THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE PLANNING ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY ACCESS BANK PLC, OKPARA AVENUE ENUGU)

 ABSTRACT
Corporate planning involves planning for an organization as a whole. It involves  the  acceptance  that  the  enterprise  does  not  operate  in  a vaccum  and  that  its  activities  are  affected  by  what  goes  on  its environment.  Thus,  the  ability  of  the  management  to  understand  the environment,  make good forecast and then  choose a proper course of action  is  the  main  thrust  of  this  research.  The  major  problem  of  this study is the ever dynamic nature of the environment and the unforseen circumstances that always arise. The major objective of this study is to know  the  extent  to  which  organizations  get  involved  in  corporate planning  so  as  to  be  able  to  anticipate  and  know  how  to  respond  to changes  in  the  environment.  The  hypothesis  are  the  null  and  the alternative.
 The  null  Ho  states'  that corporate  planning has no impact on  the  performance  of  the  organization  and  alterantive  Hi  states that corporate planning  has impact  on the performance  of  the organization for  the presentation and  analysis of research work, simple percentage was used but for testing of the hypothesis as well chi-square was used. The  major  finding  of  the  research  is  that   for  an  organization  to grow and  survive  in  its comptitive  environment  and  also in the  presence of some unforeseen circumstances in the future, the management should be able to anticipate and roespond to changes in the environment. It is concluded  that  corporate  planning  has  a  great  impact  on  the performance  of  the  organizatin  as  engaging  on  it  bring  much  better results  than  if  not  done.  Proper  recommendation  is  that  organization should  take  corporate  planning  serious  and  managers  should  have adequate and effective system on monitoring and control to make sure that events conform to plans.
 
THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE PLANNING ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
(A CASE STUDY ACCESS BANK PLC, OKPARA AVENUE ENUGU)

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT
FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

TITLE
The Impact of Corporate Planning on Organizational Performance (A Case Study Access Bank Plc, Okpara Avenue Enugu)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE  ........................................................................................ i
DECLARATION ........................................................................ ii
CERTIFICATION ......................................................................iii
DEDICATION  .......................................................................... iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  .......................................................... v
TABLE OF CONTENTS  .......................................................... vii
ABSTRACT ............................................................................... x

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1  Background of the Study ................................................ 1
1.2  Statement of the Problem  ............................................... 3
1.3  Objectives of the Study  ................................................... 4
1.4  Research Questions  ....................................................... 4
1.5  Research Hypothesis  ...................................................... 5
1.6  Significant of the Study  ................................................... 6
1.7  Scope of the Study .........................................................  6
1.8  Area of the Study  ............................................................ 7
1.9  Limitations of the Study   .................................................. 7
1.9.1  Definition of Relevant Terms ..................................  8

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1  The Concept of Organization and its Environment ........................... 10
2.2  The Concept of Corporate Planning .............................. 14
2.3Organizational Design and Process of Corporate Planning   .................... 19
2.4  Time Span of Planning .................................................. 24
2.5  Forecasting and Corporate Planning   ........................... 26
2.6  The Board and Top Management  ................................. 28
2.7  Corporate Planning and Organizational Performance ....................................... 32

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1  Research Design ........................................................... 38
3.2Population of Study  ........................................................... 39
3.3  Sample and Sampling Techniques  ............................... 39
3.4  Sources and Methods of Data Collection  ...................... 41
3.5  Data Reliability and Validity ........................................... 43
3.6  Method of Data Analysis  ............................................... 44

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1  Data Presentation  ......................................................... 46
4.2  Test of Research Hypothesis  ........................................ 54

CHAPTER FIVE
FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1  Findings ......................................................................... 63
5.2Recommendation  .............................................................. 64
5.3Conclusion ......................................................................... 66
BIBLIOGRAPHY  ........................................................... 68
APPENDIX  .................................................................... 70
QUESTIONNAIRE  ........................................................ 71

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
As  the  name  implies,  corporate  planning  involves planning  for  an  organization  as  a  whole.  It  is  a  systematic approach  to  strategic  decision  making.  Corporate  planning indicated  a  holistic  approach  for  winning  the  goals  of  any organization. In  general,  planning is  a management system, a process of  allocating,  effective  and  efficient  use  of  scarce  resources  of
any  organization to bring  home  its  objectives  and goals over  a specific  period  of  time.  The  principal  motive  of  any  business organization  is to  increase the  value of  the owners  equity. The objective  of  any  organization  are  achieved  by  effective  and efficient use of its resources. An  organization  has  mainly  two  types  of  resources:-  the human  resources  and  the  monetary  resources.  All  the resources  are  monetary  except  the  human  resources. Corporate  planning  can boost  an  organization  to  maximize  the utilization of its resources and fashion in a befitting
manner  to  attain  the  enhancement  of  the  shareholders  wealth which is the basis of any corporate business.  Corporate planning  can  yield  many  benefits  for  all  types  of  business organization.  It  encouraged  management  to  think  ahead systematically,  it  forces  the  company  to  sharpen  its  objectives and  policies,  leads  to  coordination  of  organization's  effort  and
provides  clear  performance  standards  for  control,  sound planning  helps  the  organization  to  anticipate  and  respond quickly  to changes in the environment and  take precautions  for
sudden  changes  and developments. For instance, banks adopt precautionary measures during global financial crisis. Corporate  planning  involves  the  acceptance  that  the enterprise  does  not  operate  in  a  vacuum  and  that  its  activities are  affected  by  what  goes  on  in  the  world  around  it.  It  also questions  -  what  can  be  done  today  to  be  ready  for  an uncertainty  tomorrow.  Thus  the  ability  of  the  management  to understand  the  environment,  make  good  forecast  and  then choose a proper course of action that will enhance its existence as a corporate body. How well management have been or will be in doing this is the main thrust of this research.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The  future  posed  a  serious  problem  to  every  business organization.  All  responsible  managers  see  the  continued existence  of  their  organization  as  a  major  task  of  the management.  Some  of  the  problems  an  organization faces  in  achieving their goals are:-
a)Failure to plan which leads to planning of its failure.
b)Many  organization  today  are  not  proactive  rather    reactive and focuses on the next quarter.
c)The  day-to-day  management  system  are  not  linked  to strategy/plan so  managers are not considering plan when they make decisions.
d)There  are  unforeseen  external  circumstances  which  the management can do nothing about.

1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to know:-
a)The  extent  to  which  organizations  get  involved  in  corporate planning.
b)Why corporate planning fails in some organizations.
c)The  relationship  between  corporate  planning  and achievement  of  the  goals  and  objectives  of  the organization.
d)The  impact  of  corporate  planning  on  the  performance  of  the organization.

1.4  RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Some  of  the  questions  to  which  this  research  tends  to provide answers to are:-
a)How  does  corporate  Planning  relate  with  achieving  the objectives of the organization.
b)How  does  corporate  planning  affect  the  performance  of  the organization.
c)How  does  planning  enhance  managerial  efficiency  of  the organization.
d)Why  are  there  some  deviations  from  planned  courses  of action.

1.5  RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: Corporate  planning  has  no  impact  on  the  performance  of the organization.
Hi: Corporate  planning  has  impact  on  the  performance  of  the organization.
Ho: Monitoring  and  controlling  of  organizational  plan  do  not reduce  deviations  from  planned  courses  of  action  and does not boost the performance of the organization.
Hi: Monitoring  and  controlling  organizational  plan  reduces deviations  from  planned  courses  of  action  and  boost  the performance of the organization.
Ho: Corporate  planning does not contribute to the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization.
Hi: Corporate  planning  contributes  to  the  achievement  of  the organizational goals and objectives.

