THE ATTITUDE OF TEACHERS TOWARD THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS



INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
            Sexual Education is a planned process of education that fosters the acquisition of factual information, the information of positive attitude beliefs and values, as well as the development of skills to cope with the biological, psychological, socio-cultural and spiritual aspects of human sexuality. Therefore, the main purpose of teaching sexual education in secondary schools is to promote sexual health by providing learners with opportunities to:

-           Develop a positive and factual view of sexuality.
-           Acquire the information and skills they need to take care of their sexual heath, including preventing HIV/AID and other sexuality transmitted infections/diseases
-           Respect and value themselves and others, and acquire the skills needed to make healthy decisions about their sexual health and behavior.
            According to Obigwe (2003) adolescence is the time when young people are learning a great deal about themselves and adjusting to rapid changes in their bodies. However, it is observed that during early adolescence a new uncertainty about their bodies and how it functions. They need information and assurance about what is happening to them. As they mature, some feel confused about what they are supposed to do in a variety of situations-including making sense of evolving relationship with family and pears; coping with new sexual, and trying to assess conflicting messages about who they are and what is expected of them in the society.
            Matter (1996) opinioned that, parents, educators, and communities all faces the challenge of creating environments that support and nurture good health. Thus young people need sexual education programmes that mode and teach positive self-worth, responsibility education and understanding and acceptance of diversity and sexual health many people still believe that sexual education would encourage “sexual experimentation and several studies have been conducted to determine whether sexual education programmes actually increase young people’s sexual involvement.
            One of these is the Landmark Study Commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO) in (1993) which conclusively showed that, contrary to long – held beliefs no significant relationship exist between receiving formal sexual education and initiating sexual activity. Ratter sexual education result in postponement or reduction in the frequency of sexual activity and more effective use of contraception and adoption of safer behaviour.
            Therefore, instead of informing adolescents only about the health risk and potential negative consequence associated with sexual activities; teachers need to provide young people more balanced messages. They should not feed ashamed; more especially when the teacher is a female teaching in a mix schools that boys and girls. Teachers because of their religious beliefs do not put much emphasis on teaching sexual education, to them it is the way to expose student to sexual activities.
            Adolescents needs to receive clear, proactive messages about sexual decision-making, but they also need more than “Sexual activities”. It deals with many aspects of life, including biology, gender roles, body image and interpersonal relationships; thoughts, beliefs, values, altitudes and feeling and sexual behaviour.
            Young people should be assisted to develop a positive sense of their own sexuality by creating enabling opportunities for them as they learn about this part of themselves. According to Charles (2001) is if the view that to understand that the element of one’s sexuality is a life long process. Therefore it involves acquiring information and forming altitudes and values and addresses all aspects of sexuality and health. Teacher’s still stoked to the idea as it was in the pact. In the pact, it was normal to protect adolescents from receiving education on sexual matters was abominable to youth ever within the manage circler. It was falsely believed that ignorance would encourage chastity; yet the rampant unprotected sexual activities among adolescents and the devastating consequences is evidence of the failure to this approach.
            Studies of the sexual and reproductive health behaviour of Nigeria youth confirm that they had not been formally taught about sexuality. Their information on this important subject came from pears, news magazine and biology classes. The 1999 National conference on, Adolescent Reproduction Health in Nigeria reviewed the status of the country’s compliance with platform of action by the international conference on population and development in 1994.
            According to Action Health Incorporated (2008) in Nigeria, like many other developing countries, adequate attention has not been given to adolescent reproductive health despite the fact that recent data show that age at menarche is dropping; there is early initiation of sexual activity; there is a high incidence of teenage pregnancy; and that teenagers account for 80% of unsafe abortion complications treated in hospital. Teachers are still nursing the idea and beliefs that arising from our socio-cultural heritage, issues relating to sexuality are usually not openly discussed.
            Nwokadi (1998) stated that although we see sexuality around us, every day sexual education and services for adolescents remains controversial issue in Nigeria. This statement clearly the problem of Nigerians. Surveys conducted nationally show that teachers who ought to be the primary sexual educators of students or children and communicate to than specific values about sexuality, play the least role in this area. School provide little or no sexual education programmes for young people, learning equally misinformed pears as the primary source of information on these issues.
            The Guideline also noted that “many more Nigerians are beginning to realize that if the problems of unwanted teenager pregnancy STI/HIV/AIDS and sexual abuse are to be effective addressed, it is important that all people should develop accurate, rational and responsible attitudes and behaviour towards issue around sexuality. While the high rates of unintended pregnancy and the frightening increase of STIS and HIV/AIDS in young people are suitable concerns, it is important not to element from our teaching, the many other dimensions of a young person’s sexuality. Adolescent sexuality is not a limited concept, while sexual activity is not restricted to penetrative sex or use of contraceptives. Indeed, sexual expression may include kissing, touching, fantasy, sensual and erotic behavior. Adolescents are also concerned with developing satisfying peer relationships. With members of both sexes. They show greater interest in their own individual development, their family and relationships. Instead of focusing on genital sexual behaviour alone. It is important to help them explore other topic that influence their development such as body image, gender roles, and ways of expressing love and intimacy among others
1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
            The attitude of teachers toward the teaching of sex education in secondary schools has become a source of worry as the contompory social vice and educational set back. Therefore the major aim of this study is to discuss the attitudes of teacher in students in secondary schools sex education. How teachers through sex education has contributed to assist young people to develop a positive sense of than own sexuality, by creating opportunities for them to consider all aspects sexuality, to ask question and to understand that there are teacher who support them as they learn about this part of themselves.
1.3       Purpose of the Study
            The main purpose of this research work or study is to investigate the attitudes of teacher in teaching sex education in secondary schools in Nigeria, especially in secondary school Nnewi-North Local Government Area of Anambra State. Precisely the study equally find it fit the target of achieving the following objectives:-
1.         To examine the extent, teachers attitudes towards the teaching of sex education in secondary schools.
2.         The effect of sex-education to the secondary school students.  
3.         Efforts of parents as primary educators to children on sexual education in the society/community.
4.         To suggest possible ways creating more public, students and parents awareness on the need to teach or enlighten the adolescent the important of sexual education in and outside the school environment.
1.4       Significance of the Study
            This research work or study will assist in a greater understanding the attitude of teacher towards educational objectives – teaching of sexual education in secondary schools more especially in secondary school of Nnewi-North Local Government Area of Anambra State. This study is also useful for parents who have thought that sex education should not be taught to the youths because it is being regarded as abnormal and should be avoided. Thus it will assist them to actually understand the need to teach the young people sex education.
            Its primary goal is to help educators of Nigerian adolescents again the knowledge and skills needed to express their sexuality in life-enhancing ways, more also to help students understand the value and appreciate the difference among individuals.
1.5       The Study Centers on the Attitude
            The study centres on the attitude of teachers towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Nnewi-North Local Government Area of Anambra State. The study is limited to the following secondary schools.
i.          Okongwu Memorial Grammar School Nnewi. (ii) Maria Regina secondary school Nnewi (iii) Girls High School Nnewi and Bishop Uzodike Seminar School Nnewi.
1.6       RESEARCH QUESTION
            Following the basics of research work on the teachers attitudes towards the teaching of sex education in secondary schools in Nnewi – North Local Government Area of Anambra state four research questions were formulated to guide this study.
1.         What are the attitudes of teachers in teaching sex education in secondary schools in Nnewi – North Local Government Area of Anambra State?
2.         Does sex-education affects the spreading of HIV/AIDs and other related sexual transmitted infection among secondary student.
3.         Do parents play active role as a primary educator of sex education in their various communities?
4.         How can sex education be properly target in secondary school in Nnewi – North Local Government Area of Anambra State?

