TABLE OF CONTENTS
Meaning and scope
Development or internet based agricultural marking information
Making marketing information relevant to farmers.
Need for growth or marketing infrastructure
Need for growth or marketing infrastructure
Establishment of a world food preservation centre.
PROSPECTS FOR CO-OPERATIVE MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE
Prospects for co-operative marketing or agricultural produce: This could mean the possibility of like hood of some future event occurring in Agricultural marketing sector. The national commission on Agriculture defended agricultural marketing as a process which starts with decision to product a saloable farm commodity and it involves all aspects of market structure of system, both functional and institutional based on technical and economic considerations and includes pre and post- harvest operations, assembling, grading, storage, transportation and distribution. 4ps” the acronym for once, product, place and promotion is the cort principle or marketing. There are several challenges involves in marketing or agricultural produce. There is limited access to its market information, literacy level among the farmers is low, multiple channels of distribution that cuts away the pockets of both farmer and consumers. The government funding of farmers is still at nacont stage and most of its small farmers is still depend on the local money leaders who are coaches and charge nigh ratio or interest there are too many vultures that cot away the benefit of that the farmers are supposed to get. Although we say that technology have improved but it has not gone to the rural areas as it is confined to urban area s alone. There are several loopholes in the present legislation and there is no organized and legislation and there is no organized and regulated marketing system for marketing the Agricultural produce. The farmers have force so many hardships and have to overcome several hardship to got fair and just price for their sweat. In this work we cooked at now dimension of which in this work we looked at now dimension of which Agricultural marketing is going to take it near future- we also cooked at Agricultural market reform. There are certain measures that can be affected to bring out the reforms in agricultural marketing so as to ensure just and fair price for the farming community.
* provide loans to the farmers at low rate or interest so that they will be feed from the clutches or local money lenders who squeeze item. It is said that farmers born into debt, love indebt and dies in debt. Right from the beginning of like, the poor farmer approach money under for investing into cultivation who levies very high rate or interest and who takes away the maximum amount of the share from the producer in case if the crops fail and due to natural calamities it on the situation would be worst as the farmer is not in position to pay his loans. And ultimately he is forced to sell the land at throw away price to the money lender.
* It is essential to provide subsidized power supply and loans to the farmer as the expenses towards power consumption takes considerable amount of investments.
* Generate a new distribution network that connect the farmers directly to the consumers to get maximum returns as the present channel or distribution involves multiple mediatory who take away the major portion or profits which otherwise the farmer is supposed to get.
* At the village level there should be counseling centres for farmers about the worth or their stocks, so that they can get fair price the crucial role or non-governmental organization (NGOS) is nodding in the cent
* The existing legislations are outdated and are not in tune with the changing trends and technological inventions and the same need to be updated forthwith.
* The retail revolution has brought several changes in the retail sector where the retail giants buy in build directly from the suppliers and sell to the consumers directly and in the process they pass the benefits to the consumers as well. In the past the consumers were paying more for less as there where many channels of distribution system and now the consumers pay less for more.
* Government should levy single entry tax instead or levying multiple entry taxes either directly or indirectly for the transactions and activities that are involved in agricultural marketing such as transportation, processing, grading etc. as it world benefit boot farmers and consumers directly.
There is no doubt that in any marketing there is a motive towards profit involved and at the same time at marketing is to be based on certain values, principles and philosophies such as offering just and fair prices to the farmers who toil hard. Bringing necessary reform coupled with proper price discovery mechanism through regulated market system will help streamlined and strengthen the agricultural marketing. In order to avoid isolation of small seafarers from the benefits of agricultural produce they need to be integrated and informed with the market knowledge like fluctuations demand and supply concepts which are the core of economy marketing or agriculture can be made effective. It is looked from the collective and integrative efforts from various quarters by addressing to farmers, middlemen, researchers and administrators. It is high time we brought out significant strategies in agricultural marketing with innovative and creative approach as to bring fruits or labour to the farmers.