1.6  SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
This  study  is  beneficial  to  corporate  firms  as  a  whole, management of organizations, and other researchers.
a) Corporate Firms
This study is  meant  to underscore  the importance  of  corporate planning on  business  organizations  as  it  helps firms as  a whole  to  work  towards  achieving  their  goals  and objectives.
b)Management
It will be of substantial help to the management of organization in  predicting  the  future  and  knowing  how  to  respond  to changes in the environment.
c)Other Researchers
It  will  also  be  of  substantial  help  to  students  who  are  carrying out similar research as it will serve as a secondary source of data.

1.7  SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This  study  is  on  the  impact  of  corporate  planning  on organizational performance. It covers the period from 2009 to 2011.

1.8  AREA OF THE STUDY
Due to  time and financial constraints the study is focused only  on  Access  Bank  Plc  Okpara  Avenue  Enugu.  It  serves  as the case study.

1.9  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
There  are  some  major  factors  that  affected  these  study and these are known as the constraints. They include:-
a) Time
The time frame for this study is too short to carry out a rigorous research  that  would  have  given  a  better  insight  and elaboration  on  corporate  planning  and  its  impact  on  the performance of organization.
b) Insufficient Information
The  nature  of  this  topic  made  it  to  focus  mainly  on  top management.  This  on  its  own  proved  to  be  a  problem because  it  is  always  difficult  to  get  some  of  the  senior executives, and even some of them find it difficult to release some vital information.
c) Finance
This  constitute  a  problem  to  this  research  because  of  this uncompromising  attitude  of  the  top  management  to release  some  vital  information,  most  of  the  information has to be sought through the internet. However,  the  researcher  was  able  to  overcome  this limitations  by  focusing  the  study  on  bank  in  Enugu  Metropolis; Access Bank Plc Okpara Avenue in particular.

1.9.1 Definition of Relevant Terms
Decision Making
The Act  of  choosing  between  two  or  more possible courses  of actions.

Efficiency
How  well  resources  are  utilized  in  pursuing  various  goals  and performing various activities.

Goals
Long  term  aim  of  an  organization  or  desirable  future  that  an organization tends to accomplish.

Mission
What the organization  as a whole wills to achieve and the  time scale for achieving it.

Objectives
Specific  concrete  time  bound,  clear  and  quantifiable  state  of affairs which the organization is pursuing.

Strategies
The  determination  of  the  basic  long-term  objectives  and  the adaptation  of  courses  of  action  and  allocation  of resources necessary for achieving these goals.

Vision
An  achievable  wish  or  dream  that  describes  why  the organization exists and remains constant for many years.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1THE  CONCEPT  OF  ORGANIZATION  AND  ITS ENVIRONMENT
For  proper  understanding  and  appreciation  of  this  topic, emphasis  must  be  laid  on  what  organization  is  all  about  and how it interacts with its environment to achieve its goals. According  to  F.  Ezionye  (2002:47)  an organization  is  the process  in  which  a  group  of  people  are  structured  in  an interactive manner in order to set the accomplishment of a goal or objective. An  organization  is  a  combination  of  peoples'  or individuals  efforts,  machines  and  money  and  working  together to achieve common goals and objectives. An  organization  is  related  with  developing  a  framework where  the total  work  is  divided  into  managerial  components  in order to facilitate the achievement of its goals and objectives. An organized enterprise does not exist in a vacuum but is dependent on its environment both internal and external to achieve  its  goals.  It  is  a  part  of  the  large  system  such  as  the industry  to  which  it  belongs,  the  economic  system  and  the society at large. Thus the enterprise receives inputs from the environment, process  them  and  transfer  out  to  the  environment  as  output (goods  and  services).  The  inputs  from  the  environment includes  such  things  as  people,  capital,  raw  material, managerial skills as well as technical knowledge and skills. However,  some  of  the  external  variables  of  the environment  cannot  be  manipulated    or  controlled  by  the management  of  the  organization  rather  they  respond  to  them.  See page 12 is the main thrust of this research. Akpala  (1990:7)  defines   management  as  the  process  of combining  and  utilizing  or  allocating  organization's  input  (man, material  and  money)  by  the  process  of  planning,  organizing, directing  and  controlling  for  the  purpose  of  producing  outputs (goods  and  services)  desired  by  the  customers  so  as  to achieve the objectives of the organization. The  ability  of  the  organization  to  achieve  its  aims  and objectives  within  specified  limit  is  known  as  managerial  efficiency. How well an organization uses its available resources  to  achieve  desired  goals  is  a  source  of  concern  for manager  especially  in  this  era  of  scarcity  of  resources.  This also  impacts  heavily  on  the  overall  performance  of  the organization. Aluko,  et  al  (1997)  in  Egbo  (2011:96)  posit that  planning
is the activity by which managers analyse present conditions to determine ways of reaching a desired future state. Planning is one of the  managerial functions which is seen by  most  people  as  the  most  basic  of all.  Since  the  managerial operations  in  organizing,  staffing,  directing and  controlling   are designed  to  support  the  accomplishment  of  the  organizational goals  and bjectives. Planning  logically proceeds the execution of all other managerial functions. Although in practice, all the functions meet as a system of action,  planning  is  unique  in  that  it    involves   establishing  the objectives necessary for all group efforts and performances.  It  is  a  process  of  using  related  facts  and assumptions  about  the  future  to  arrive  at  courses  of  action  to
be followed in achieving organizational goals. Planning  becomes  easy  in  a  stable  environment  where for  example,  competitors  are  well  known,  industry  pricing  is stable, cost structure are well understood and customers behave  in  a  predictable  manner.  However,  planning  has  been made  more  complex  in  the  1980's  when  organizations  are faced  by  a  radically  different  environment.  Step  changes  and irreversible  trends  makes  detailed  planned  drawn  up  in  one year  scarcely  relevant  in  the next  year.  Industry  invaders,  new technology,  deregulation  and  stock  cost  changes  demands  a different  kind  of  planning  process  which  takes  into consideration  views  of  the  business,  its  competitive environment  in  the  future  and  also  the  immediate  short  run steps which must be achieved. This  is  where  strategic  planning,  comprehensive planning,  total  planning  or  what  the  researcher  referred  to  as corporate planning comes in.

