ASSESSMENT OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MATERIALS WASTAGE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITES

Abstract
Background of the study
statement of the problem
aim and objectives
research question
significance of the study
scope and delimitation of the study
review of related literature
research methodology
presentation and data analysis
findings
conclusion
recommendations
ABSTRACTThe purpose of the study is to identify the management of reinforced concrete materials, and how to minimize wastage in building construction sites in Nigeria. Literature that related to the study were reviewed. Method  of data collection are brief oral interview, field survey, and majorly by questionnaire. Source of data is 12 selected site, but concentrates on eight only. The data was analysed using mean score index, relative importance index, chi square, cramer’s V(V) and ANOVA methods. The study revealed that the structural materials wastage in building sites include; concrete, aggregates, blocks, timbers, reinforcement bars, cement, water and glass, while causes of structural material wastage in building site include; poor site planning, lack of adequate material management, poor craftsmanship, and the control measure to reduce material wastage such as; employment of professionals and skilled workmen. Based on the Findings, the research recommended that: Quantity and quality of structural materials to be used should be precisely specified, and scheduled. Those involved in material control should be properly trained and motivated in order to ensure effective handling of materials. There should also be penalty to defaulters for precaution.

1.1 Background of the study
Good and successful building construction emanate from good management
Also good waste management and careful application of waste policy  help to minimize drastically structural materials  waste in building construction site

Waste will always occur in building construction sites because of the nature of the operations
This can emanate from conscious or unconscious mismanagement and misapplication of the materials

Waste is the difference between the value of materials delivered and accepted on the site and those actually used in the site as precisely specified (Baritt ,1987;Shan &Tam 2002).

Wastes are of different types:
Direct  and indirect waste (Skoyles & Skoyles, 1987).
Avoidable and unavoidable wastes

Misinterpretation of drawing, over estimating of the quantity, poor workmanship, careless handling are some of the reasons for  waste in construction site

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Building construction industry  have not had an effective method of controlling waste
Careless handling
Extra-vagant lost
Un-necessary cost and incurs time
Reduces   Builders/Contractor profit

Building construction industry  have not had an effective method of controlling waste Careless handling Extra-vagant lost Un-necessary cost and incurs time Reduces   Builders/Contractor profit

The assessment of reinforced concrete materials and how to minimizing wastes of reinforced concrete materials in building construction sites in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State.
    Identify the reinforced concrete materials that are wasted in building construction sites.
    Determine the extent of adhering strictly to design standards and specifications in materials purchase and utilization
    Determine the effect of timely and efficient application of reinforced concrete materials in building constructions
    Examine ways the use of professionals and skilled men in construction work reduce wastes of  reinforced concrete materials in building constructions

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    What are the reinforced concrete materials wasted in building construction sites
    How would adhering strictly to design standards and specification in material purchase and utilization minimize wastage?
    In what ways do the uses of timely and efficient application of reinforced concrete materials minimize wastage in building construction sites?
    In what ways do the use of professionals and skilled men in construction work help to reduce waste of reinforced concrete materials in building construction site?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Student and researchers
Construction industry and professionals
Government / clients
Minimized wastes

1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Identification of the reinforced concrete materials wasted
     Causes of reinforced concrete material wastes
    Ways of reducing wastes of reinforced concrete materials 
Building construction sites within Nigeria
 
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF SOME RELATED LITERATURE
The review of related literatures for this study was carried out under the following headings:
  Conceptual frame work :
  Skoyles and Skoyles (1987)  waste as reinforced concrete materials damaged, cannot be repaired for subsequent use Opined by Shem n Tam (2002) that some  called native waste resulting from cutting are unavoidable in 4 type of projects. P.A.Okereke(2003). P.C.Varghese(2006) Identified structural materials that can be wasted in fig.2.0 below.

