.       Percentage Distribution of Fulltime, Apprentice, Casual and
         Unpaid Workers engaged in Agro-Processing:  - - - - - - - - - -                134
16.       Percentage Distribution of Entrepreneurs according to forms
         of Assistance Received and Relevant Institutions:  -  - - - - - -                135
17.       Cross-Tabulation Result relating Gender of Enterprise Owner
and the 3 Agro - Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                137
18.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Age of Enterprise Owner and the
three Agro-Processing Enterprises:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                 138
19.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Family Size among the three Agro-
         Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                139
20.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Educational Status of Processors
         and Agro-Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                140
21.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Years spent in Processing with the
         three Agro-Processing Enterprises:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               141
22.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Entrepreneurs who obtained loan
         by the Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             142
23.       Cross-Tabulation Result of sources of loan by the three
Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -              143
24.       Cross-Tabulation of Amount of Loan obtained with the
Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - -              144
25.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Years spent in Skill Acquisition
         with the Processing Enterprises:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               145
26.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Size of Working Capital of the
         Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                146
27.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Total Value of Capital Assets of
         the Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -               148
28.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Number of Employees by the three
Agro-Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               149
29.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Monthly Revenue of the three
Processing Enterprises:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              150
30.       Cross-Tabulation Result of Cost of Equipment of the Processing
         Enterprises:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                151
31.       Cross-Tabulation of Number of Organisation Entrepreneurs
         belonged to:   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --               152
32.       Summary of Result of three functional forms in Regression 1:  -                       154
33.       Summary of Regression Result of the effects of the Socio-
         Economic Characteristics of Entrepreneurs on Amount of
         Institutional Credit got for Enterprise Development:          - - - - - -                    155
34.       Summary of Stepwise Regression of effect of Socio -
Economic Characteristics of Entrepreneurs on the level of
Assistance received from Institutions:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               158
35.       Distribution of Respondents according to Availability and
         Functionality of Social Infrastructure/Amenities:   - - - - - - - -               162
36.       Distribution of Respondents according to Monthly Expenditure
         on provision of Own Amenities and Services:  - - - - - - - - - -                 163
37.       Likert Scale Analysis of the Availability and Influence of some
         Infrastructure/Amenities on the Establishment and Development
         of Micro/Small Agro-Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - -               164
38.       Cross-Tabulation with X2 output of Gender with Access to
Institutional Facilities:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              166
39.       Problems of Female Agro-Processors and Suggestions for
         Improvement:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               170
40.       Distribution of Respondents according to causes of low
         performance in Agro-Processing Business:  - - - - - - - - - - -                   174
41.       Distribution of Respondents according to description of
         Business Growth and Factors influencing growth of Agro-
         Processing Enterprises:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                  175
42.       Distribution of Entrepreneurs according to effects of increased
         Income from Agro-Processing on Family, Neighbourhood and
         Self Esteem:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                  177
43.       Impact Assessment of Agro-Processing on Business
Development and Quality of life of Family of Processors:  -                  179
44.       Impact Assessment Test of Enterprises on Neighbourhood:  - -              181
45.       Impact Assessment of Enterprises on Processors’ Self Esteem:                          183
46.       Perception of Respondents on Possible Impact of Institutional
Facilities and Implication on Poverty Reduction:   - - - - - - -                 184
47.       Likert Scale Analysis of the Perceived Impact of Institutional
         facilities to Business Environment and Poverty Reduction:  -                186
48.       Varimax Rotated Factor Matrix of Factors that are considered
         hindrances to Micro/Small Scale Enterprises Development in
         Ebonyi State:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                188

Table I in Appendix – Inter-Correlation Analysis of some socio –
Economic Characteristics of Entrepreneurs with Amount of Loan
obtained from Financial Institutions: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              279

Table II in Appendix – Inter-Correlation Analysis of some socio –
Economic characteristics of Entrepreneurs with the level of Assistance
received from Government Agencies and Non Governmental
Organisations (NGOs):  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             280