2.2  THE CONCEPT OF CORPORATE PLANNING
A  company  is  a  very  complex  organization  acting  in  and reacting  to  its  very  complex  environment.  In  order  to  move along  with  the  dynamics  of  the  environment  in  which  they  find
themselves, organizations make plans to guide their actions. Many  writers  have  used  words  like  corporate  strategic plan,  comprehensive  corporate  plan,  total  plan  and  even  long range plan to refer to corporate  plan. Whatever the name given to it,  they  all  agree  that  it  is a  continuous  systematic approach to  strategic  decision.  They  all  believe  like  Hussey  1971:6)  that
corporate  planning  involves  acceptance  that  the  company  is not  operating in  a  vacuum  and  that  it is  affected  by  what goes on in the world around it. Drucker  (1964:9)  defines  corporate  planning  as  making entrepreneurial  decision,  systematically  and  with  the  best possible  knowledge  of  their  future,  organizing  systematically the  effort  needed  to  carry  out  these  decisions,  and  measuring the  results  against  expectations  through  organized  systematicfeedback. Branch  (1966:21)  sees  it as  plans for  five  to  ten  or  more years  into  the  future  that  incorporates  and  integrates  all significant  elements  of  the  enterprise  such  as  external environmental  factors  affecting  the  organization,  market analysis, income and profit etc. Corporate  strategic  planning  involves  selecting  the  right goals  and  objectives  for  the  organization  in  the  uncontrollable circumstances  within  it  and  within  the  competence  resources and ability of the organization. In  top  management  planning,  George  Steiner  refers  to comprehensive  corporate  planning  as  a  system  approach  to manoeuvring  the  enterprise  over  time  through  the  uncertain waters  of  its  environment  to  achieve prescribed  aims.  He  tries to  define  corporate  planning  from  points  of view:  The  planning deals  with  the  futurity  of  current  decisions,  the  process,  its philosophy and  the  structure of  business plans. He  argues that the purpose of comprehensive corporate planning is to discover future  opportunities  and  make  plans  to  exploit  them. Correspondingly basic to long-range planning is  the  detection  of  threats  and  obstructions  that  must  be removed from the ahead. Argents  (1989:22)  puts  it  more  succinctly  by referring  to corporate  planning  as  "a  systematic  process  for  deciding  what the half-dozen top decisions are which an organization must  not  take  in  order  to  prosper  over  the  next  few  years. Basically,  corporate  planning  is  concerned  with  today  not  with tomorrow.  It  is  concerned  with  actions  not  with  plans.  It  is founded  on  two  propositions,  that  one  cannot  decide  what actions  to  take  unless  one  knows  what  one  wants  to  achieve and  that  actions  taken  today  can best  be directed  towards  the achievement  of  the  objectives  if  one  knows  as  much  as
possible about the future. According  to  Ewing  (1972:6)  the  purpose  of  planning  is not  to  preserve  the  future  because  no  organization  is  assured of  the  future,  but  to  enrich  the  present.  It  is  an  intellectual process  of  looking  ahead,  its  basic  aim  being  to  provide  an appropriate  framework  now  that  will  ensure  the  realization  of some goals later. From  the  ongoing,  it  then  becomes  clear  that  corporate planning  has  the  more  modest,  if  no  less  crucial  purpose  of seeking  to  optimize  the  collective  of  the  continuing  business. To  do  this,  Bernard  Taylor  divides  corporate  planning  into  two parts:-

1.The  formal  process  of  developing  objectives  for  the corporation  and  its  component  parts,  evolving  alternative strategies  to  achieve  these  objectives  and  doing  this against a background of a systematic appraisal of internal strengths  and  weakness  and  external  environment changes.
2.The  process  of  translating  strategy  into  detailed  operation plans and seeing that these plans are carried out. It  can  be  seen  that  corporate  planning  involves  mostly decision making, choosing between alternatives. Therefore, it is said  to  take  a  systematic,  rationalistic  and  decision  making approach. 

Decision  making  is  essentially  a  stream  of  inter-related sequential and concurrent choices. One decision arrived  today must  have been  influenced by  those made in  the past and in turn will affect, future decisions. Hence, planning establishes and carries out actions in the future. Effective decision making requires a rational selection of a  course  of  action  but  complete  rationality  can  seldom  be achieved. How much does one know about the future?  The  unknown  element  is  the  worst  enemy  of  the manager and overcoming it is his primary task. Simon  (1976:45)  in  his principles  of  "bounded rationality" posits  that  it  is  impossible  for  any  person  to  know all  potential result.  Therefore  the  manager  can  only  settle  for  limited information from where he will select the best possible options. How  then  can  one  make  do  with  what  he  has  now,  to prepare  for  the  future?  Then  can  one  make  do  with  what  he has now to prepare for the future?
In  the definition above, there  are four essential aspects of corporate  planning.  In  the  first  place,  there  must  be  clear quantifiable objectives and priorities to be pursued.

Secondly,  there  must  be  a  planning  horizon  over  which the  plan  is  expected  to  last.  Thirdly,  information  requires  for taking  decision  regarding  the  plan  must  be  made  available
promptly and accurately. Finally,  there  should  be  a  methodology  for  implementing the plan. This would include who would be responsible for various  aspects  of  the  plan.  What  resources  will  be  needed, how  would  results  be  measured  and  what  kinds  of  corrective actions  will  be  taken  when  deviations  from  the  plan  are observed.

2.3ORGANIZATIONAL  DESIGN  AND  PROCESS  OF CORPORATE PLANNING
There  is  no  single  organization  planning  pattern  that  fits all  companies,  nor  is  there  a  single  best  organization  for planning.  This  is  so  because  organizations  are  different  in
terms of size, diversity of operation, the way they are organized and the style and philosophy of their managers. Egbo  Vin  (2011:38)  describes  organizational  design  as the arrangement of the structure of relationships among jobs, personnel and physical factors, and this design gives rise  to an oraganizational structure. Lerner  and Baker (1976) in egbo (2011:38) opine that an organizational  structure  enables  management  to  delegate  and control  the  responsibilities  of  individuals  and  departments. Organizational  structure  defines  the  duties  and  responsibilities of  the  personnel  employed  in  an  organization  and  determine the  manner  in  which  themselves  and  their  duties  are  to  be interrelated. A  widely  accepted  approach  regarding  the  design  and implementation  of  an  effective  formal  system  for  an organization's  long-range  planning  is  that  the  system  design should  be contingent  on the  specific situational setting of each particular  firm.  It  should  be  tailored  to  the  specific  corporate strategy,  the  organizational  structure  of  the  firm,  the behavioural styles and preferences of the managers at hand. Steiner  (1969:18)  also  adds  that  the  establishment  of  a central  corporate  planning  staff,  and  different  planning arrangements between a divisionalized company and a centrally  controlled  and  functionally  organized  company.  The degree  of  authority  enjoyed  by  decentralized  division  will influence  the  overall  planning  programmer  likewise  the  nature of  the  product.  He  further  argues  that  the  personalities  of  the executives will have much to do  with  the organization. A strong chief executive may  wish  to do his own planning irrespective of the size of  the enterprise, where as another may find it  more to his liking to spread the planning task around. Henry  (1978:16)  in  "formalized  long-range  planning  in industrial companies" point  out  that the formal  planning  system require  clear-cut  assignments  of  specific  planning  functions  to individuals  and  organizations  units.  Also  planning  procedures are specified to some degree in planning manuals or guidelines and regular time schedules are established  for each major step in planning cycle. Irrespective of the type of organizational design evident in a particular  company,  the  process that leads to the formulation and  implementation  of  a  corporate  plan  remains  virtually  the same. Writers agree that it should take a decision  making  approach.  Their  ideas  of  what  a  process  of
corporate  planning  should  look  like  is  the  same  with  little modification  here  and  there  depending  on  the  level  of sophistication of the writer.

Conceptually,  the  process  is  simple,  managers  at  every level  the  corporate  hierarchy  must  ultimately  agree  on  a detailed  integrated  plan  for  the  coming  year  and  they  arrive  at
that  agreement  through  a  series  of  steps  starting  with  the delineation  of  corporate  objectives  and  concluding  with  the preparation of  a profit plan. Akpala  (1990:47)  talks  about  the  four  steps  of  corporate planning, viz:
a)Assessment  of  trend  of  the  international,  national  industry and company environment.
b)Identifying what the business is into.
c)Setting corporate objectives for so many years ahead.
d)Determination  of  suitable  strategies  to  achieve  these objectives.

Profitability
Return on capital employed
Avoidance of loss
John Argent (1987) elaborates more by dividing corporate planning into ten stages.

1.Forming  the  planning  terms  to  take  care  of  corporate planning.
2.Determine corporate objectives and targets.
3.Forecasting likely performance of  the  organization  in  order to compare the target with the forecast to reveal any gap.
4.Appraisal of the strength and weakness of the organization in terms of what is obtained in the industry and  environment in general.
5.Determine threats and opportunities
6.Identify alternative strategies.
7.Select strategies
8.Evaluate selected strategies
9.Develop  action  plans  to  know  who  will  do  what,  how  where and why.
10.Monitor and control the plan to check for deviations. In  all,  three  types  of  data  are  needed  in  developing  a corporate  plan;  the  corporate  objective  of  the  firm;  its  internal
strength  and  weakness  and  the  threats  and  opportunities  that may  lie  ahead  of  it.  These  three  forms  the  main  thrust  of  the corporate planning process.