Factors that cause waste:
 poor management workers,
 poor attitude of the workers,
 poor craftsmanship,
 poor industrial relation among site workers etc.
Inability to use professionals

Reinforced materials that can be wasted
    Concrete
    Reinforcement bars
    Timber
    Blocks

LITERATURE REVIEW CONTINUES
ASSESSMENT OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MATERIALS AND HOW TO REDUCE WASTE.
    Adhering to design standard n specification, Kratz (2005)
    Effect of time n efficient application, Obiwelozor (1994)
    Use of professionals n skilled men in design, planning, budgeting, management and production, Ekeledo (1994).
    Provision of storage facilities n security personnel. Penalty on defaulters.
Ogwudu (2007) carried out a research on the waste management and control in building industry in Enugu State. The population for the studies was made of 450 waste management staff. The finding of the research shows that;
Waste of refuse disposal on the roads causes traffic jam in Enugu State.
Lack of proper supervision in construction site in Enugu State lead to waste of structural materials.
Those structural material wasted can be used to produce an important apartment in the site.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Design of the Study
.The research design used was the survey research.

    Uzoagulu (1998), survey research is a situation where information is collected and considered to be a true representative of the entire population.
    Survey is the research design that employs the study of large and small population.( Olaitan, Ali and Sowande, 2000).
Identification of the reinforced concrete materials wasted, causes and  ways use of professionals and skilled men, and other factors in construction work can reduce such wastes in building construction sites in Abakaliki Ebonyi State.
    The delimitation of the study was within the building construction sites in Abakaliki, the Capital Territory of Ebonyi State.
3.2 The population of the study
    The population of the study comprised of all supervisors totaling six hundred(600) in those selected building          construction sites of Abakaliki.
    Whereas the sample size is 200 of the supervisors selected sites.

3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
    The researcher sampled two hundred supervisors and stratified random technique was used.
The fig. 3 shows the names of the Building construction sites, and population/sample administered.

3.4 Instrument for Data collection
The instrument for data collection was the questionnaires.
    The questionnaires consisted of sections A&B,
    Section A with ten questions, sampled the qualifications and experiences of the respondents.
    Section  B sub-section I, II, III and IV answered questions on the identification of reinforced concrete  materials and their waste, its causes, control/reduction and effects in use of professionals/skilled  men to minimize waste in building construction sites.
  

Respondents were required to indicate their option on four (4) points scale of strongly Agreed (SA), Agreed (A) Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagreed (SD), and their weighting were again the 4,3,2 and 1 respectively .

3.6 Validation of the Instrument
The instrument for data collection was validated by three (3) experts in the Department of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,
and another three (3) from Department of Technology and Vocational Education, (Building option) Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki.
They assessed the appropriateness and clarity of the item in addressing the research questions. The instrument was modified and considered valid.

The researcher developed test-retest reliability method. By  administering four copies of questionnaire items to four (4) supervisors of CBN site of Zerock ltd.
After one week, another four copies of the same questionnaire were administered to the same four building site supervisors.
The results of two tests were collected and correlated at 85% showing that the instrument was reliable for the study and for purpose it was designed to serve.

3.8 Method of Data collection
Primary and Secondary methods were used. In the primary data, the questionnaire tool was concentrated.
From the questionnaire,two hundred (200) copies of the questionnaire were administered personally by the researcher to the respondents and were collected within two week of administration.
Out of the 200 copies administered 160 copies were correctly completed and returned, giving 80 percent return rate.

3.9 Method of Data Analysis
Data collected were presented in a table (frequency 1-5). From there, mean (Χ) was computed for each of the item. For decision taking, mean of the weighting was calculated as shown :  5+4+3+2+1   = 3.0
                               5
Decision: Any item with a mean equal or greater than the cut off mean point (3.0) was regarded as agreed while any item with mean point less than 3.0 was regarded as disagree.           
CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
The data were analyzed, and presented as guided by the research questions. The analyses and presentation of the results are carried out under the following headings:-

SECTION A

    Education attended.
Academic qualification.
The discipline of the respondents.
Cadres of the respondents in their professions.
The place where the respondents practice.
The ranks/designation of the respondents in their place of work.
Years of experience

Qualifications and places of work of the respondents
Fig. 4.0, 160 was the total sample collected .
This shows that 30 respondents possess FSLC, 50 have SSCE, 20 have HND/HNC, 45 possess B.SC, and 15 falls in the category of M.SC/Ph.D.
Furthermore, it shows that 110 respondents work in private sector and 50 of them work in public sector respectively.
Within these sectors 27 serve under Architectural department, 75 are in Building production, 38 in Engineering, and 20 in material supply/control (store).
 These shows that they have close contact with the reinforced concrete materials and are competent to dictate the level of wastage.

