INFLUENCE OF MOTHER’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON CHILDHOOD (1-5 YEARS) NUTRITION: A SURVEY OF ST. VINCENT’S HOSPITAL NDUBIA, EBONYI STATE



A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF
 NURSING SCIENCE, 
FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY
 
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF NURSING AND MIDWIFERY COUNCIL OF NIGERIA FOR THE AWARD OF A REGISTERED MIDWIFE CERTIFICATE.





TABLE OF CONTENT
                   PAGES
Title Page                                                                        i
Certification                                                                   ii
Dedication                                                                     iii
Acknowledgement                                                        iv
Table of Content                                                            v
List of Tables                                                                 viii
List of Figures                                                                ix
Abstract                                                                         x

CHAPTER ONE                                                           
1.0     Introduction                                                          1
1.1     Background of Study                                            1
1.2     Statement of Problem                                           4
1.3     Purpose of the Study                                            5
1.4     Significance of the Study                                     5
1.5     Scope of Study                                                     6
1.6     Operational Definition of Terms                          6

CHAPTER TWO
2.0     Literature Review                                                7
2.1     Introduction                                                         7
2.2     The Concept of Socio-Economic Status             7
2.3     Nutrition in Preschool (1-5years) Nutrition        9
2.4     Recommended Dietary Allowances for the Preschool Child 10
2.5     A Day’s Menu for the Preschool Child                12
2.6     Influence of Socio-Economic Status                    13
2.7     Malnutrition                                                         16
2.8     Factors affecting Nutrition                                   17
2.9     Nutritional Assessment in the Preschool Children 18
2.10   Empirical Review of Related Literature                22
2.11   Summary                                                             24
2.12   Theoretical Framework                                        25

CHAPTER THREE
3.0     Research Methodology                                         28
3.1     Research Design                                                   28
3.2     Area of Study                                                       28
3.3     Population of the Study                                       29
3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique                         29
3.5     Instruments for Data Collection                           29
3.6     Validation of Instrument                                      30
3.7     Procedure for Data Collection                             30
3.8     Method of Data Analysis                                     31

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0     Data analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation of Data 32
4.1     Introduction                                                                   32
4.2     Demographic Data                                               32
4.3     Summary of Findings                                           43

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0     Discussion and Major Findings                                     44
5.1     Introduction                                                                   44
5.2     Discussion of Research Findings                          44
5.3     Limitation of Study                                              47
5.4     Recommendations                                                         47
5.5     Suggestion for Further Study                               48
5.6     Summary                                                              48
5.6     Conclusion                                                           48
References
Appendices                            

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1       Recommended dietary allowance for the preschool child
Table 2       A sample of one day menu for the preschool child
Table 3       Clinical assessment of nutritional state
Table 4       Some anthropometric technique
Table 5       Presentation of age of the parent used for the study
Table 6       Presentation of the religion of mothers used
Table 7       Age distribution of children used for the study
Table8        Presentation of level of education of parent mothers to children under study.
Table 9       Presentation of the occupational status of these mothers
Table 10     Presentation of the mother’s level of income
Table11      Presentation of the mid upper arm circumference of the children
Table 12     Presentation of the body mass index of the respondents
Table 13     Presentation of the socioeconomic status of mothers as it affects the nutritional status of their children
Table 14     Presentation of the duration of breastfeeding for children studied
Table 15     Presentation of the distribution of age at which complementary foods were introduced in the children studied.
Table 16     Presentation of the weaning food for the children
Table 17     Presentation of the frequency of the children’s intake of listed essential nutrients

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1:      Presentation of Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs
Figure 2:     Presentation of the age of children studied
Figure 3:     Presentation of responses to breastfeeding

ABSTRACT

The joy of having young children is only perfected if they are able to grow and develop into healthy productive adults. This study was prepared to determine the influence of mother’s socioeconomic status on childhood (1-5years) nutrition: A survey of St. Vincent Hospital, Ndubia, Ebonyi State. The objectives of the study were to determine the educational status of the mothers, economic level of mothers, assess the nutritional status of children and determine childhood nutritional practices of these mothers that affected childhood nutrition. A descriptive research design was adopted. Convenience sampling and interview methods were used for the study. The findings from the study show that majority of mothers used were of low socio economic status and adopted poor childhood nutritional practices. Only few (20%) of the mothers had post-secondary education; 44% of them lived on over N10,000 a month. Also only 28% of the mothers breastfed their children beyond one year and 54% of them introduced complementary diets from the age of three months. Based on the above findings, recommendations were made with the hope that their implementation will enhance the social, economic and nutritional status of the population studied.