2.4  TIME SPAN OF PLANNING
There  are  sizeable  variations  among  organizations  and between different aspects  of a single organizations' operations. Some plan for two, three, five, ten years and more. There are a
number  of  considerations  that  influence  the  length  of  the planning  period  for  a  given  firm.  Most obvious is  the  degree of uncertainty  in  forecasts  and  predictions.  If  beyond  a  certain
point  of time in  the future,  predicting  efficiency drops to a level little  better than  adjusted work,  there  is  nothing to  be gained  in evolving a complex set of plans for the unpredictable period.
Thus,  it  is  not  uncommon  to  restrict  planning  related  to consumer  market  to  three  years  simply  because  for  many products these markets may become nearly unpredictable beyond  that  point.  The time  span of  planning is also influenced by  need  of  the  company  and  factors  absolutely  crucial  to  a company's survival and growth. However,  planning  on  the  whole  is  frequently  carried  out on  a  continuity  basis  with  constant  recycling  and  revaluation. Every organization should be viewed as a dynamically evolving entity  whose situational  setting  is  subject  to change. The  result is  that  the  design  of  the  planning  system  must  constantly evolve  if  it  is  to  continue  to  be  effective.  Most  organizations prefer to do a minimum of five year corporate plan. A  definite  timetable  should  be established  so  that person assigned to fulfil the plan will have pre arranged dates by which the  successive  phases  of  the  operations  are  to  be  completed. The  use  of  deadlines  provide  plan  with  a  sense  of  urgency. Timing the plan starts with the division of the plan  into  logical  phases.  Each  phase  covers  a  specific  aspect
of the plan and should be set up in its order of priority, so that a prerequisite  phase  is  completed  in  time  for  the  succeeding phase to commerce.

2.5  FORECASTING AND CORPORATE PLANNING
Chuke  Nwude  (2006:  15)  defined    forecasting  as  the  act of  describing  what  is  likely  to  happen  in  the  future,  based  on information that is available now. Forecast  is  a  basic  premise  upon  which  planning proceeds.  They  are  estimates  of  probability,  essentially estimates of the way in which  large  numbers of  human beings, each of  whom  is endowed with  free  will  are  likely to behave  in the future. They  rely  on  the  law  of  large  numbers,  in  so  far  as  they assume  that  if  some  people  change  their  minds  in  one direction,  other  people  will  change  theirs  in  another  direction. In  corporate  planning,  the  planners  forecast  the  social and  economic  environment  in  which  the  firm  operates  and  try to detect  an  opportunity  for  expansion  which  already has been detected by so many others that it will not be profitable.  Thus,  forecast  should  not  be  made  in  the  air,  but with  some  particular  decision  in  mind,  it  is  only  with  some
definite decisions in mind that we can decide which bits of the forecast that need to be known in detail, which can be done in general and which can be left out altogether. A  firm  continually  makes  estimates  of  what  is  likely  to happen  in  the  future  so  that  it  can  decide  on  how  much  to produce  and  what  to  produce,  what  to  invest  in  fixed  capital and  in  inventories,  how  much  labour  will  be  employed  etc. Ashton  (1970)  argues  that  even  firms  that  think  they  do  no forecasting  unconsciously  make  some  simple  projections  into the  future  of  their  experience  in  the  recent  past.  Though forecasts  are  essential  characteristics  of  human  life,  one should  always  remember  that  they  are  fallible.  None  of  us knows  exactly  what  will  happen  in  the  future  because forecasting should not be regarded as a means of arriving at an accurate  and  detailed  view  of  the  future  probabilities  in  an attempt  to reduce the  uncertainty, which  must always  surround the future. With a good forecast, a firm now finds it  easier  to  project  into  the  future  and  make  a  good plan, once the  plan  has  been  made.  It  should  be  translated  into  detail
estimates  of  profit,  asset  investment,  and  cash  requirements predicted on how much money is expected to be  available  for  meeting  the  organizations'  objectives.  This  is what is known as budget.

2.6  THE BOARD AND TOP MANAGEMENT
Taylor  et  al (1973:256) defined  the  board as  a committee elected  by  the  owners  of  the  enterprise  (or  appointed  by  the elected representative  in  the  case  of  enterprises  owned  by  the
community) to undertake certain duties on behalf of the owners and  to  be  responsible  to  them  for  the  carrying  out  of  those duties.  Originally,  boards  consisted  of  the  founding  fathers,
some  sons  and  other  members  of  the  family  and  perhaps  a trusted  family  solicitor, banker  or  a  friend  or two.  In successive generations  the  composition  may  have  been  expanded  to
include  a  few  more  outsiders  unquestionably  loyal  to  the owners of the company.  In  course  of  time,  a  "seat  on  the  board"  become recognized as  the ultimate reward for a loyal employee for long and faithful service to the company.

The size of the board depends on so many variables:- the size and complexity of the company, its competitive environment,  the  capacity  of  the  individual  members  etc.  The most  basic  responsibility  of  a  board  is  to  choose  and  support competent  top  executives, to  check their  performances against budgets  and  to ensure that budgets are fully related to realistic
plans. Taylor  (1988:258)  argues  that  the  board  does  not manage  but  directs  and  controls.  The  role  of  the  board  as important  procedures of  planning and  control  are the means of
fulfilling the fiduciary responsibility of directors to shareholders. However,  the  board  is  seen  by  many  as  a  mere  rubber stamp.  They  cannot  initiate  planning  proposals  or  do  the
research for them,  but  simply  rubber  stamp  the decision  of  the executive team. Mann  (1970:29)  is  of  the  view  that  the  function  of directors  and  boards  as  part  of  the  management  responsible for  maintaining  the  competitive  strength  and  profitability  of  the organization  are  not  clearly  defined  and  understood.  As  a result,  many  boards  fail  either  to  recognize  or  to  fulfil  their managerial responsibilities. Many directors indeed seem to be concerned  only  with  board "policy"  matters  and  feel  little  or no personal  liability  for  the  way  the  company  is  actually  being managed. The  board  is  legally  accountable  to  its  shareholders  for the  profitable  management  of  their  capital  but  in  many  cases this  accountability  is  not  translated  into  effective  pressure  on the  organization's  executive  management  to  produce  results. Francis  (1960:82)  posits  that  boards  should  be  more independent  for  they  are  to  stop  being  a  mere  rubber-stamp. But, the problem is how to get a board that is alert, creative and responsive,  anything  but  a  "rubber  stamp"  at  the  same  time give  management  all  the  opportunity,  flexibility  and  freedom  it needs to do the best possible job. Some of the functions of the board are as follows:-

1.It  improve  the  performance  of  business  for  the  benefit  of  the shareholders, managers and employees.
2.It provide a philosophy and a set of principles which will guide the actions of the people involved in the business.
3.To set the strategy and direction of the organization.
4.To monitor and control the organizations operations.

On the other hand, the management consists  of the chief executive  officer  and  other  top  level  managers  of  the organization.  They  are  more  involved  with  the  planning  of operations  from  initial  proposal  to  implementation  and monitoring.  The  chief  executive  faces  a  dilemma  in  that  while he  is  worried  about  the  future,  he  spends  most  of  his  time dealing with the day-to-day  operations of the organization,  who then should make plans? Among  the  planners  must  be  the  chief  executive  officer, his  senior  colleagues,  a  specialist  planner  inside  the organization,  a  specialist  from  outside  and  any  combination  of these. Hussey  (1971:7) like  Argent,  argues that while each  type of organization will require  a different  combination of members, there should  be a planning  team with the chief executive officer as the leader. Long  et  al  (1977:40)  maintain  that  planning  should  be undertaken  by  those  levels  in  an  organization  who  are responsible for the strategic long-term decisions. This goes a  long  way  to  reaffirm  the  fact  that  planning  should not  be  the duty  of  the  board  but  the  chief  executive  and  other  top  level managers.  Every  top  management  knows  that  their  corporate obligation  is  to  plan  for  the  future  with  unmistakable seriousness  of  purpose.  However,  they  differ  in  their  depth  of experience  with  the  process,  the  degree  of  sophistication developed and the means of implementation applied.