Qualifications profession and designation of the respondents
Fig. 6 emphasis that out of the 160 respondents,professionally 38 are registered and 42 are not registered professionally.
Again, they are designated to various positions; 5 are project managers, 65 are resident Architects, Builders, and Engineers, whereas 10 of them are Quantity Surveyors/Materials Controllers, Foremen are 5, and Artisans are 70 respondents.

Research Question 1: What are the structural materials wasted in building construction sites in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State?
    Table 6 Item statements 1-3,5- 9 with the mean above 2.5 agreed while 4and 10 are below hence, disagreed.
  
Research Question 2: What are the causes of structural material wastage in building construction sites in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State?
    Table 7 Item statements 11- 15 with the mean above 2.50. hence all agreed.
Research Question 3: How would the wastes of structural materials be reduced in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State?
    Table8 Item statements 16, 17, 19 - 23 with the mean 2.5,hence agreed . While item 18 is below 2.5,disagreed.
Research Question 4: In what ways do use of professional and skill men help to reduce waste of structural materials in building construction in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State?
    Table 9 item statements 25 - 28 with the mean 2.50,and  above all agreed

4.3 Testing of Hypotheses
 i.   Ho       Concrete materials, Aggregates, Reinforcement bars, timber, block,           cement, nails, water and glass are not significantly reinforced concrete materials.
ii    Ho                 Poor site planning, inadequate material management, poor craftsmen, inadequate storage facilities, poor relationship between site supervisors and other operators, weather factors, supply of poor quality materials, lack of security and penalty to waste defaulters do not significantly cause waste of reinforced concrete materials.
Iii    Ho               Effective site management by site supervisors, employment of trained craftsmen, adequate storage facilities, security, weather focasting, and punishment of waste defaulters do not have effect in reducing waste of reinforced concrete materials.
iv  Ho                Use of professionals and skilled men do not significantly have an impact in reducing waste of reinforced materials.
v   Ho                  There is no significant difference in the opinions of the groups on the causes of waste of reinforced materials in the building construction site.
viHo                      There is no significant difference in the opinions of the groups on the assessment in minimizingreinforced concrete materials waste in the building construction site.

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The statistical tools used in the analysis include relative frequency distribution (percentage), mean score index, relative importance index, Chi square(X2), Cramer’s V(V), and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and formula for most probable duration for completion of each operation that make up an activity

PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS CONTINUES

Table 4.10: The reinforced concrete materials wasted in
 building constructions site (FOREMEN/ARTISANS).

PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS CONTINUES FINDINGS
Reinforced concrete materials wastage in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State; include concrete. Aggregate, blocks, timber, reinforcement bars, cement, water and paints.
Causes of reinforced concrete Material wastage are, poor site planning, lack of adequate material management, poor craftsmanship, poor storage facilities and poor relation among the site workers.
Control measures are effective site management by site supervisors, employment of skilled workmen, provision of adequate security and good relationship between the site supervisor and site operatives.
The will be effective planning, successful scheduling and effective budgeting, by using professionals and skilled men      

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONs
CONCLUSION

issue of structural material wastage in building site has turned to be an ugly monster threatening the entire building industry. The researcher was of the opinion that the professionals and different working individuals involved in the building industry all contributed to the structured materials wastages.
Building site personnel’s awareness on waste control measures should be upgraded through in- service training, organization of seminars, workshops, Symposiums on material waste control periodically. Further, the researcher was of the view that all the identified possible means of controlling material waste in the site if well followed will be of great importance to the building site supervisors in dealing with wastes in their future projects.

Adequate materials should be taken to workplace and at the end of each day’s operation; surplus materials should be removed and kept for the next day’s operation.
Quantity and quality of structural materials to be used should be precisely specified.
The standard size of materials to be used should be taken into account to avoid unnecessary cutting in the site.
Those involved in material control should be properly trained and motivated in order to ensure effective handling of materials.
Adequate storage positions must be provided, taking account of the possibility of using one position of several materials used at different stages of the project.
Reinforced concrete materials intended for other purposes should not be used since this will result in indirect waste.
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