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This Literature Review is meant to affect many areas as regard the research topic under consideration. Many writer has written on the issue of teachers attitude in teaching sex education in secondary school some writers wrote without porting to the principle thing that promotes this issue of teachers attitude in teaching sex education.
In this research work teaching of sex education to the young people in our society more especially in secondary schools. Therefore this literature review will be made under the following sub-headings
1.         What sex education is all about
2.         Teacher attitudes towards teaching of sex education
3.         Parents and communities as the primary educator of sexual education.
4.         Possible way promote sex education in our society more especially in secondary schools in Nnewi-North Local Government Area of Anambra State.

2.1       THE CONCEPT OF SEX EDUCATION
Sex education is a planed process of education that fosters the acquisition of factual information the information of positive attitudes, beliefs and value as well as the development of skills to cope with the biological, psychological social cultural and spiritual aspects of human sexuality. The main goal of sexual education is the promotion of sexual health by providing learners with opportunities; to develop a positive and factual view of sexuality. According to Dike B. (1989) sex education enhanced the learner to acquire the formation and skills they need to take care of than sexual health, including preventing STI/HW/AID and sexual transmitted diseases.
Adolescent is the period of time when young people are leering a great deal about themselves and adjusting to rapid change in their bodies. During this early period of adolescence, many experience a new uncertainty about their bodies and how they function The need information and assurance about what is happing to them.
Pressure to conform to gender-role stereo type increase during adolescence. Girls will be expected to act as a young mother in their culture and may be discouraged from acting and playing the games that boys play. Boys also have stereotyped gender- role message. Many will have learned that any deviation from “acting like a man will expose them to ridicule or outright injection
Maduabuchi (2005) is of the view that young people seen to initiate sexual intercourse much earlier than in the past and young mothers suffer from various maternal complications. Two out of every five secondary school girls have had at least one previous pregnancy 150 out of every 1000 women who give birth are 19 years old or under, and 50% of the deaths recorded in Nigeria’s high maternal mortality figure are adolescent girls, due to illegally induced abortion.

2.2       TEACHER ATTITUDE TOWARDS TEACHING SEX-EDUCATION
A teacher is someone who gives instructions especially in a school or privately. At school, the teacher acts as surrogates to children He is an agent of deliberate attempt to socialize youths. He imposes societal values upon the youths. The teacher is an interpreter in moral matters. Judging from the society in which he teaches and considering the experiences of his pupils, the teacher is to bring his pupils to understand the difference between right and wrong between what is socially acceptable (good) and socially unacceptable (wrong).
It is generally accepted that teacher constitute the pivot of any school system. This is because the success of any system of education depends to a target extent on the number of teachers, their quality, and devotion to duty and their effectiveness on the Job. It is as a result of this central position of the teacher that it is often said that no education system could rise above the quality of its teachers. This actually is why Razik (1972) says, “The validity of any educational system nationally is dependent upon the quality of the teaching and the availability of competent teachers”. It is ultimately the teacher who decides on what goes on in the classroom and transfers educational theories and principle into practice.
Alaezi (1990) describes teaching as the business of all those involved in the act of changing human behaviour and transformation of society for better, particularly when their actions warder them perceptibly significant respectable and recognizable to others because of the consequences they accomplish and the unique manner they do them. Thus, teacher’s attitude toward the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Nnewi- North Local Government Area of Anambera State is not a welcome development or positing strategies toward preventing and controlling HIV/AID and other sexual transmitted infections/diseases.
It has been notice that teaching of sex education in secondary schools is sometimes misconceived to be synonymous with lessons on sexual intercourse and unrestrained libido or licentiousness. Consequently, teachers are usually sceptical about the usefulness of this type of education to students. Secondly, another challenges faced by teacher is leak of qualified teachers. Chequeried efforts at sex education are not undertaken by relevantly trained teacher instead, they are made by such unqualified personnel as medical doctors, nurses, health scientists. Teachers shows the traditional belief that sex education at best can only remind and induce the children to engage in premaritce sexual acts.
Fourthly religions barriers is another factors which influences teachers our their attitude in teaching sex education. Our country is a secular one or non-sectarian with regard to religion and its practices. As a result, there is multiplicity of religious and religious philosophies central controlled by nobody. Many of these religious groups from at sex education fearing that it may lead to licentiousness or fornication. Lastly other constraints faced by teachers are low level of education. Poverty, lack of appropriate instructions materials, and fear of misuse by the students.
Therefore, in other to avoid getting involved in any of those obnoxious activities, people need clear and well articulated understanding of their sex life. If this knowledge is derived them, they will grope in darkness of ignorance and unknowing get entangled in the ill aforementioned. Sex education is the only avenue through which such knowledge can be consequently disseminated

2.3       Parents and Communities as the Primary Educators of Six Education   
There is no doubt in the saying that charity begins at home. Parents and communities all face the chattauge of creating environments that support and nurture good sexual health. Young people need sexual education programmes that model and teach positive self-worth, responsibility, understanding and acceptance of diversity and sexual health. Many people still believe that sexuality education would encourage sexual abuse. Therefore parents, and communities and their leader should correct this impression of people’s eely on sexual behaviour in the society.
2.4       Possible Ways of Promoting Sex Education
The success of school health programmes – sex education demands an effective partnership between ministries of education and health, and between teachers, communities and parents. The health sector retains the responsibility for the health of children, but the education sector is responsible for implementing, and funding school based programmes. These sectors need to identify respective responsibilities and present coordinated action to improve and promote health – sex education and learning outcomes for children.
Thus, information should be made available concerning the social and economic implications (for the individual and for the society in general) of unwanted adolescent pregnancy.
-           That policy makers should encourage incorporating appropriate programmes for adolescent within national family planning programme.
-           That research should be undertaken to describe the changing nature of vulnerability of this age group to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Also, detailed research proposals should be formulated to examine, sex education training available to family life education etc.
Lastly, effort of the government geared towards family planning, family life programmes and population control, will greatly be enhanced through institutionalized, adequately systematized and appropriately regulated programme of studies on all sex-related maters in the country.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter discusses the method employed by the research in carrying out the study. It is discussed under the following sub-headings-design of the study, area of the study population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instrument for data collection, valid of the instrument, method of data collection and method of data analysis.
3.1       Design of the Study
This study design can be referred to as descriptive survey. This design according to Maduabum (1999), is one in which data are collected from a relatively large number of respondents or items considered to be representative of the whole population of a group. He asserted also that descriptive survey is concerned with description of events as they are.

3.2       Area of the Study
The area of the study is Nnewi–North Local Government Area of Anambra state. Nnewi-North is one of the Local Government Area of Anambra state. But the study is centered in four communities namely:- Umudim, Otolo, Nnewichi and Uruagu respectively.