2.7CORPORATE  PLANNING  AND  ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
Corporate  planning  can    be  defined  as  the  process  of using systematic criteria and rigorous investigating to formulate,  implement  and  control  strategy  and  formally document organizational  expectations  (Higgins  and  Vineze, 1993). As  in  many other fields,  corporate planning professionals often  clock  their  work  in  pseudo  scientific  jargon  designed  to glorify  their  work  and  create  client  dependence.  In  reality, corporate planning processes are neither  scientific  nor  complex.  With  modest,  front  end assistance  and  the  occasional service  of  an  outside  facilitator, organizations  can  develop  and  manage  an  on-going  and effective planning programme. In  business, corporate  planning  provides  overall  direction for  specific  units  such  as  financial  focuses,  projects,  human resources  and  marketing.  Corporate  planning  may  be conducive  to  productivity  improvement  when  there  is consensus  about  mission  and  when  most  work  procedures depend on technical or technological considerations. This  study  goes  beyond  the  observation  of  some research  that  questioned  the  existence  of  direct  casual relationships between the use of corporate planning and improved  performance.  This  study  draws  from  some  of  the many  publications  on  the  use  of  corporate  planning  in  the private sector  and  from  the  growing  number  of  those  that  deal with  its  uses  and  potential  for  the  public  sector.  One  of  the major  purpose  of corporate  planning  is  to promote the process of  adaptive  thinking  or  thinking  about  how  to  attain  and maintain firm environment alignment. According to Berry  (1997)  corporate  planning  is a  tool  for finding the best future for your organization and the best path to reach  that  destination.  Quite  often, an  organization's  corporate planners  already  know  much  of  what  will  go  into  a  strategic plan. However, development of the corporate plan greatly helps to clarify the organization's plan and ensure that the leaders are all on the same script but far more important than the corporate plan  document  is  the  corporate  planning  process  itself.  The corporate  planning  process  begins  with  an  assessment  of  the current economic situation. First examine factors outside of the company that can affect the company's performance.
In  most  cases,  it  makes  sense  to  focus  on  the  national, local  or  regional  and  industry  economic  forecast.  This  part  of the  analysis  should  begin  early  at  least  a  quarter or  so  before
the  formal  planning  process  begins.  Hence,  it  has  been concluded  that  corporate  planning  positively  affects organizations' performance, or more specifically, the amount of corporate  planning  an  organization  conducts  positively  affects its financial performance. Since the case study used for  this  research  is  a  bank,  there  is  a  need  to  understand corporate  planning  and  financial  performance  relationships  in banks. The  results  from  past  researches  suggested  that  the intensity  with  which  banks  engage  in  the  corporate  planning process  has  a  direct  positive  effect  on  bank's  financial performance  and  mediates  the  effect  of  managerial  and organizational  factors  on  banks  performance.  Results  also indicated  a  reciprocal  relationship  between  corporate  planning intensity and performance.  That is,  corporate planning intensity causes  better  performances  and  in  turn,  better  performance causes greater corporate planning
intensity (Hopkins and Hopkin,  1997).  There  is a constant need for  organizations  especially  financial  institutions  like  banks  to think  strategically  about  what  is  going  on  (Schmenner,  1995).

This  appears  to  be  precisely  what  banks,  in  particular  have begun  to  do  in  recent  years.  In  response  to  increasing complexity and  change in the financial services industry, banks have turned to corporate planning. The relatively new trend towards corporate planning in banks is viewed  as  a  move  designed  not  only  to  help  them  negotiate their environment more effectively, but to improve their financial performance  as  well  (Bettinger,  1995).  Inconsistent  results  of bank  related  research,  however,  have  not  fully  resolved  the issue  of  whether  corporate  planning  leads  to  improvements  in banks financial performance. The  intensity  with  which  managers  engage  in  corporate planning  depends  on  managerial  (e.g.  corporate  planning
expertise  and  beliefs  about  planning  -  performance relationships), environmental  (e.g.  complexity  and change) and organizational (e.g. size and structural complexity) factors.  The  effect  of  these  factors  on  corporate  planning intensity have  been  suggested by several studies (Robinson et al (1998). Studies  that  have  analyzed  the  relationship  between corporate  planning  and  financial  performance  proved  that  the intensity  with  which  banks  engage  in  the  corporate  planning process  intervene  -that  is  cause  an  indirectness  and  lack  of one-to-one correspondence between factors such as corporate  planning  expertise  and  beliefs  about  planning performance  relationships  (managerial  factors),  environmental complexity  and  change  (environmental  factors)  bank  size  and structural  complexity  (organizational  factors)  and  bank's financial  performance.  As  suggested  by  the  inconsistent research  findings,  past  studies  have  misspecified  the relationship  between  corporate  planning  and  financial performance  in  banks.  Misspecification  of  this  relationship  might  be  attributed  to  past  studies,  lack  of  attention  to  the relationship  among  these  managerial,  environmental, organizational factor and their potential impact on planning intensity and performance (Hopkins and Hopkins, 1997).
Subsequently  the  consideration  of  such  factors  in  the present  study  is  viewed  as  a  significant  issue  that  holds implications  for  future  research  as  well  as  for  planning practices.
 
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1  RESEARCH DESIGN
Research design or research methodology is researcher's plan  of  action  about  the  study.  The  plan  embodies  strategies and  techniques  through  which  a  research  on  a  particular subject  matter  is  conducted.  It  is  the  specification  of procedures  used  in  collecting and analyzing  data necessary to help solve the problem at hand, (Donald 1980). A  research  is  the  application  of  scientific  method  to  the study  of  a  problem.    It  is  a  way  to  acquire  dependable  anduseful  information.    Its  purpose  is  to  discover  answers  to meaningful  questions  through  the  application  of  scientific approach.  The  descriptive  research  design  was  used.  The method  enables  the  researcher to obtain a clear  understanding in the behaviour of his object of study due to certain changes in some  aspects  of  the  object's  environment. This  type  of  design is mostly convenient for the management science studies.

3.2POPULATION OF STUDY
The  target  population  of  this  study  are  employees, management  and  visiting  personnel of the  bank  (Access  Bank Plc, Okpara Avenue Enugu). As  at  September  3,  2011,  the  total  number  of  staff  and visiting  personnel in the  bank was  Eighty  (80).  Thus the  eighty employees  and visiting personnel constituted the population for the research.

3.3  SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
A  portion  of  element  taken  from  the  large  population  is called  sample.  Sampling  is  taking  or drawing  of  any  portion or element  from  the  large  population  or  universe  (Osuala,  1993:
104).  Various  sampling  techniques  were  available  to  the researcher  for  use  in  the  selection  of  sub-group  that  will represent  a  population.  These  techniques  include  simple random  sampling,  multi-stage  sampling,  cluster  sampling  and systematic  sampling  among  others.    Since  the  use  any  of  the sampling techniques depends on the defined population and the  representation  of  the  sample  in  the  population,  the researcher used the random sampling technique. As  a  result  of  limitations  of  time  and  money  needed  to cover  the  whole  population,  some  forms  of  sampling  became necessary.  In  determining  the  sample  size,  the  researcher quoting Mmadu (1997: 50) applied the Yaro Yamani's statistical formula for selecting from a finite population.
The formula is stated as
n  =      N
1 + N(e)
2
Where
N  =  The entire population
e  =  Co-efficient of confident or margin of error
n  =Sample size
The  researcher  is  of  the  view  that  5%  or  0.05  is  an
appropriate  margin of error for the study.
Given N  =  80 and
e  =  0.05
80
n  =  1 + 80(0.05)
2
n  =     80
1 + 0.2
 
41
=    80
1.2
=  67
67 =  sample size
Thus,  since  n  is  67,  therefore,  67 employees constituted the sample size for the project.