List of Figures
Figure                                                                                                  Page
Conceptual Framework – Relationship between Institutions,
Micro/Small Agro – Allied Processing Enterprises and Poverty
Alleviation:    - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -        88


THIS IS A SAMPLE | WE ARE PROFESSIONALS IN WRITING


chapter one

1.0                                                                                                       Introduction
1.1             Background:
The role and contributions of micro and small enterprises to economic and social development have been universally recognized as crucial and particularly for industrialization in developing countries, (Anderson, 1982).  One of the enduring programme approaches to poverty reduction is micro and small enterprises development.  The pursuit of poverty reduction should involve measures employed to empower the populace to be economically productive with a view to improving their quality of life.

The proper development of every developing economy depends to a large extent on the establishment of viable Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) since it is the MSMEs that later develop into mega enterprises or companies either through mergers and/or acquisition of other businesses or growth through stages over time.  Bhalla, (1992) affirmed that it is an established fact that industrial and economic development among countries come faster through viable micro, small and medium scale enterprises than through large-scale enterprises.  This is particularly the model handed down to the world by the Asian – Countries.  The success of the Asian countries is their resolute and painstaking development of their micro, small and medium enterprises.

In line with Federal Ministry of Industry (1993), micro and small enterprises employ more labour per unit capital employed, mobilize domestic savings for investment, promote the use of raw materials, serve as training grounds for indigenous entrepreneurs, provide raw materials for larger organisations and make for equitable distribution of income as well as ensure regional balance in industrialization.  Adeleja (2004) noted that micro and small businesses make an important contribution to real income growth and equity in developing countries.  They are the source of future employment with new jobs arising from the small business sector than the large enterprises.  As small businesses grow in size and number, the economic benefits spread widely through the community.  Micro and small businesses tend to be industries that are labour intensive and rapidly exploit new market opportunities.  They create jobs particularly for the poorest and are typically strong agents as market force innovation.  Income generated by micro and small businesses is spent on education, health, shelter, nutrition and other quality life improvement.  Therefore they contribute immensely to employment generation, rural development, utilization of indigenous resources, economic growth and industrialization.

There is mounting evidence that non-agricultural income is an important source to farm and other rural households since the incomes generated from agricultural production are not high enough to guarantee sustainable livelihood for the household.  Micro and small enterprises may be agro-allied or non agro-based.  The availability of food in adequate quantity and quality all year round at affordable price is the aim of the National Food Security.  The target focuses on enhanced food production, processing, storage as well as distribution and marketing.  Agro-allied enterprises are strictly dependent on farm products for its sustainability and include cassava processing, palm oil processing, vegetable oil processing, rice milling, fruit processing into juice, processing of yams into flour, snack production and milling of agricultural products.

Non agro-based enterprises on the other hand are not directly dependent on agricultural products.  They include handicrafts and various professional skills such as black smiting, knitting, petty trading, sewing, carpentry, pottery, weaving baskets, mat making, cloth making, hair dressing among others.  They are however indirectly or directly related to agribusiness through some forward and backward linkages (Alimba 1995).  Adelaja (2004) observed that most raw materials for cottage and small-scale industries are agro-based.  Therefore the intimate relationship between agricultural and rural non-farm industries indicates that the vitality of the agricultural sector will to a large extent determine the attractiveness of rural manufacturing investments.  Agro-allied processing enterprises therefore complement farm activities in providing gainful employment and increased income to the people as well as forming economic linkages with the farm.

Institutions on a broad definition according to North (1994) are the devices that structure political, economic and social interactions.  They include social networks, gender roles, legal systems, etc.  They are either state or non state.  Institution can also be understood in terms of organisations such as banks, government agencies, community associations, trade and professional unions, kinship network and markets.  Understanding institutions is important in any project attempting to reduce poverty because they affect people’s opportunities by establishing and maintaining their access to social materials and natural resources.  Institutions involved with enterprise development could be government ministries, agencies and parastatals, formal educational institutions, financial institutions, non-governmental organisations, professional bodies, private consultants and external donor agencies.  These institutions have potentials of promoting entrepreneurial skills for the development of micro and small agro-allied processing enterprises.  These institutions could be grouped under government and non-government, rural and urban institutions.