3.3       Population of The Study
The population of this study comprised four (4) secondary school each from the aforementioned communities.
3.4       Sample and Sample Technique
The population was sampled using sample random technique for easy coverage of the targeted population India study sampling random technique were used for data collection persons were randomly selected from each of the four secondary school in the from ward/communities in Nnewi – North Local Government Area of Anambra state. This give a total population two hundred (200) Respondents.
3.5       Instrument for Date Collection
The instrument for data collection in this study was a structured questionnaire entitled Attitudes of teachers toward teaching sex education in Nnewi – North Local Government Area of Anambra state. The questionnaires was designed by the researcher and it was survey method as well as personal oral interview.
The questionnaire were carefully structured in such a manner that it will elicit personal information needed for the study the rational for the questionnaire is to test whether the research questions stand for true or false.
In all, two hundred (200) questionnaires were distributed to one hundred and sixty (160) students and forty (40) questionnaires to teachers from the sampled secondary school in Nnewi – North Local Government Area of Anambra state. The respondents completed the questionnaire and all were successfully retuned with the help of the research.
3.6       Validity of the Instrument
The draft was first presented to the project supervisor who made necessary convection as regard the language contact and sentence structure. Instrument was also presented to three senior lectures in the Department of Arts and Social Science Education and other two lecturers in measurement and Evaluation at Ikwo Colleague Education.
These lecturers veiled each items in terms of sentence structure and adequacy of  instrument.
Based on their comments and suggestions, some of the original items were dropped, therefore the view and suggestion of these experts were incorporated in the final questionnaire.


3.7       Method of Data Collection
Copies of the questionnaire were distributed to two (200) hundred respondents. Fifty (50) respondents from each of the four (4) secondary school randomly sample as the targeted population. Each respondent complied by filing the questionnaire, while the researcher and three (3) assistant researchers waited to collect it on completion. No questionnaire was lost.
3.8       Method of Data Analysis
The method of data analysis would involved the use of descriptive statistics such as percentage and means to establish the degree of responses.
To ease data reporting, the summary of the result were set out in the table, in line with research questions/items which was formulated to guide the study.

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0                        DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter involves the actual presentation of data obtained from the field through the use of questionnaire and intervenes based on the four (4) research question that guided the study.
4.1       Research Question I.
What are the attitude of teachers in teaching sex education in secondary schools in Nnewi – North Local Government Area of Anambra state.
S/N
Question/Items
Total
Yes
%
No
%
1
Female teachers are ashamed or fell shy to discuss sex or its related issue in mix or boys secondary schools.




200




150




75




50




25
2
They have misconception that teaching sex in secondary school will induce the rate of sex and drug abuse




200




180




90




20




10
3
That sex education is meant for married people and should not be taught outside marriage 



200



160



80



40



20
4
Some of the teacher are not properly trained on this subject sex education  


200


190


95


10


5
            The summary of data analysis as presented above table shows that 150 out of 200 respondents which 15 representing 75% are of the view that teachers (females) are ashamed or feel shy in discussing sex or its relate issue in the mix school i.e with boys are girl and in boys secondary schools while 50 respondents representing 25% sand no. item two in the table shows that 180 respondents, representing 90% are of the opinion that teachers has misconception that teaching sex education will induce the rate of sex and drugs abuse; while 20 respondents representing 10% disagreed with them. Number three question in the table stated that sex education is meant for married couples and shouldn’t taught outside marriage cycle. 160 representing 80% agreed while 40 respondent, representing 20% disagreed. Lastly in the table, 190 respondents representing 95% are of the opinion that some teachers are not properly tramped on the subject sex education, while 10 respondents representing 5% seize no.


4.2       Research Question ii
            Does sex education affects the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexual transmitted deceases in secondary schools.
S/N
Question/Items
Total
Yes
%
No
%
1
It will reduce the rate of death as result of HIV/AIDS infections.  


200


150


75


50


25
2
It create more awareness of other diseases associated with sexuality. 


200


195


97.5


5


2.5
3
It will reduce number of orphans who’s parents died because of HIV/AIDS


200


170


85


30


15

From the above table 11 it shows that 150 respondents, representing 75% are of the opinion that, it will reduce the rate of death as result of HIV/AIDS infection while 50 respondents representing 25% totally disagreed.
            In item two in the table 195 respondents which representing 97.5% are of the view that it will create more awareness of other diseases associated with sexuality, while 5 respondents representing 2.5% said no.
            The third item stated it will reduce the numbers of orphans whose parents died because of HIV/AIDS infection while 30 respondents representing 15% disagreed
4.3       Research Question iii
            Do parents play active role as a primary educator of sex education in their various communities?
S/N
Question
Total
Yes
%
No
%
1
It is beloved that it will lead sex above among children in the society  


200


180


90


20


10
2
They are skeptical about the usefulness of sex education 


200


190


95


10


5
3
It is traditional belief that education will remind and induce the children to engage in pre-martial sexual acts 




200




185




92.5




15




7.5

            From the above table iii, it is reflected that 180 respondents, representing 90% agreed that it is believed that it lead to sex abuse among children, while 20 respondents, representing 10% said No. from the table, item (2) 190 respondents, representing 95% are of the idea that they are skeptical about the usefulness of sex education, while 10 respondents representing 5% total disagree.
            Lastly on the label item three state that it is traditional belief that sex education will remind and induce these children to engage in premarital sexual acts.
4.4       Research Question iv
            How can sex education be properly taught in secondary schools in Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State
S/N
Question/Items
Total
Yes
%
No
%
1
More research should be conducted on sex education nation wide.   


200


170


95


10


5
2
Teachers should be adequately trained on sex education 


200


170


85


30


5
3
Parents should be encourage to teach their children the consequences of unwanted pregnancy     




200




195




97.5




5




1
        
            From the above table item “y” 190 respondents, representing 95% unanimously agreed that more research work should be carried out on sex education, while 10 respondents representing 5% disagreed with them. Item “2” in the same tables. That teachers should be adequately trained on sex education, 170 respondents representing 85% agreed with the above statement, while 30 respondents, which represented 15% said no.
            In the table, item three “3” is of the opinion that parents should be encourage to teach their children the consequences of unwanted pregnancy, 195 respondents which represents 97.5% agreed with the above statement, while 5 respondents, while 5 respondents representing 1% disagreed.

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS, EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS AND
5.1       CONCLUSION DISCUSSION
            The result of data analysis in table  revealed that the items are of the general opinion that female teacher are ashamed or feel shy to teach sex education in second is a mix schools boys/girls boys secondary schools 150 out 200 respondents representing 75% disagreed on the above statement.
            Also in the same table the item two 180 respondents, representing 90% are of the view that teachers has the miscomputation that teaching of sex education will induce the rate of sex and abuse in secondary schools while twenty (20) respondents representing 10% said no. Lastly in that table, 190 respondents representing 95% are of the view that, some of the teachers are not property trained on this subject, sex education.
            In the second research question which stated that sex education affect the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexual transmitted infections. The first item in the table stated that it reduced the death rate as result of HIV/AIDS scourge, 150 respondents out of 200, which represents 75% unanimously agreed while 50 respondents, representing 25% disagreed with them. Second item in the table, stated that it created more awareness of other diseases associated with sexuality. On that out 200 respondents 195 respondents representing 97.5% bought the idea while 5 respondents representing 2.5% refused their idea.
            In the same table it was revealed that 200 respondents 170 respondents, representing 85% are of the opinion that, it will reduce number of orphan who’s parents died because of HIV/AIDS infection while 30 respondents, representing 15% objected the statement.
            In research question three, which is of the view that if parents do play positioned role as a primary educator of sex education in their various communities. In the table, first item stated that, it is believed that it will lead sex abuse among children in the society. On that out, 200 respondents 190 respondents agreed, which represents 90%, but 20 respondents which represents 10% said no. in the same table item “2” stated that parents are skeptical about the usefulness of sex education. Out of 200 respondents 190 respondents unanimously agreed which represents 95%, but 10 respondents, which represents 5% total disagreed to them. Lastly in the table, item three stated, that it is traditional belief that sex education will remind and induce the children to engage in premarital sex acts. 185 respondents representing 92.5% agreed, which 15 respondents representing 7.5% said no.
            In the research question 4 four. It is stated hour can sex education be properly taught in secondary school in Nnewi – North Local Government Area of Anamber state. Out of 200 respondents 190 respondents, representing 95% supported the view that more research should be conducted on sex education nation-wide; while 10 respondents, which representing 5% disagreed totally. The second items in the table has it that teachers should be adequately trained on sex education. Out of 200 respondents 170 respondents agreed which represents 85%, but 30 respondents which represents 15% said no. Last the third item in the table also stated that parents should be encourage to teach their children the consequences of unwanted pregnancy. out of 200 respondents, 195 respondents are of the general opinion on the above statement which represents 97%, but 5 respondents which represents 1%, disagreed to them.