3.4  SOURCES AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
There  are  various  sources  of  data  collection  for  a research purpose. The widely known sources of data collection are primary and  secondary sources  though with certain  degree of  variability.  The  sources  of  data  collection,  are  discussed further in the following headings.
1.  Primary Data
Primary  source  of  data  refers  to  the  statistical  materials  which the researcher originated for the purpose of the enquiry at hand. In other words, primary data consists of information and  data  collected  personally  by  the  researcher  for identifying  and  solving  of  the  problem  at  hand;  the primary  data  for  this  study  was  collected  personally through the following methods.
a)Administering  of  questionnaires  which  were  structurally and  carefully  formulated  to  the  staff,  management and  personnel.  The  researcher  guided  the respondents  on  how  the   questionnaires  should  be answered.
b)Through  the  use  of  oral  interview;  the  researcher personally  interviewed  the  staff,  management  and personnel of the bank.
c)Also, through what the researcher observed on her own during the field work.
2.  Secondary Data
The  secondary  sources  of  data  according  to  (Chinall,  1973: 26);  "are  the  existing  information  which  may  be  of relevance to the specific survey at hand".
The  secondary  sources  of  data  for  this  study  include;  relevant journals,  internet  websites,  documented  files,  written projects,  textbooks  and  other  useful  publications.  These
data served as good sources of reliable information to the researcher.

3.5  DATA RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
Reliability  has  been  defined  by  Pilot  and  Hungler  (1993) as the level of consistency  with which  an instrument measures the attribute it is intended to measure. The  researcher constructed questionnaire to measure the impact of corporate  planning  on organizational  performance. In order  to  ensure  face  and  content  validity  of  the  instrument,  it was  presented  to  the  supervisor  and  necessary  modifications were made based on his advice. On  the  other  hand,  validity  according  to  Nnamani  (2008: 42) is the degree to which a  test  measures  what it is supposed to measure. A test is said not to be valid per se; it must be valid for  a  particular  purpose  and  for  a  particular  group. The question  should  not  be whether a test is  valid  or  not.   It  should instead be whether at test is valid for what and for whom. In  this  content,  the validation  of  the work  was conducted through  direct  administration  validation.  This  was  done  by  the researcher to ensure that questionnaires cover the topic as well as topic related to it.

3.6  METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
Data analytical techniques are various techniques used in analyzing  and  interpreting  the  data  collected  for  research purpose.  Most  of  the  techniques  used  today  for  data presentation  and  analysis  are  statistical.  Some  of  these techniques  in  use  are  poison  distribution,  frequency distribution, simple linear regression, exponential, percentages, correlation and chi-square etc.
For  the  presentation  and  analysis  of  this  research  work, simple  percentage  would  be  used  but  for  testing  the hypothesis,  as  well  chi-square  was  used.  The  formula  for  the
Liker Scale

fx
n

fx  =  Weighted sum of frequencies
n  =Total response
The mean of point scale  =

x
n
X  =sum of norminal value
n  =Number of response categories
the cutoff = mean x e
 
45
where e = error term = 0.05
Chi-square was used to test hypothesis formulated
X
=

(oi - ei)
2
2
ei
where
oi  =  observed frequency
ei  =  expected frequencies
the degree of freedom = (r - 1) (k - 1)
where
r  =  Numbr of roles
K  =  Number of columns
X
=  Chi-square
2
Xe  =  0.05
=  Critical value of chi-square.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1  DATA PRESENTATION
According  to  Kerlinger,  (1973:  134),  data  analysis involves  the  categorizing,  manipulating  and  summarizing  of data  to  obtain  answers  to research  questions. The purpose of this  research  analysis  is  to  reduce  data  into  intelligent  and interpretable form so that the related  questions  of the research problem can be studied and tested. Moreover,  the  data  collected  from  questionnaires administered  will  be tabulated  and  analyzed statistically  for  the presentation  analysis,  we  would simply  tabulate  the responses and construct a frequency table for close ended questions. We  would  now  present  and  analyze  each  question using simple percentage and construct frequency table.

4.1.1Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According
to Sex.
Table 4.1.1
Sex
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Male  29  43
Female  38  57
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.
From  the  table  above,  43%  of  the  respondents  are  male
while  57%  are  female.  This  shows  that  female  out-numbered
male  in payroll of Access Bank Plc, Okpara Avenue, Enugu.
 
4.1.2Frequency  Distribution  of  Respondents  According  to
Age
Table 4.1.2
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
26 - 35 years  35  52
36 - 45 years  22  33
46 and above  10  15
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.
In  the  above  table,  52%  of  the  respondents  fall  between
age  bracket  of  26  -  35  years,  33%  fall  between  36  -  45  years
and 15% are 46 years and above.
 
4.1.3 Frequency Distribution According to Qualification
Table 4.1.3
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
O/A Level  12  18
OND  30  45
HND/B.Sc  15  22
Masters and above  10  15
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011
The above table shows that 18% of the Access Bank staff have  O/A  Level  and  constituted  the  cleaners,  securities  and drivers.  45%  are  OND  holders  and  Constituted  the  Cashiers
and  Tellers.  22%  are  HND  &  B.Sc  holder  and  these  handle cheques  payments,  fund  transfer,  bureau  de  change  and  theICT and marketers. Finally 15%  have masters degrees  and above, this group constituted  the  head  of  operations,  managers  and  other  top executives.

4.1.4Frequency  Distribution  Showing  How  Long  the  Staff Have Been in the Organisation.
Table 4.1.4
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
1 - 4 years  30  45
5 - 8 years  26  39
9 and above  11  16
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.
This table shows that  45%  of the respondents have been in the organisation for 1  - 4 years, 39% have stayed for 5 - 8 years and 16% have stayed for 9 years and above.
 
4.1.5Frequency  Distribution  Showing  to  What  Extent  the Bank Engage in Corporate planning.
Table 4.1.5
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
To a very great extent  43  64
To a great extent  14  21
To an extent  10  15
Undecided  0  0
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.
From the above table, 64% of the respondent agreed that the  bank  engage  in  corporate  planning  to  a  very  great  extent, 21%  said  they  engage  to  a  great  extent,  and  15%  said  to  an
extent.
 
4.1.6Frequency  Distribution  Showing  What  is  the Relationship  Between  Corporate  Planning  and Achieving the Objective of the Organisation.
Table 4.1.6
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Positively correlated  50  75
Negatively correlated  12  18
No relationship  5  7
Undecided  0  0
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011
.
This table  show  that 75%  of  the  respondents opined  that corporate  planning  and  achieving  the  objectives  are  positively correlated,  that  means  that  they  have  a  direct  linear relationship  with  each  other.  18%  agreed  that  they  are negatively  correlated  and  that  there  is  no  direct  linear relationship  between  them,  7%  opined  that  there  is  no relationship at all between the two variables.
 
4.1.7Frequency  Distribution  of  How  Does  Corporate Planning Affect the Performance of the bank
Table 4.1.7
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Positively   50  75
Negatively   1  2
No effect  16  23
Undecided  0  0
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.
From  the  table  it  is  seen  that  corporate  planning  have  a direct  positive  effect  on  organisational  performance. 75%  of the  respondents  supported  this,  only  23%  agreed  that  there  is
no effect and 2% said it has negative effect.
 