REFERENCES


Barker, Helen, M. and Rachel, L. (2006), Nutritional and dietetics for health
            care, 9th Edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Living Stone.

Cameron, M. & Hofvander, Y. (2003), Manual of feeding infants and young
            children. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chaudhury (2010), Determinants of dietary intake and dietary adequacy for
preschool children in Baryledesh. Dhaka: Bangledesh Institute of development.

Dare, A.A., Ngaski, G.S. and Fumilola A.I. (2005), Assessment of Nutritional
Status of under five children in three selected villages from Kaduna State. Nigeria, West African Journal of Nursing Publication vol. 16.

Eastwood, M. (2000), Principles of Human Nutrition, Gathesburg, Maryland:
            Aspen Publishers Ltd.

Harden M .L. and Lamb M. W.  (2000), The meaning of nutrition. New York:
            Pergamon Press Inc.

Holman, (2006), Essential of Nutrition for the Health Professional, Philadephia,
            J.B. Lippincott Company.
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Kapppuswamy (2003), Manual of socioeconomic status scale: Indian Heart
            Journal, India.

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            7th edition. U.S.A. Pearson Education, Inc., New Jersey, USA.

Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2003), Abuja National Population
Commission.
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Waystaff, A. & Claeson, M. (2004), Millennium Development Goals: Rising to
            the Challenges. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Wikipedia.com (2009).

Wikipedia.com (2010). Definition of Socioeconomic status

QUESTIONNAIRE

Department of Nursing Science
Faculty of Health Science and
Technology

Dear Respondents,

This questionnaire is designed to collect information on the influence of mother’s socioeconomic status on childhood (0-5years) nutrition: A survey of St. Vincent’s hospital, Ndubia.

You are requested to give frank answers to the questions below. They are purely for research work and all information will be held confidentially. You are not needed to put down your name in order to maintain anonymity.
Tick (√) in the box bearing the right answer(s) below.
(A)      Information on the mothers:
(i)        Demographic Data:
1.         What is your age?
            15-19yrs                    20-24yrs                                25-29yrs
            30-45yrs                    46yrs and above
2.         What is your religion?
            Christianity               Muslim                       African Traditional Religion
            Others (specify)________________________________
(ii)       Educational Data:
3.         What is your level of education of the mother?
            Non                             Primary                      Secondary                 Tertiary         
4.         Did you attend any learning school?
            (a)       Computer School                             (b)       Catering School
            (c)       Tailoring                    (d)       Specify___________________________
(iii)     Economic Data:
5.         What is your occupational status?
            Self employed                       Business                    Civil servant
            Petty trading                          None
6.         How much do you earn in a month?
(a)       No source of income                       (b)       N500-N1000
(c)       N1000-N10,000                               (d)       N10,000-N30,000
(e)       N30,000 and above
7.         Are you married?     Yes                 No                   Widow
8.         If Yes how much does he earn? (a) No source of income          
(b)       N500-N1000 (c) N1000-N10,000 (d) N10,000-N30,000
(e)       N30,000 and above
9.         What is his occupation? (a) Self employed                     (b) Business
(c)       Civil Servant (d)       Petty trading              (e) None
(B)      Information on the child:
(iv)      Demographic Data:
10.       What is the sex?       Male                           Female
11.       What is the age of the child?
            1-2yrs                         2-4yrs                                     4-5yrs
            Physical Data:
12.       Weight                                   Height
13.       Mid upper arm circumference____________________________
14.       Body mass index______________________________________
(v)       Nutritional Data:
15.       Is the baby breast feeding? Yes                             No
16.       Exclusively?             Otherwise
17.       How long was the baby breastfed?
            2-3months                             3-6months                             6-9months
            9-12months
18.       How long do you intend to breast feed your baby?___________________
19.       On what food did you wean the baby?     Maize pap
            Rice and yam                        moi-moi                     Agidi
            Others specify___________________________________
20.       How often do you feed the child on the above listed food?____________
21.       Do you have any food taboo?        Yes                             No
22.       Was the colostrums discarded?     Yes                  No





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