5.1       EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
            The study revealed that the attitude of teachers towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school is not helping maters in the effort of preventing and controlling of HIV/AIDS and other sexually related transmitted infections.
            The study also revealed that parents in their efforts are properly lacking behind toward teaching or educating their children on sex. Knowing fully that parents are or supposed to be primary educator on sex education but because of their culture abhors any discussion on sex-related matters in a public place and it is viewed as an anathema to discuss sex-related issues with tea wagers. Therefore parents should adjust their culture.
5.2                   CONCLUSION
            The findings of the study revealed that appropriate application of teaching sex education will provide relevant information about HIV/AIDS scourge, especially for young people both at home, school and the entire society. That the home for instance should that children be well informed about the damage of pre-marital sex, sharing unsterilised skin piercing instruments and avoid having casual sex without condom.
            The study also revealed that parents should cre3ate a home environment in wich the children are free to discuss their problems with them. That questions from children on sex and other related matters should be answered with sincerity. It related also that people should Cultivate  positive sexual behaviour such as  avoidance of pre- marital sex drug addition, having contact with intuited blood through sharing needles or syringes etc. all these will be benefits to be driven from sex education in our secondary school, homes and the entire society behaviour/attitudes toward teaching sex-education to  their children.
            The study revealed the need for teachers to be properly trained and equipped with relevant material to able and enable them perform the job more efficiently should be highly put in place.
            The study revealed that sex education will provide the panacea to sex-related problems. Sex educations emphasize the divine importance of sex as the basis of reproduction and continuity of life on earth. It deemphasizes the moral and misconstrued use of sex in whatever from.
5.3       RECOMMENDATION
            Based on the finding of the research, the following recommendations were made:-
(1)       That parent should be encouraged in teaching their children sex Education since teaching might save the children from unwanted consequences that might result from lack such acknowledgement.
(2)       Teachers also should be given adequate training on sex Education to equip them with able and enable materials to gain the knowledge theme in.
(3)       Adult citizens of Nnewi- North local Government Area of Anambra state, should be discouraged from being shy in talk or teaching about Education, since such attitude might hinder, them from teaching sex Education in their individual families.
(4)       Teacher, political and religious leaders, councilor, social heath worker and village heads should create the chance to conduct sponsored seminars.
(5)       The children should be vividly mate to understand by their parents that sex education is a part of informal education therefore they are entitled to leam from their parents.

REFERENCES
Action Health In cooperation (2008) policy statement in life sex education

Alaezi, B.O (The philosophy of sex Education mangle and family. New York

Charles, (M. 2001) concept of theories of human development. New York: Radom House

Dike, B (1959) A hand book of child psychology Warcaslar Clark university press.

Maduabuchi, E. (2005) Alcohol and Drug Rependame, London
Mathew, Tom (1996) Poetry and prostitution New York (Ambridge university press

Nwokedi, P (1998) Human Development Enugu Government Press.

Obigue, Y. Z (2003) Alcoholism and addition Ibadan Longman press

Razik, F C,  (1972) Evaluation Human Ecology and society N.Y Macmillan Public Co Ltd.

WHO (1993) AIDS: Special challenge to woman health Journal vol. 4 centre – Santiago.          




CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Religious socialism is the belief that Christianity stands for a structure of society which will enable men, women, old and young to line and work together in unity as brethren, and that competition is not a universal law. Thus, religious/Christianity has proved to be a bed-rock and a tool for peaceful co-existence, through her preaching against coup-detat, tribalism, ethnocentrism, sectionalism corruption as. Well as initiating religious dialogue for an understanding of one another’s faith; and by organizing conferences and workshops to enlighten the people to reduce their socio-economic and political tension.
            The missionaries, therefore utilized education as an effective tool for evangelizing Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state. This was the effort that was very much responsible for the local government area’s manpower development. Christianity via education has therefore enlightened the generality of the Ezza-North society, Christens and non-Christians alike. Establishment of primary secondary school and church and health centers in the area are developed beyond expectation.
            Religion according to Durkheim (1997) is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacked things, uniting into a single moral community all those who adhere to those beliefs and practices. This shows that mangers of religious group share common concern about the unknown and unexplainable things in the world. That is, man is in atmosphere of uncertainty, insecurity and incompletion and is led to attribute things that cannot be supernatural things.
            The history of Christianity and its influence upon human societies, according to Abiola (1974) the Portuguese made their first contacts with Benin, the capital of the present Edo state in 1485. those various contacts were made for various purposes viz: to meet the demands of the better trade on the Gold Coast, to study the political system of government of the kingdom and most importantly of all, to spread Christianity to the land not yet acquired by most power. From the beginning Christian religious has gone hand in hand with biblical teaching. The principle of parental responsibilities for youth the motivating power of love, the necessity of literacy, the unity of all truth in God and other principles basic to Christian education have biblical sources.
            By and large, the study of religious shows that religious has been used as instrument for social changes. The reformation era of Amos, Micah and Isaiah reminds the Jews of their religious obligations for the socio-political and economic lives of their communities. For a society to experience dynamic and real charges in its political order, such a society must have come into contacts with Christian religious, the Apostle were accused of turning the world upside down (Act 17.6) this was made possible by their teaching and preaching acquired through contact with Jesus Christ himself the founder of the Christian religious.
            Milton J. Yinger produced a functional definition of religious. The defined religious as a system of beliefs and practices by means of which a group of people struggles with the ultimate problems of human life. It is the refusal to capitulate to allow hostility to tear apart one’s human association (in sharf 1970.32). According to him, religious is a resistance against death, frustration, hostility, suffering, anxiety, despair and hatred according to sharfs view entails the conclusion that religious u=is a constant factor in human life.
            Thomas F. O. Dea (1966. p. 27) asserts that religious is a central element in culture. Religion performs the same functions which other aspects of culture perform. A consideration of religion as a core element in culture summarizes the human significance of religions. The content of religion may exist situations or transformations which are in progress in society.
            According to Milford E. Spiro define religions as an institution which consists of culturally patterned interactions with culturally postulated supernatural beings. In his view religion is an aspect of social groups and a component part of their cultural heritage. As a result “Religious feature are acquired by means of enculturation.
            Thus, religion is a major source and concern of the values of culture. He also maintained that culturally religions is a part of total of
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
            Influence of religious practicing on the political growth as the researcher has early stated that religion has been used as an instrument for social change in any given society or nation. Religion has a place in the lives of every nation, Nigeria included. Therefore irrespective of the faith or denomination, religion when truly practiced in its truest form and sprint, has been and remains sacred. The researches also pointed out that it plays a vital vole in purposeful leadership, community building, social juristic law and order peace – making, reconciliation, sprit of forgiveness and the healing of wounds, be they family or personal and political in Ezza – North Local Government Area Ebonyi state.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
            The main aim of this study or research work is to investigate the influence of religious practice on the political growth in Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state. To be prĂ©cised, the study equally finds fit the target of achieving the following objectives.
(1)       Does religion practice influence political growth in Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
(2)       To what extend does religion influence the political activities in Ezza-North.
(3)       What are effects of religion on political growth.
            SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
            This research will lead to a greater understansding of the key roll religion player political development in Ezza-North local Government Area of Ebonyi state. It will also help or he help to present and others in the their political activities.
            SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
            The study of influence of religious practice on the political growth is delimited to Umuezeokoha Community Oriuzor Community, Umuogharu Community, Oshiegbe Community and Ndieguzu Community in Ezza-North local Government Area of Ebonyi state.


CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF PECATED LITERATURE
            This literature review is meant to affect many areas as agenda the research topic under consideration. It is quite obvious, that many writers has written on the issue of influence of religion on political growth or development. Some writers, has really expressed their ideas or view on this issue, without pointing out principal things that promotes influence of religion on the political growth or development in society.
            Religion is an important part of our lives, from birth to death, and commands immense influence is our national politics. Of course there are voices that argue against mixing politics and religion, and others who share the view that polities and religion are inextricable. Chuba Okadigbo was once quoted as saying. “Religion being a matter of individual and faith, must be left where it is such that our clerics can take care of our souls and religious persuasions, while elected civilians take care of the business of government”.
            In this research work, the literature review will be made under the following bus – headings – (1) what religion is all about
(2)       What the concept politics is.
(3)       Influence of religion on politics.
THE CONCEPT POLITICS
            Religion is such a sensitive issue in Nigeria that one has to tread carefully in discussions to avoid flaring erosion, accusation of taking side or risk being misinterpreted. However, in search of peace, security and prosperity for our country, we must not shy away or get discouraged from exploring truth, for it is the responsibilities of intellectuals to speak the truth and to expose lies.
            S. Durkheim (1915) saw “religion as a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things that is to say, things set apart and forbidden-beliefs and practices which unite into one simple moral community called a church, all those who adhere to them”. Therefore, on this note “sacred” means holy and it is used in dear being the character of the supernatural beings such as good and divinities it is in this since that the church talks about a sacred or holy God and in African Traditional Religion talks about sacred or holy divinities for the church, the church building, musical instruments, pews, pulpit regalia, cups wire and bread are sacred things. These cannot be used for ordinary purpose because they have been dedicated to God and they become his properties.
            According to Milton J. (1970) “religion is a resistance against death, frustration hostility suffering, anxiety and hatred. It therefore entails that religion is a constant factor in human life, through religious behaviour man more from anxiety to confidence. It is a major source and corner of the values of culture. It is on this point that one can maintain that, cultural, religion is a part of a total of prescription and prescription that safeguard interaction of man in all human society.
            Herbert Spencer (1964) is of the view that “religious beliefs and practices were mistakes and illusions. Religion originated from the people experiences of slop, dream, trances death and environmental objects”. According to Thomas F. O (1878) asserts that religion is a central element in culture. Religion performs the same social functions which other aspects of culture perform. A consideration of religion as a core element in culture summarizes the human significance of religion the content of religion may be either in harmony or in conflict with the existing situations or transformations which are in progress in society.
            He out rightly outlines certain characteristics and functions of religion. Religion invests history with aim, purpose and form. Religion is a symbolic transformation of experience. Religion is an instrument for a deface. It provides belie and attitudes which help to defend the people against vexing, doubts, anxieties and aggression. These may be generated within individual or societies but they are seen as having been victoriously defeated by supernatural beings. Religion gives a sense of direction as it makes the people perceive, feel, think act, perform and behave in specifically designed ways.
WHAT IS POLITICS
            You need to understand how the word “politic” came into use among the individual and communities across Nigeria in particular and the whole world in general. The word “polities” came out two Greek words polis which means “city” and “teche” which means an art, a skill or a method. The Greek are the people whose country is Greece, a country in Europe close to North Africa. At the time the word “politics” was coined by the Greeks, the people of Greece did not have a central government as they have today.
            Their country was made up of city states for instance Corinth and Athens which Saint Paul visited and where he preached the good news of Jesus Christ. Each city was independent and had its government and soldiers. These critics had to go war against each other as it happened ever in Nigeria. So the idea of politics was limited to the curatorial area of each city separately. That was the situation in which the word “politics was made. It then implies, that the word “politics” meant, at that time, the art of governing city.
            Adekunle A. (1976) Stated that the term polities is applied in common parlance to the affairs of politics parties and politicians, party conventions and electron icing and of voting and maneuvering for partisan advantage”.
            Bisi Taiwo (1978) is of the view that “today the word politics is an elastic one. To some authorities, politics is concerned with the ordinary day-today activities of community in which we are all personally involved. To other including professor lass well, politics has been equated with the study of power or the study of influence and influential for this research work, politics can be defined in three ways.
            First, it attempts to discover the general principles, formation and function of government. Second, it is concerned with people, with the way in which they make decisions and the way in which they reach decisions. Third, it is that partition of the state and the principle of government: governmental social and economic programmers, international co-operation and a wide range of other matters that are of urgent concern to public officials and private citizens.
INFLUENCE OF RELIGION ON POLITCS
            Religion is an element of culture and polities is also an element of and perpetrate both the Urban and the rural people. They get at the grassroots of societies and grasp both the young and the old, men and women, the rich and the poor, the literate and the illiterate, the ruled and rulers. The individuals are both a member of a religion and a member of a political party. Where he is not a member of a polities party he is certainly a citizen and he is interested in the mainence of law and order, peace and security salability and good government.
            For these reasons, he is indirectly affected by politics and cannot ignore political activities. If he pretends to ignore polities, he will at least, be interested in complaining that political actors are doing badly and that government is failing to provide such social amenities that he would like to enjoy. Religious consciousness and political consciousness are two related issues in mind. For him, religion and politics cannot be separated from each other and from his personal opinion, feeling and behaviour. It is in this sense that religion and politics cannot be separated in the life of individuals and in the structure of societies. Religion permeates culture and mediate social structure.
            According to Roland (1968) “the very rise of political sociology has led to the neglect of the religious factor in party affiliation and voting behaviour, as well as made pressure group formation, quite impossible” even in non-political activities, human beings strive to attain certain values, namely, dignity honour, prestige, respect power money, property, satisfaction, happiness right, privileges duties, peace, security, stability freedom of will etc. these values are necessary to every person, but they are often score: their supplies are often far short of the demand for them. In some cases, the process of obtaining them could be long and difficult. If every person is permitted to search for these values by using his own personal means, there will be too much tension and a planned, organized co-coordinated, directed, controlled and managed society will be completely impossible.
            Therefore to achieve these values through the approved means, religion has a role to play. If provides moral restraints for the individuals. It is in this sense that there can be loyalty and patriotism in politics. This means that religious beliefs and practices help to socialize the individuals who will substantially, abide by the political laws of society. In this respect the bible says to the individuals that: “that every person be subject to the governing authorities for there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore he who resists the authorities resists what God has appointed and those who resist will incuse judgment. For rulers are not terror to good conduct but to bad (Romans 13-3).
            A cordial religions hip between religion and politics becomes evident when political authorities find that religion can be an effective tool in the administration of society. For examples, mass literacy, youth mobilization, the cooling of tensions, appealing for co-operation in assisting political agencies are those duties that religion can be called upon to assist political authorities at various levels but, this cordiality in their relationship may not be permanent because religion sees itself as having to perform a prophetic role fearlessly to call the political authorities to order on the authority of God.
            However, recent studies in political sociology show that religion still pervasive and powerful in polities. Religion today influence party political affiliation, voting behaviour, pressure group – foundations and external relations (Usman, 1987). The fact therefore, is true of a “democratic” country like Nigeria which in spite of its secular status as state, that is separation of politics and religion, yet the authority of God is invoked in the preamble to our 1979 constitution. Also, religion is taught in all state schools including universities. Religious festivals both for Christens and Muslims are observed as national holidays. Chaplains, i.e, religious functionaries, are employed to serve in the nation armed forces and in institution of religious learning oaths are administered in courts of law through the use of the bible and the Quran or any sacred object. Police officials who take oath of office end with “so help me God our national anthem and pledge of allegiance, all bear the name of God.
            Besides, there is strong emphasis on the respect for constituted authority i.e, for the government in the Christian Bible. St. Paul urges religious groups operating within a state, as follows: “let very soul be subjected unto the higher power for there is no power but of God the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosever, therefore resisteth the power of God (Romans 131-2)
            It is therefore required of religious people to be loyal to and to co-operate with those in authority. And it is the place of those in authority to guarantee religious liberty in the land. In this way religion legitimizes political authority. In summary, though we talk about Nigeria as a democratic and secular state, yet we find there are may areas of co-operation between polities (government) and religion in Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHOD
            This chapter discusses the method employed by the researcher in caring out the study. It is discussed order the following sub-head rigs; design of the study, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instrument for data collection, validation of the instrument method of data collection and method of data analysis.
DESIGN OF THE STUDY
            This design can be referred to as descriptive survey. This design, according to Maduasum (1999), is one in which data are collected from a relatively large number of people or items considered to be reprehensive of the whole population of group. He asserted also that descriptive survey is concerned with description of events as they are area of the study.
            The area of the study is Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The Local Government consists of parents, party ward – delegates, teachers, state party ward delegates, counselors, tradition rulers Rev. father/pastors, and youth leaders.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
            The population of this study comprised of all party ward delegates, state party delegates, counselor, traditional rulers, headmaster/mistress, principals of secondary schools, Rev. father/pastors and youth leaders from Umicezokoha community, Ndegazu community, Umuoghara community, Oshiegbe community Oriuzor community and Oharugo community.
            The population is three hundred persons. Umcezeokoha community has fifty person, Umuohara community has person, Ndieuazu community has fifty persons Oshiegbe community has fifty persons, Oharugo community has fifty and Oruzor community has fifty persons.
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
            The population was sampling using simple random technique. The total number of the population was (300) three hundred fifty person was drawn from each of the six communities which constitutes Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The researcher deemed it fit to use 30% the size, which represent 30% of the target population
INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
            Instrument for data collection in this study was a structured questionnaire adopted by the researcher as well as personal or oral interview. However there were strutted as to elicit the relevant information needed for the study. Consequently, the questionnaire has both content and faces validity as it was structured with different opinion to answer the question which will help in carrying out the research with the help of the project supervisor.
            Furthermore, as regards the administration of the questionnaire, the researcher employed the used of hand delivery method, in fact, all 300 copies of the questionnaires distributed came back successfully and greatly filled.
VAILDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT
            The draft was first presented to the project supervisor who made necessary correction as regard the language content and sentence structure. The instrument was also presented to two senior lectures in the department of arts and social science education and other two lectures in measurement and evaluation at Ikwo college of Education Abakaliki.
            These lectures retted each items in term of sentence structure and adequacy of the instrument. Based on their comment and suggestions, some of the original items was dropped. Therefore the view and suggestion of these experts were incorporated in the final questionnaire.
METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
            The data collected were analyzed by the research, through the use of mean and frequency distribution table. Frequency destruction table were developed while mean computed. The mean were calculated thus:
Where            x          =          mean
                        Z          =          sum of
                        F          =          frequency
                        N         =          total number of score
            A cut – off point of 2.5 was used as the decision rule. A mean score up to 2.5 was regarded as positive, while mean score below 2.5 were considered negative. This cut – off of 2.5 was obtained by adding the sum of the normal rating value divided by the number of rating items.
                        For example
                        Strongly Agreed (SA)          =          4          point
                        Agreed (A) ____________  __________ 3 point
                        Strongly Disagreed (SD) ________ 2 point
                        Disagreed (D) _________              1 point
                        Then mean (grand) x =    10/4        =          2.5
            The decision rule is that which is equal or greater then 2.5 was accepted as after affecting the variable under investigation. Any means that was less than 2.5 was rejected did not affect the variable under investigation.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
            This chapter involves the actual presentation of data obtained from the field through the use of questionnaire and interviews based on the three research questions that guided that study.
RESEARCH QUESTION
Does Influence of Religious Practice on Politics Exist?
S/N
QUESTION
TOTAL
YES
%
NO
%
1
Does influence of religious practice on politics exist