Among government institutions are ministries, agencies and parastatals that favour the establishment and development of micro/small agro-allied processing enterprises.  The non-governmental institutions are banks, Non-Governmental Organisations, professional bodies, etc.  Institutions can also be categorised into rural or urban depending on where they are predominant.  Rural institutions comprise of cultural and traditional setting of the rural populace.  Age grade system, town union organisations, land tenure systems, women associations and informal unions, credit acquisition are among the rural institutions.  Urban institutions include banks, urban market network and associations,            external funding agencies for micro and small enterprise development.  North, 1994 asserted that, weak institutions affect the performance of the enterprises, which leads to poverty.  On the other hand poverty is reduced when these institutions strongly favour the establishment and growth of micro and small agro-allied processing enterprises.

In recognition of micro and small enterprise benefits, Federal Government has put in place agencies like National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), which has various mandates to deliver social services to micro and small enterprises.  Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) encourages investment and creates opportunities for self-reliance and economic empowerment of the people.  It is important to ensure that partnership between public and private investments is encouraged.  In some cases, it may require more investment from the private sector to ensure business growth, generation of jobs, high incomes and productivity.  In other instance, government must provide the enabling environment as it affects basic infrastructure, good governance and regulatory framework (Ibrahim 2005).

Ebonyi State is a young and agrarian state.  It has large expanse of arable land, large population and conducive environment to produce enough food for her people and for export as well as raw materials for food processing industries (EBSG Blue Print 2004).  As a young and agrarian state, she needs rapid development in the food sector to make meaningful contribution to the industrialization of the nation.  However, being a young state, the deplorable state of rural roads as well as lack of electricity and water in some areas of the state adversely affect the take off and sustained growth of rural industrialization in the food sector.

Fresh food crops due to their physiology are prone to spoilage and significant quantity of fresh crops produced by farmers in Ebonyi State are found to be lost to various forms of spoilage due to improper handling during marketing and distribution.  This colossal post harvest loss contributes to high poverty level in the rural farming communities and urban centres.  Distribution of fresh foods in the state was found to be disorganized and constrained by lack of physical infrastructure, lack of marketing information system, commodity standardization and economic services/credit facilities according to Ebonyi State Government (EBSG) Blue Print (2004).  Preservation, storage or conversation of food into value added stable consumer products can serve as a veritable means of increasing the wealth base of the citizenry as well as a means of employment generation and poverty alleviation in the state.

Institutions for the reduction of poverty through micro/small agro-allied processing enterprises must promote opportunities, facilitate empowerment and enhance security at all levels.  Generally, institutions must create incentives for people to invest in more efficient technology, increase their skills and organise efficient markets thereby elevating the economic potentials and social status of the populace.

1.2             Problem Statement:
Over the years, the expected impact of micro and small enterprises in the creation of significant employment opportunities has not been felt.  Nigerian’s industrial experience has faltered as a result of its weak foundation due mainly to lack of appropriate linkages between micro, small and medium enterprises, large corporations and seemingly weak institutional framework.  Adeniyi and Daramola (2004) stated that the vertical integration and forward or backward linkages expected between industrial establishments across scale boundaries (micro, small, medium and large industries) have not taken place.

Federal Ministry of Industries (1993) stated that, weak management, limited access to institutional sources of credit, poor legal environment, infrastructural problems as well as no ready market for finished products, bad governance and corruption are some of the limiting factors against the development of micro and small enterprises.  Despite the realization that micro/small enterprises are the growth engine of the nation’s economy, Obiora (2004) noted that the sub-sector has been bedevilled with problems such as fluctuating and prohibitive interest rate and volatile exchange rate regimes, which make it difficult for entrepreneurs to seek credit from banks.  There is lack of appropriate policy guidelines to protect the infant industries.  He equally observed that Nigerians have unbridled appetite for foreign goods and this has resulted to closure or/and downsizing of few existing small industries.  High cost of supplementing our poor infrastructure and the impact of corruption on the cost of doing business have accounted for low returns on micro and small enterprises investment.