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET BASE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING INFORMATION
Marketing information is an important facilitating function in the Agricultural marketing system. It facilitates marketing decisions, regulate the competitive market process and simplifies marketing mechanisms, regular, timely and reliable market information is needed by farmers in planning productions in arriving at optimal trading decision. Marketing information system Lother wise known as market intelligence system, market information services are information system used in gathering, analyzing and disseminating information about prices and other information relevant to farmers animals rarer traders, processors and others involved in handling agricultural products. Market information systems play an important rock in agro-industrialization and food supply chains. With the advanced or information and communization technologies for development. In developing countries, market information initiatives are often part of broader interventions development strategy that many environment are actively engaged in. it’s commonly understood that long transaction chains, lack or transparency and insufficient access to markets for products has perpetuated law incomes in predominantly agrarian Economies. The food and agriculture organization has united focused on agricultural marketing support, including through development of market information. Internet provides a completely new dimension to information utilization. Free electronic text, images, software and many other forms of data are increasing the number, volume, diversity, as well as the number of server those internet means free access, and has been, up till now operated by the internet principle, that is fundamentally different form conventional commercial data base distribution. Despite a growing awareness and attempt to commercialize the services and products within the internet, the market information has been regarded as a public good in our country because of presence of large number or small and marginal farmers who are unable to pay for information. Exploring on the internet for the farmers would provide wider marketing opportunities and social acceptance for it is now media, a derivation from earlier needs promotion. Basic functions of transfer or knowledge changing attitude, behaviour and skills to the farmers or other media needs to be incorporated in the Newmdia-internet, so that it takes over traditional media in the interest or the farmers. Professor Esuke Naito or National center presence information system, Tokyo, Jupan defines information as “a dynamic process in which a solution to a problem is gained by consolidating knowledge recorded and stored on paper or any digital media is only in a static state without any action for solution. Without decision making and the corresponding action following a solution, it’s the recorded knowledge and data gathering are not completely utilized. The agricultural marketing information service envisages utilization or recorded knowledge for solution-making it an information. The distinct advantage for electronic media viz. instant access, remote access, simultaneous access and high speed search over volume or available knowledge form part or the internet based marketing information source envisage to be developed. A large amount of data with more accuracy can stored in computer, analyzed and retrieved within shortest possible time. Agric marketing will ensure dissemination or data through network to any distance with the help or communication devices for the benefit of farmers, traders, consumers etc. the improved communication system will enable the producer to know about probable market where they can dispose or the their produce more profitably. The traders and consumers can also derive maximum advantage out of their purchase at low communication cost the modernization of market information system, will lead to the efficiency in the markets and increased participation or the farmers. Agricultural marketing in the country and in the whole wide world is witnessing major charges owing to liberalization and globalization or markets. This context., agriculture has to be market driven, more cost effective, competitive innovative and responsive to high tech and IT applications. There is heed to build capacity or each the internet based information system aims at providing “single widen” service, catering to diversified demands of information. It will facilitate information sharing and development of data infrastructure for enterprises. Industry, farmers, policy market, academic organizations, government agencies etc. with development or information and data infrastructure market places will perform role of information service providers to expand markets. It will encourage information exchanges and discrimination for its benefit of farmers and other market participants as well. Online marketing information service will connect distant markets and promote its efficient marketing in time to come.
MARKING MARKETING INFORMATION SERVICES RELEVANT TO FARMERS
There are many ways to make information Relevant to farmers. In work research we deducted some of its relevant criteria to be-Accuracy, availability applicability and analysis and its four “AS” of market information. If market information are to have any meaning for farmers the information they provide must be accurate and farmers must understand to which product, quality etc the prices refer-further, even if prices are completely accurate, they are of much use if they are only available to farmers too late for them to use effectively. We will spend most of it is presentation looking at ways of quickly disseminating information to farmers, boot now and in the future as the possibilities offered by new technology open up thirdly, farmers need to be able to apply the accurate information made available to them. It is requires knowledge of how to convert prices they receive from market information system inter realistic process at their local market or farm gate. Finally, farmers needs long-term data, which has been analyzed in such a way that they can make decisions about whom to plant and harvest and what new crops to diversity into.
Providing accurate information requires attention to a lot or different issue. FAO has a publication on how to set up on mis and this good of the beneficiary group viz. farmers, marketing activities undertaking/utilizing marketing research to educate and train farmers in Good marketing practices and providing for development or service appropriate to local requirements to transform information emanating from various sources in a simple and practically useful manner is considered need of the hour.