4.1.8What  are  the  Causes  of  Deviations  from  Planned Courses of Actions
Table 4.1.8
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Too broad and ambiguous plan  22  32
Lack of communication  21  31
Lack of monitoring and control  25  37
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011
.
This  table  shows  that  making  plans  that  are  broad  and ambiguous,  lack  of  communication  of  plans  and  lack  of monitoring  and  control  of  the  plans,  all  are  the  reasons  why there are some deviations from planned courses of action.

4.2  TEST OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To  ascertain  the hypotheses,  the  chi-square  (X) method 2 was used.
 
The formula for the calculation of chi-square is as follows:
X
=

(Oi - ei)
2
2
ei
where
oi  =  Observed frequency
ei  =expected frequency
4.2.1 Hypothesis I
H
:
Corporate  Planning  has  no  impact  on  the  performance  of
o
the organization.
H
:
Corporate  Planning  has  impact  on  the  performance  of  the organization.
 
Computation  of  How  Corporate  Planning  Affect  the
Organisational Performance.
Table 4.2.1
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Positively   45  67
Negatively   6  9
No effect  16  24
Undecided  0  0
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011.
 
Computation of Chi-Square
Responses  oi  ei  0i - ei  (oi - ei)
(oi - ei)
2
2
ei
Positively   45  16.75  28.25  798  47.65
Negatively   6  16.75  (10.75)  116  6.879
No effect  16  16.75  (10.75)  0.56  0.03
Undecided  0  16.75  (16.75)  281  16.75
Total
67
71.32
Computation of the critical value
The degree of freedom
d.f = (R - 1) (C - 1)
where
R  =  no of row
C  =  no of column
In this case,
df  =  (R - 1)
=  4 - 1
=  3
 
The  level  of  significance  =  0.05  referring  to  the  standard chi-square table, at 3 df = 7.815.
Decision Rule on the Hypothesis
To accept  the  null  hypothesis, decision rule  is that  where the  calculated  value  of  chi-square is  below the  critical value  of chi-square, the  hypothesis  is  accepted,  while  it  will be  rejected
when  it is above the table value  at  a given  level  of significance and degree of freedom. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected as the calculated value of chi-square 71.32 is above the critical value 7.815. It is therefore, concluded that corporate planning has a lot of impact on the organizational performance.
4.2.2 Hypothesis II
H
:Monitoring  and  controlling  of  organisational  plans  do  not
o
reduce  deviations  from  planned  courses  of  action  and does not boost organisational performance.
H
:Monitoring  and  controlling  of  organisational  plans  reduce deviations from planned courses of action and boost organisational performance.
Computation  of  how  monitoring  and  control  of organisational plans reduce deviations from planned courses of action.
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
To a very great extent  19  28
To a great extent  42  63
To an extent  5  7
Undecided  1  2
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011
 
Computation of Chi-Square
Responses  oi  ei  0i - ei  (oi - ei)
2
(oi - ei)
2
ei
To a very great
19  16.75  2.25  5.06  0.30
extent
To a great extent  42  16.75  25.25  638  38.08
To an extent  5  16.75  (11.75)  138  8.24
Undecided  1  16.75  (15.75)  248  14.81
Total
67
61.16
Calculated chi-square = 61.16
Computation of the critical value of chi-square.
The level of significance  = 0.05
The degree of freedom d.f = R - 1 = 4 - 1 = 3
Referring  to  the  standard  chi-square  table  at  3  d.f  under
0.05 level of significance , the critical value = 7.815.
Decision
The  null hypothesis is  rejected  as  the  calculated  value of chi-square 61.16 is above the critical value 7.815. Therefore,  it  is  concluded  that  monitoring  and  controlling
of organisational plans reduce deviations from planned  courses  of  action  and  also  boost  organisational performance.

4.2.3 Hypothesis III
H
:Corporate planning does  not contribute to  the achievements
o
of the goals and objectives of the organisation.
H
:Corporate  planning  contributes  to  the  achievements  of  the goals and objectives of the organisation. Computation  of  how  corporate  planning  contributes  to achievement of the organisational goals and objectives.
Responses
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Much  50  75
Little  10  15
Very Little  7  10
Total
67
100
Source: Field Survey, 2011
 
Computation of Chi-Square
Responses  oi  ei  0i - ei  (oi - ei)
(oi - ei)
2
2
ei
Much  50  22.3  27.7  767  34.39
Little  10  22.3  (12.3)  151  6.77
Very Little  7  22.3  (15.3)  234  10.49
Total
67
51.65
Computation of the critical value of chi-square
The level of significance = 0.05
df  =  R - 1
=  3 - 1
=  2
Referring to the standard chi-square table at 2 df = 5.991. Therefore,  corporate  planning  contribute  heavily  in achieving the organisational goals and objectives.
 
CHAPTER FIVE
FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1  FINDINGS
According  to  the  data  analyzed  and  the  hypothesis tested,  it  is  observed  that  organizations  engage  in  corporate planning  to  a  great  extent as  64%  of  the  respondents  attest to this. This shows  that for an  organisation  to grow and survive in its  competitive  environment  and  also  in  the  presence  of  some unforeseen  circumstances  in  the  future,  the    management  of the organisation  should give some thought to what  its business will  be  in  future  in  response  to  the  changes  taking  place  in  its environment. In  addition  it  is also  observed  that  there  is  a  direct  linear relationship  between  planning  and  achieving  the  objectives. This  shows  that  a  good  corporate  plan  is  one  that  alligns  with the  objectives  of  the  organisation.  This  means  that  proper definition  of  the  business  operation  of  the  organization  should be  made.  The  definition  of  the  objectives  needs  to  be  clear unambiguous  so  as  to  enable  the  development  of  effective implementation of strategies. At times you find out that  somebody  might  be  in  an  organisation  but  do  not  know what  the  organisation  is  out  for.  This  is  mostly  the  case  with workers  down  the  ladder  who  are  expected  to  carry  out  the plan. The  researcher also find out that  some times, actions will not  conform  to  plan.  The  respondents  indicated  the  reasons
why  there  are  some  deviations  between  actual  and  planned activities in the  organisation.  Some said it is caused by making too  broad  and  ambiguous  plan,  others  opined  that  it  is  lack  of
communication  of  the  planned  activities  while  others  believe that  it  is  lack  of  monitoring  and  control  of  plans  by management. One  of  the  tested  hypothesis  also  supported  this  by proving  that  monitoring  and  control  of  organisational  plan reduces  deviations  from  planned  courses  of  action  and  also boost the performance of the organisation.

5.2RECOMMENDATION
As  a  result  of  these  findings,  organisations  should  make their objectives clear as to the purpose and intention, it should  also  be  reasonably  and  practically  attainable  and capable  of  being  measured.    In  addition,  objectives  should cover all the significant areas of corporate performance and not just  a  single  goal.  The  point  becomes  necessary  when  you consider  the  fact  that  most  companies  in  trying  to  be  broad  in formulating attractive  but  practically unattainable  goals  thereby loosing  sense  of  purpose  and  direction.  To  avoid  this,  theorganisation should be able to re-define its business purpose in terms of its mission.  If there is  any disparity between what it  is and what it should be, there is need for re-examination and re-adjustment in order to compete effectively in the market. However,  it  is  also  recommended  that  all  the  managers need  to  have  an  adequate  and  effective  system  of  monitoringand  control  to  assist  them  in  making  sure  that  activities conform  to  plans.  Indeed  if  controls  are  to  work,  they  must  be specifically  tailored  to  plans,  and  positions,  to  the  individual managers  and  their personalities  and  to  the  needs  for efficiency and effectiveness. One of the important ways of tailoring control to needs for efficiency and effectiveness is to make  sure  that  they  are  designed  to  point-up  exceptions.  In other  words,  controls  that  concentrate  on  exceptions  from planned  performance  allow  managers  to  benefit  from  the  time honoured  exceptions  principle  and  detect  those  areas  that require their attention.