According to Akinlami (2006), taxation is enforced by the three tiers of government and micro and small enterprises seem to face the jeopardy of multiple taxations.  Limited access to institutional credit is a major inhibiting factor in the growth and development of micro/small enterprises.  This explains why many small businesses have been started mostly on personal savings, family contribution and support from friends and well wishers (Okoye, 2004).

EBSG Blue Print 2004, observed that, Nigerian farmers, including Ebonyi farmers, produce a lot of food but regrettably, most of the foods are wasted due to lack of processing, preservation and storage facilities.  Food crops such as cassava, rice, oil palm fruits, oranges, mango and yam produced in large quantity in the state can be processed into many industrial and consumer goods, which are in high demand in both national and international markets.

The growth and development of agro-allied processing enterprises in Ebonyi State seem not to have developed inspite of the fact that the state is highly agrarian, needing such complementary enterprises for a well balanced agribusiness tri-aggregates.  This lack of development of the other aggregates except the farm aggregate in terms of agro-allied processing enterprises seems to be the main reason for high level of poverty in the state.  All the problems may have institutional causes.  While the rural areas are abundantly rich in human and material resources; the rural dwellers are massively very poor.  Worthy of note is the inadequacy of infrastructural facilities such as roads, potable water, communication, electricity and decent housing in the rural areas.

Processing which leads to preservation, storage or conversion of fresh food into value added stable consumer products can serve as a veritable means of increasing the wealth base of the citizenry as well as a means of employment generation or poverty alleviation. Weak institutions affect the establishment and development of micro and small agro-allied processing enterprises.  This invariably impacts negatively on poverty reduction in Ebonyi State.  The research attempted to find answers to some pertinent questions in connection to how institutions affect agro-allied processing enterprises and poverty reduction.

Ebonyi is young and agrarian in nature.  There is urgent need for industrial development in the food sector to cope with the ever-increasing population.  Agricultural production without concomitant processing, preservation and storage leads to waste.  Are there agro-allied processing enterprises in the state to convert the raw materials for added value both for consumption and exports?  What are the institutions that are supposed to promote the establishment and development of micro and small agro-allied processing enterprises in the state?  To what extent have these institutions promoted/are promoting the enterprises?  Majority of the population live in the rural areas.  They are mostly farmers with poor educational background, weak financial status, without modern equipment, lack professional expertise in processing and are generally poor.  What relationship does the socio-economic characteristics of the entrepreneurs have in relation to institutional actions on the establishment and growth of agro-allied processing enterprises?

Ebonyi State being a young state is grappling with issues of industrial development.  The deplorable state of rural and urban roads as well as lack of electricity and water in some rural areas adversely affect the take off and sustained growth of rural industrialization.  How has institutional inefficiency in providing these basic facilities affected the establishment and development of agro-allied processing enterprises in the state?

Ebonyi women seem to produce and process majority of the food in the state.  However, they seem to face constraints such as  illiteracy, restricted access to land, credit, farming input, inadequate processing technology, limited or no access to support services and incentives.  To what extent have gender issues influenced institutional involvement in the development of micro/small agro-allied processing enterprises in the state?

Institutions play important role in the establishment and development of micro and small enterprises.  These institutions could be government or non-governmental, rural or urban based.  Strong institutions lead to sustained enterprises, which result to enhanced income, improvement in education, housing, nutrition, increased savings and investment.  How have these institutions influenced the performance of the enterprises thus reducing poverty in the state?  Weak institutions on the other hand, hinder the growth of micro and small enterprises.  What are the factors, which act as bottlenecks to institutional performance in micro/small agro-allied processing enterprises in the state?