OBJECTIVE OF NET WORKING
The marketing information network, besides collecting and disseminating market information on market arrivals and prices, focuses on collection dissemination or diversities market related information to promote good agricultural marketing practices to help farmers in better price realization out of the sale or their produce. The objectives or the system are to
* Establish a nation wide market information network for speed by collection and dissemination or market information and data for its efficient and timely utilization.
* Facilitate collection and discrimination of information related to better price realization but the farmers. This covers (a) market related information charges, transactional methods, such as market functionaries, market laws, etc (b) price related information such as minimum, maximum and model price of varieties and qualities transacted, total arrival and dispatches with destination, marketing costs and margins, etc (C) infrastructure related information comprising of facilities and services available to farmers with regard to storage and warehousing, cold storage, direct markets, grading, rehandling and repackaging, labouring, sanitary and phyto-sanitary requirements, pledge finance, marketing credits and new opportunities available in respect or better marketing.
(iii) Sensitize and orient farmers to respond to now challenges in agricultural marketing by using IT as a vehicle or extension.
(iv) Improve efficiency in agricultural marketing through regular training and extension for reaching the region specific farmers in their own language.
(v) Provide assistance for marketing research to generate marketing information for its dissemination to farmers and other marketing functionaries at grass root level to create and ambiance or good marketing practices in the country work. Some product annual reports but it is difficult for formers to use such reports without assistant. If market information services are to be relevant they must provide information on a consistent basis. Market information is not something that can be broadcast for a week and than forgotten about for a month. It has to be broadcast every day, every other day or every week without fail. Governments should not initiate market information services unless they are sure that resources will be available to maintain the service. In most countries government support is likely to be essential for many years to come. In some cases farmers and traders can be charged information. However, most small farmers would have trouble in paying and anyway, it is difficult to see how they could be changed if the arm is to get information to them as quickly as possible (changes could be made for a news water but it would take time torech the subscribers. Radios is quick, but then it is not possible to change the uses). Consideration could be given to a two-tier system. Basic information could be provided by radio for free to small farmers. Traders and large farmers requiring more detailed information could be supported, for a fee, with more detailed information by e-mail or phone. Other revenue sources would include the provision of consultancy services, either adhol market research services or services based on analysis of the detailed information already available to its market information services.
NEED FOR GROWTH OF MARKETING INFRASTRUCTURE
Marketing infrastructure is the most important not only for the performance or various marketing functions and for expansion or the size of market but also for transfer of appropriate price signals leading to improved marketing efficiency. The projection production and marketable surplus or farm produce show that the volume or the commodities to be handed will be quite large. Government organized marketing or agriculture in the country throughout the network or regulated market established under the provisions or the agricultural product market act enacted by the states and union territories. As on 31/3/2001 the markets covered under regulation is 7177. In addition here are 27924 rural periodical market have been brought under the ambit or the regulation. The regulated markets have helped in mitigating the market. Handicaps of producer’s sellers. These have also provided physical facilities and institutional environment to the whole sellers commission agents. Traders and effort functionaries for conducting activities. It has ensilaged that these regulated markets will provide facilities and services which would attract the farmers and buyers creating competitive trade environment thereby offering best of prices to** Of prices to the producers sellers. Studies of regulated markets shows that they have achieved limited success in providing need based facilities and services conducive to achieving greater marketing efficiency. Most of the market lack requisite facilities for handing the produce arriving in the yard. Rural markets in general and tribal hats in particular remained out of the general and tribal hats in particular remained out of the ambit or the development. Over a period of time those markets have acquired the status of institution with the control and restructions providing no help in direct marketing organized retaining smooth supply or raw material to agro-processing unit competitive trading formation exchange adoption are innovative marketing system and technologies etc, as has envisaged under the provision of the Act (chapter one conduct of business power and duties or the market committee) monolopolistic tendencies and practices have prevented development or free and competitive trade in primary market future market (or secondary markets) use of new tools and techniques in pre-harvest management and post harvest management in handling exports agro based industries have housing