300

210

90

90

10
2
Is there any possible means to avoid influence of religious practice on politics 


300


120


40


180


60
3
Does religion and politics co-exist

300

198

66

102

34
   
       From the above table it is revealed that in item one, 240 respondents, which represents 90% were of the opinion that influence of religious practices on politics really exist, while 96 respondents which represents 10% in item in the table, item, 120 respondents which represents 40% are of the view that there is possible to avoid influence of religious practice on politics, while 180 respondents, which representing 60% disagreed with them.
            In these are tables, item 3, 198 respondents which represents 66% are of the view that religion and politics co-exist in the society, while 102 respondents, representing 34% disagreed with them.

RESEARCH QUESTION 2
            Does influence of religion promote politics development or growth in Ezza – North Local Government Area State
S/N
QUESTION
TOTAL
YES
%
NO
%
1
Does influence of religious created any practical awareness in the youths of Ezza – North Local Government Area.




300




200




66.7




100




33.3
2
Does religious practice hinders political activities in Ezza – North L.G.A 


300


60


20


240


80

            This summary of the data analysis presented in table 2 above revealed that the respondents in item 2 of that table 60 respondents which represents 20% are of the opinion that religious practices hires political activities in Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State while 240 respondents, which represents 80% disagreed with them.
            In the item of the table 200 respondents, representing 66.7% are of the view that influence of religion has created political awareness in youths of Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State while 100 respondents, which represents 33.3% are of different opinion.
RESEARCH QUESTION 3 – TABLE
            Does influence of religious practices enhance politician in their political activities in Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
S/N
QUESTION
TOTAL
YES
%
NO
%
1
Does influence of religion affects politician positively in their day-to-day activities   


300


250


83.3


50


16.7
2
Does religious influence assist to reduce breakdown of law and order in the political system in Ezza -  North L.G.A  