There seem to be a gap in knowledge in Nigeria on the cross – cutting issues of how institutions influence agro-processing development and growth on one hand and how they influence poverty levels on the other hand.  The study is necessary in the state because of seemingly non existence of such empirical knowledge, which is needed for policy.  Answers to the above questions would link the performance of institutions to the promotion of micro/small agro-allied processing enterprise to poverty alleviation in the state.

1.3             Objective of the Study:
The  broad objective of this study is to examine the performance of institutions to development of micro/small agro-allied processing enterprise and the implications for poverty alleviation in Ebonyi State.

The specific objectives are to:
i.                    identify some micro/small agro-allied processing enterprise in the state and their related institutions,
ii.                 ascertain the socio-economic characteristics of the agro-processing entrepreneurs,
iii.               determine the institutions that influence the establishment and development of agro-processing enterprises,
iv.               assess gender issues that influence institutional involvement in the development of the agro-allied processing enterprises,
v.                  determine how institutional performance affects/influences agro-allied processing enterprises development and poverty alleviation,
vi.               identify the constraints to institutional performance in micro/small agro-allied processing enterprise development and,
vii.             discuss the implication of the finding on poverty alleviation.

1.4             Hypotheses of Study:
Based on the research objectives, the following null hypotheses were tested.

Ho1a.   The socio-economic attributes (characteristics) of agro-processing entrepreneurs do not significantly influence the amount of credit got from financial institutions for enterprise development.

Ho1b.   The socio-economic attributes (characteristics) of the agro-processing entrepreneurs do not significantly influence the level of assistance from institutions for enterprise development.

Ho2.    There is no significant difference in the level of access to institutional facilities by male and female agro-processing entrepreneurs.

Ho3.    There is no significant relationship between access to institutional facilities and level of poverty alleviation.

1.5             Justification for the Study:
Economic growth and development cannot be accelerated if attention is not focussed on issues of integrated rural development with respect to farm production, agro-allied enterprises, facilitating services and marketing of input and outputs.

According to Bello (2006), collaborative and concerted efforts are required for rapid transformation of the rural economy, because rural dwellers make up two thirds of the total national population.  Increased food production cannot satisfy the increasing food demand unless attention is focussed on reducing post harvest losses.  Consequently, increase in agricultural productivity per se will hardly lead to improvement in food availability without concomitant increase in the capacity of agro-allied enterprises to conserve basic food staples through enhanced processing and marketing options.

The development of agro-allied processing enterprises does not only eliminate local or seasonal gluts and shortages but has a major role in stimulating agriculture to produce more and the stabilisation of food prices.  Agro-allied processing enterprises ought to be developed in Ebonyi State considering her rich agricultural potential.  This in no small measure will stimulate the provision of appropriate technology, raw material, product and market to solve socio-economic demand of the people thereby enhancing their income generation.   It is expected that the orientation of Ebonyi people from food producers to food processors would have positive effect on their economic and socio-political status.  A gap in information seems to exist on institutions influence or failure to influence the growth of micro and small-scale agro-enterprises in the state and how it affects poverty alleviation.  The study is necessary because of seemingly non existence of such empirical knowledge which is needed for policy.  Considering the agrarian and young nature of the state, a study that links institutions to micro/small agro-allied processing enterprises and its implication on poverty alleviation becomes imperative.  Favourable institutions for the establishment and development of micro/small agro-allied processing enterprises maximize agricultural products, through value addition.

The study provides an insight into the income and employment generating capacity of the agro-processing enterprises as well as the extent of farm and non-farm linkages for enterprise sustainability.  The training needs and management capacity of the agro-processing entrepreneurs have been assessed in order to suggest appreciable approaches for improvement.

The result will mainly be used for advocacy concerning the need to improve institutional performance to agro-processing enterprise development and poverty alleviation in Ebonyi State.  The study will also aid government – policy makers, research scholars, financial institutions, industrialists and rural development experts formulate the best policies for economic and industrial development of the State.

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