5.3CONCLUSION
It  can  be  concluded  that  corporate  planning  is  of  a substantial  help  to  the  organisation  as  a  whole  as  it  help  the managers  to  predict  the  future  and  know  how  to  respond  to changes in their business environment. However,  it  is  also  concluded  that  a  direct  linear relationship  exist  between  corporate  planning  and organisational  objectives  as  clear  and  unambiguous  plan
enhances achievement of the objectives. Finally,  corporate  planning  have  a  great  impact  on  the performance of the organisation.   Corporate planning  will  bring much  better  results  than  if  not  done.    It  will  provide  a  useful framework for better understanding, innovation, vision and decision making. Whatever  the  situation,  when  corporate  planning  is applied  effectively,  the  average  frequency  and  amplitude  of adjustment  are  smaller  than  the  more  disruptive  ups  and downs, which occur without it. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anscoff, Igor H. (1965), Corporate Strategy; New York: McGraw-Hill
Ackoff, Russel, (Russell (1990)) A Concept of Corporate
Planning; John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
Akpala A. (1990), Management: An Introduction and the Nigeria  Perspective.  Enugu:  Department  of Management,  Faculty  of  Business  Administration, UNEC.
Argent; John (1987), Practical Corporate Planning, London: George Allen and Unwin.
Carnegie,  Pale  (1975),  Managing  Through  People.  New  York:
Oale Carnegie and Association Inc.
Drucker, P. (1964), Managing for Results, London: Heinnman Publishers.
Evans, David W. (1972), Long-Range Planning for Management. New York: Harper and Row Publication.
Ezionye, F. Eboh (2002), Management Theory Models for Decision Making, Enugu: Computer Villa Publishers.
Fanner, David H. (1975), Corporate Planning and Procurement. London: William Heineman Ltd.
Hussey, D.E. (1971), Introducing Corporate Planning, Frankfruit: Pergamon Press.
Mann, Rowland (1970), The Arts of Top Management, London: McGraw Hill Inc..
Miner John (1975), The Management Process, Macmillian Company, New York.
Onah Syvester Chuks (2010), Production Operations Management, Ebyboy Business World IMT, Enugu.
Osaze, Bob E. (1991), Nigeria Corporate Policy and Strategic Management. (Nigeria CMD).
Steiner, Geroge (1967), Top Management Planning, New York: Macmillian Pub. co.
Willy Nnamani, (2004), The Research Process, Enugu: Owulu Publishing Co. Journals
Hayes, R.H. (1983), Strategic Planning-Forward in Reverse.
Harvard Business Review.  Vol. 63, November -  December,  pp. 111 - 115.
Vancil, R.P. (1975), Strategic Planning in Diversified Company, Harvard Business Review. Vol. 53, pp. 81 - 90.
 
APPENDIX

Dear Respondents,
I am a student of the above mentioned institution, conducting a research  work  on  the  impact  of  corporate  planning  on organisational  performance,  using  Intercontinental  Bank  Plc.,
Okpara Avenue as a Case Study. I  hereby  request  for  your  assistance  in  finding  the  attached questionnaires.    The  questionnaire  is  designed  to  help  in collecting necessary information needed for the research work. This study  is purely an  academic  exercise carried out in partial fulfillment  of  the  requirements  for  the  award  of  Master  Degree in  Business  Administration  (MBA)  and  therefore  has  no implication on the respondents.
Thanks for your co-operation.
Yours faithfully,
 
QUESTIONNAIRE
1.  Sex
a)  Male  [ ]
b)  Female  [ ]
2.  Qualification
a)  O/A Levels   [ ]
b)  OND     [ ]
c)  HND/B.Sc      [ ]
d)  M.Sc and above  [ ]
3.  How long have you been in the banking industry.
a)  26 - 35 years  [ ]
b)  36 - 45 years   [ ]
c)  46 and above   [ ]
4.Do your organisation has objectives
a)  Yes  [ ]
b)  No  [ ]
5.  Who sets the objectives
a)  Departmental Managers  [ ]
b)  General Manager    [ ]
c)  Board of Directors    [ ]
d)  All of the above    [ ]
6.How is your company objective
a)Quite clear and simplified  [ ]
b)  Too broad and ambiguous  [ ]
7.How  does  the  objective  reflect  to  what  you  have  in  mind
about the company?
a)  To a large extent [ ]
b)  Minimal Level    [ ]
c)  On the average    [ ]
 
8.How  often  do  you realise your  objectives within the specified
period
a)  Most of the time  [ ]
b)  Some times    [ ]
c)  All the time   [ ]
9.What is the relationship between your planning and achieving
your objectives?
a)  Positively correlation  [ ]
b)  Negative correlation    [ ]
c)  No relationship at all   [ ]
10.How does your planning affect your performances
a)  To a very great extent [ ]
b)  To a great extent   [ ]
c)  to an extent      [ ]
11.What  are  the  reasons  for  deviations  from  planned  courses
of actions?
a)  Too broad and ambiguous plan    [ ]
b)  Lack of communication      [ ]
c)  changes in government policies  [ ]
12.What conditions are your future actions?
a)  What others are doing   [ ]
b)  What the employees feel    [ ]
c)  Result from forecastion unit  [ ]
d)  None of the above      [ ]
13.  How do you react to environmental factors
a)  Passive/Indifferent    [ ]
b)  Spontaneously      [ ]
c)  Proactively     [ ]
d)  Reactively      [ ]
14.  Which of this type of planned do you prefer?
a)  Short-Term    [ ]
b)  Long Term   [ ]
c)  All of the above  [ ]
15.Do you deviate from planned actions
a)  Yes  [ ]
b)  No  [ ]
16.How often have you deviated from planed actions
a)  Rarely      [ ]
b)  On the average    [ ]
c)  Often/Regularly  [ ]
17.What in your opinion causes this deviations?
a)Broad and Ambigous plan     [ ]
b)  Lack of communication      [ ]
c)  Changes in government policies  [ ]
18.Do you think this deviations can be minimized?
a)  Yes  [ ]
b)  No  [ ]
19.How do you think that it could be minimize?
a)  By monitoring the plans  [ ]
b)  By Controlling the Plans  [ ]
c)  Evaluating performance  [ ]
20.How is the plan co-ordinated and controlled.
a)Through the general manager      [ ]
b)  Through reports from sectional heads  [ ]
c)By setting a  project manager      [ ]
21.What  happens  when  the  plan  could  not  achieve  your
objectives?
a)Make a fresh plan      [ ]
b)Re-evaluate the entire system  [ ]
c)  Set new objectives      [ ]
22.Would you prefer to monitor and appraise a plans?
a)  Yes    [ ]
b)  No    [ ]
23.When do you prefer to monitor and appraise a plan
a)  As you go along  [ ]
b)  At the end of the planning horizon
c)  None of the above
24.How would you describe your organisational structure
a)  Centralized    [ ]
b)  Decentralized    [ ]
25.How would you describe your organisational plan?
a)  Flexible   [ ]
b)  Loose  [ ]
c)  Rigid [ ]
26.Who carries out the plan?
a)  Top management  [ ]
b)  Supervisors    [ ]
c)Operatives    [ ]
d)  All of the above  [ ]
27.Do you set new objectives
a)  Yes  [ ]
b)  No  [ ]
28.How often do you set new objectives.
a)  Annually      [ ]
b)  Biannually    [ ]
c)  Whenever necessary  [ ]
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