300




180




60




120




40

            The summary of data analysis presented in table 3 above, 250 respondents in item (1) one which represents 83.3% are of the opinion that influence of religion affect politician positively in their day-to-day activities, while 50 respondents which represents 16.7% unanimously disagreed with them.
            From item 2 in the above table, 180 respondents, which represents 860% are of the view that religious influence assists to reduce breakdown of law and order in the political system in Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State while 240 respondents, which represents 40% are of different view with them.
SUMMARY OF FINDING
            From the data analysis based on the research work or study on the influence of religious practices on political growth in Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State the following findings was observed:- (1) It was revealed that, religion is an element of culture and politics is also an element of culture. Hence, both religion and culture are factors which interact and penetrate both the urban and the rural people. They get at the grassroot of societies and both grasp both the young and the old, men and women the rich and the poor, the literate and the illiterate, the ruled and rulers. The individual are both a member of a political party and a member of religion. (2) That a cordial relationship between religion and politics become evident when political authorities find that religion can be an effective tool in the administrator of societies. For example, mass literacy youths mobilization, the cooling of tensions, appealing for co-operation in assisting political agencies are those duties that religion can be called upon to assist political authorities at various levels. (3) That if the authorities understand that, role of religion, the prophetic role will be in invited and their opinion will be bought for seeking solution for the problem they have defined in their prophetic criticism-constructive critism. This will help to strengthen and even to improve the relationship between religious authorities and political authorities in Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. (4) That Nigeria is a democratic and also secular state, yet, it was revealed that there are many areas of co-operation between politics (government) and religion in the country – Nigeria. (5) That with the growth of industrial civilization, democratic governments and the emergency of pluralistic societies, religion is no longer the undisputed source, soul are goal of human political activities.

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS, EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS (RECOMMENDATION SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION)
            From the research made on the influence of religious practice on the political growth of Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State has resulted to many data analysis.
            The result of data analysis in table I revealed that the items are of the opinion that influence religion practice on politics really in existence in human societies. No. 2 item in the table also is of the general. “The very rise of political sociology has led to the neglect of religious factor party affiliation and voting behaviour, as well as made pressure – group formation quite impossible” from the Holy Bible (Romans 131-2) stated that “let every soul be subjected unto the higher power for there is no power but of God: the power that be are ordained of God. Whoever therefore resisteth the power resisteth the ordinance of God” Thus, religion clearly influences partly affiliation, voting behaviour and pressure group formation. The individual is religiously and politically conscious at the same time.
            In table 2, it was revealed that items 1and 2 are of the idea that religious influence or influence of religion promotes political development or growth in Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State while on these are view hundred respondents, representing 33.3% disagreed with them
            In the table and of the research work revealed that influence of religious practices enhances politicians in their political activities in Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. 250 respondent of out of the total population, 300 which represents 883.3% are of the opinion that influence of religion affects political positively in their day-to-day activities while, 50 respondents which represents 16.7% said no.
            In the same, items 2 in the table revealed that influence of religious practices assists to reduce breakdown of law and order in the political system in Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Meanwhile 180 respondents out the total population of 300, are of the view of the above statement is true, while 60 respondents 60% while 120 respondents which represent 40% disagreed with them.
            Therefore in the while it has been revealed that religion has a role to play. It provides moral restraints for the individuals. It is this sense that there can be loyalty and patriotism in politics. This means that religious beliefs and practices help to socialize the individuals who will substantially abided by the political laws of society. In this respect the Holy Bible says to the individual that: let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For hence is no authority except from God and those that exist has been instituted by God. Therefore he who resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incure judgment for rulers are not terror to good conduct, but to bad (Romans 131-3).

EDUCATION IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY
            The study revealed that the under influence in our political activities will bring us more close to a successful actualization of political growth in the country more especially in Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
            The study also revealed that religion is an element of culture and polities is also an element of culture. Both are cultural factor which interact and penetrate both, the young and old, men and women the rich and the poor, the illiterate, the literate, the ruled and rulers. The individual is both member of a religion and a member of a political party. Where he is not a member of a polities part, he is certainly a citizen and he is interested in the maintenance of law and order peace and stability and good government.
            For these reasons, he is directly or indirectly affected by polities and he cannot ignore political he will, at least, interested in complaining that political actors are doing body and that the government is failing to provide such social amenities that he would like to enjoy. So religious consciousness and political consciousness are two related issues mind.
                        The finding revealed how cordial relationship between religion and politics has become a clearly evident that politics has become a clearly evident that political authorities at federal, slate and local grown rural level finds that religion is a effective loots in their administration. That without the application of religious practices it becomes very hand in not impressible for politicians to achieve their political aims with out the cooperation of the youths, religious leaders, or authorities.

DISCUSSIONS OF FINDING EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS CONCLUSION, SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION
CONCLUSION
            The research focused on the influence of religious practing on the political growth of Ezza – North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Three hundred respondents comprising all party ward delegates, state part delegates, counselor, tradition rulers headmaster/Headmistress, prim pals of secondary schools Rev. Pr. Pastors and youth leaders from the Communities in the Ezza-North; were interviewed by Using the Questionnaires.
            The researcher discovered that influence of religion practicing on the political growth of has created a lot of positive impact of the political development in Ezza- North Local Government in gonad.
            It was discovered that actually religion and politities co-exist. That there is possible means to avoid influence of religious practice on polities that the influences of religious practice on polities exist.
SUMMARY
            The study was focused on the influence of religious practices on political on the growth in Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, for successful research work to be carried out, three purposes were formulated to guide the study thus
(1)       Does influence of religion practices on politics exist.
(2)       Does influence of religion promote political growth of development in Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
3.         Does influence of religious practice enhance politicians in their political activities in Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
            North design employed in the study was descriptive survey. The population of the study was three (300) hundred person or respondents. Dime to the population size the researcher deemed it fit to use 3% of the total population.
            Data collection was through structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed on individual items using means frequency and standard deviation.

RECOMMENDATIONS
            Based on the researcher work or study on the influence of religious practices on political growth or development in Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The following recommendations were made.
-           That based on the finding the positive social charges which Christianity or religions practices has brought into society it is recommended that the teaching of Christian religion be made compulsory for Christian students up to senior secondary school level of Nigeria educational system.
-           That religion being an important part of lives from birth to death and commands immense influence in our national politics its is therefore recommended that government at all level should organize seminars and workshops aimed at enlightening the masses on the positives associated to religious practice as it affect our lives.
-           That it is recommended that religious people should be loyal to and to cooperate with those in authority. And that it is place of those in authority to guarantee religious liberty in the (and. In the way religion legitimize political authority.
-           That government should strongly maintain what is documented in the Nigeria constitution, which state that “government shall not establish i.e. adopt any religion as a state religion.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
            The limitation of the research work were as follows:-
1.         It was discovered that man hardly succeeds in an act. Hence things have got so repulsive that some even take their answers and so did not give true opinions on the items providing extreme difficulty for researcher to elicited information from such respondents.
2.         In most cases, distance disposition of the respondents and materials made the work pose much trouble in appropriate cover of research scope. This was again aggravated by lack of financial assistance as it proves essential commodity in a research engagement.
3.         Reluctance and inability to fill in a appropriately by the respondents were also militating against the research though in spite of all set backs, the research kept a look on success which was the research target.
4.         Limited time available to the influenced the finding
SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES
            Based on the finding and limitation of the study other researchers should address the following areas, which demands for further research work to be carried out.
1.         The singular fact that the want of knowledge is insatiable, makes no researcher work complete in self therefore the researcher is suggesting that more study be undertaken to the influence of religious practices on political growth in Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.     
2.         It is also suggested that this type of research work should be carried out in other states, federal, private and other schools of higher learning involving larger population. Thus, a study involving the entire country will enhance to promote effective and cordial relationship between politics are religion.
3.         Further research on this study will at long run reduce religious conflicts in Nigerians and its implications on Socio-economic in National system of government.

REFERENCE
Adekunde S. N. (1976) The many faces of Religion and society New York Paragon house Pub.

Abwla. L. (1974) West African History Ado-Ekilah Omoaye Standard Press

Bisi M. O. (1978) Groundwork of government of west African: Ibadan Pub.

Durkheim .A (1997) The Sociology of Religion Ibadan: University Press

Herbert .S. (1974) Political Idea in Modern World New York Noble INC.

Maduabum. O. (1999) Society of English Education Ibadan Dept. of Adult Education UN Press

Miton. J.Y. (1970) Faith and science in Unjust World, Genera Pub. INC.

Roland. P. (1968) African Religious and Philosophy London: Heinemann.

Thomas F. O. (1966). The Sociology of Religion Englewood Cliffs Hall INC.

Usuman .M (1987) manipulation of Religion in Nigeria 1977-1987, Kaduns: Vanguard Printing Press PLC

ABSTRACT
Religion is an important part of our lives from birth to death and command immense influence in our national politics. Of course there are voiles that arguer and others who share the view that politics and religion are inextricable. Chuba Okadigbo was once quoted as saying: Religion being a matter of individual choice and faith must be left where it is, such that our claries can take care of our souls and religious persuasions, while elected civilians take care of business of governance.
Thought Chuba’s position leans more to the school of thought that views a mix of religion and politic as toxic, his recognition of the importance in for the souls and businesses of governance in a society, indirectly win fore the importance of a Partnership between drills and politicians. In many way religion is safer at home and politics in the public domain. Part it can be very difficult to separate morality from practicality and politics from practicality and politics particularly at the time when politicians seems to be taking a moral stance on truth. So it becomes almost necessary for the religious institutions to intervene because no-one can claim to have a completely clear conscience in politics.          
          


CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION, CONSLUSION AND RECOMMENARION
5.0       INTRODUCTION:
This chapter discusses the investigation carried out in the previous chapters and it contains recommendations based on the findings.
5.1             DISCUSION:
The research question 1 which was on what is the impact of the information age (ICT) on citizenship education. The questionnaire items used to illicit responses from the respondents were items 1 to 9. They all recorded 3.5%, 3.5%, 3.4%, 3.27%, 3.7%, 3.7%, 3.3%, 3.4%, 3.5% and 3.3% respectively. This showed that some of the impacts, which includes, ensuring responsible citizenship, boosting political participation of citizens, stabilizing the political process ensuring fundamental human rights, rule of law, patriotism and obedience to constituted authority amongst others. The overall total mean score was 3.4%
In the research question 2 which was on the benefits of the information age on citizenship education/awareness, a total of seven (7) questionnaire items were used, recording 3.6%. 3.3%, 3.5%, 3.2%, 3.4%, 3.5% and 3.5% respectively. It was revealed that it provides easier and faster access to information and data, it also leads to political stability, religious tolerance, national growth and development, boost e-commerce, health socio – economic competition and unlimited access to educational resource. The total mean score was 3.4%.
In research question 3 which was on the enhancement strategies that can boost citizenship education in our schools and communities; a total of (7) seven questionnaire items was used with a grand total of 3.2%. It was also revealed that adequate provision of ICT facilities, compulsory inclusion of computer studies in our school curriculum, the recruitment and engagement of ICT teachers etc. can adequately boost its status. A total of 3.3%, 3.4%, 3.1%, 3.3%, 3.1%, 3.2% and 3.4% was recorded.
In research question four which was on the major challenges to citizenship education in the information age the problem of cyber crime, lack of trained personnel, and lack of relevant texts, cyber abuse, social networking and spamming are setbacks. A total of 3.3% total mean score was recorded.
5.2       CONCLUSIONS
The research conclusion with the followings;
-           The provision of qualified ICT teachers in schools to boost the teaching and learning of citizenship education so as to ensure responsible and patriotic citizens in our society.
-           The collaboration and cross fertilization of information and ideas through the ICT would help ensure religious tolerance in our society.
-           The provision of relevant data though the ICT would empower the individual in the acquisition of relevant social skills in the society.
5.3       Implications of the Study
            This study would be helpful and needed in a lot of ways;
a.         It would help the government to understand the need to boost ICT teaching and learning in our schools.
b.         It would help in adjusting the curriculum of precursory, nursery, primary and post primary schools on the need for ICT education.
c.         It would encourage government to fund ICT training adequately.
d.         It would build unity and energy among various religious and ethnic groups in Nigeria.
5.4       Recommendation for Further Studies 
Further studies should be done in these areas;
a.         Curbing cultism through citizenship education (A case study of Izzi Local Government Area.
b.         Building up effective citizens through citizenship education (The challenges of the internet)
          
  

REFERENCE
Fafunwa, A. B. (1979) History of education in Nigeria London; George Allen and Urines

Ahojamin C. (1985) education and good citizenship. University press Ibadan

Adebayo, (K 2004) functional Approach to internet raining. University press Ibadan.

Onwumere A. (1999) Essentials of Civic Education for schools and college Owerri, IBPC Publishers

Ujukwu F. (2070) Citizenship and the information Era (ICT) Unpublished Works Dissertation for Masters in Education Administration Enugu State University of Science and Technology. Enugu.

Olatunji, W. (2002) Issues and Problems of National Development, Keja, Unic Press

Orukotan A.T (1992) Fundamentals of citizenship Education (Abeokuta, TB Press              
   
                

Appendix A
S/N
QUESTIONAIRE ITEMS
SA
A
SD
D
1
It ensures responsible citizenship




2
It boost political participation of citizens  




3
It stabilizes the democratic process




4
Citizens are aware of this fundamental human rights




5
Rule of law is ensured in the society




6
The learner is exposed to their rights early in life




7
It teaches partition to the learner  




8
Obedience to constituted authority




9
It makes for effective and functional citizenship




10
It provides faster information to the learner




11
It leads to political stability in the society




12
It leads to religious tolerance in our society




13
It translates to national development and growth




14
It boosts trade and commerce




15
It leads to healthy socio economic and political competition




16
There is unlimited access to educational resource  




17
The provision of ICT facilities can boost the study of citizenship education




18
The compulsory inclusion of computer studies in the curriculum of all levels of education.




19
The local production of ICT programs/products for the society to benefit from  




20
The immediate establishment of a ministry of ICT




21
The use of ICT in the teaching of citizenship education




22
The recruitment of more ICT teachers.




23
The use of ICT in our homes and churches




24
There is the problem of cyber theft




25
Lack of trained personnel and qualified manpower




26
There are no relevant text books for the various levels of learning’s   




27
It is often abused through pornography




28
There is the problem of social networking




29
There is the problem of spamming






APPENDIX B
National Teachers Insistent,
Kaduna,
Study Centre
Abakaliki
1st June, 2013.
Dear Respondent(s)

            I am a final year student conducting a research work on “Citizenship Education in the Information Age”, Challenges and Enhancement strategies – A case study of Izzi Local Government  Area you are required to tick (√) in the column you consider to be correct. Your responses are/would be treated in confidence.


                                                                                    Yours Sincerely

SECTION B
Name:
Age:                (20-25)           (25-30)           (30-40)
Occupation
Qualification             (FLSC)           (SSCE)           (NCE)
                                    (BED) (PHD)            


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