etc. the prominent activities like grading standardization scientific storage linked with finance search for suitable markets for excess or marketable surplus search for suitable markets for excess or marketable surplus education or farmers in pre and post harvest management and facilities in the markets have become secondary activities. Marketing development funds have been spheroid to public larger account by the state authorities adversely affecting modernization and infrastructure adversely affecting modernization and infrastructure development vital for operational efficiency. The world wide governments have recognized the importance are liberalizing agricultural markets. In South Africa Agricultural marketing is changed form controlled marketing to free system. In Holland the growers co-operatives are acquiring now companies a specialized in commodity export and import to achieve high degree or professionalism marketing. The over increasing production spread of latest technologies changing socioeconomic environment increasing demand for downsizing its distribution chain reducing the marketing margins between the producer and the ultimate consumers challenges emerging act or period required a vibrant dynamic and assimilative marketing structure and system. In order to have vibrant competitive marketing systems the government had to being about reforms in existing policies rules and regulations with a view to remove an legal provision inhibiting free market access opportunities provided by liberalization. Some or the legal provision inhibiting development or vibrant dynamic and assimilative marketing structure and systems is the Agricultural produce marketing (regulation) Act. The export committee on strengthening and Development of Agricultural marketing suggested various reforms in etc statutory arrangements relating to agricultural marketing as well as policies and programmes for development and strengthening or agricultural marketing with a specific reference to needed investment package or a incentive easy and adequate marketing credit. This is committee also recommended a review of the existing legal frame work removal of restrictive provisions to promote competitive marketing structure to promote direct marketing by farmers to improve price realization to encourage forward and future trading to reduce price risk to induce increase the flow or funds to agricultural sector to support pledge financing by treating it as a direct priority sector lending and to promote market led of extension to use of information technology for improving marketing services to farmers. A inter ministerial task force under the chairmanship of additional secretary department of Agricultural and co-operation government of India deliberated on those recommendations and identified mine areas. To work act action plane nine inter ministerial subgroups were constituted. The subgroups on legal reforms in Agricultural marketing under the chairmanship or the joint secretary (marketing). The specific areas identified for reforms in the state Agricultural produce marketing regulations Acts (Apme) are
(a) Promotion of integrated markets in private/co-operative sector. Under the existing Act, it is the state government who are alone empowered to initiate the process or setting up a market for certain communities to be regulated for a defined area. In which deregulation is to be enforced under the provision (under the chapter-establishment of markets) the process of initiation of a market the service providers of Agricultural marketing do not have any role. This the service providers and/or any other individual or body of individuals can not take initiatives for evaluation of viability and feasibility for setting up of a well developed market with amenities and facilities required at a competitive cost. A ball has been set rolling in Karnaka by providing additional chapter (xiii-A) in the Karnataka Agricultural produce marketing (regulation) Act 1966 to provide for the establishment of national in targeted produce market owned and managed by the NDDB for the marketing of fruits vegetables and flowers. It is high time that all other states follow selite by amending the Apme Act in their respective states for providing establishment of alternate marketing structures in the shape of natural integrated produce market to be owned and managed in the private sector or co-operatives sectors or farmers self help groups farmer association privates entrepreneurs or joint ventures. The service provider may be allowed to cover and collect services charge from users who may be the producers. Sellers or from the market users. The integrated market infrastructure service will in addition to the physical infrastructure include:
(ii) Cleaning sorting grading packaging and quality certification
(iii) Storage and finance
(v) Retailing and wholesaling
(vii) Warehousing and pledge financing
(viii) Value addition
(ix) Market information exchange service
The direct marketing enables farmers to meet the specific demands of wholesalers or traders from the farmers inventory of graded and certified produce on one hand and of consumers based on consumers preference on its inter hand helps the farmers to dynamically take advantage of favourable prices reduce marketing list and this their net margins. It is encourages farmers to under take cleaning sorting grading and quality marketing at farm gate. This will obviate the need to have the produce to the regulated markets which are not necessarily equipped with all required services and facilities affecting the marketing efficiency adversely. It is reported that the consumers price declined by the 20to 30% and producers received the price rise by 10 to 20% in South Korea as a consequence or expansion or direct marketing of Agricultural products. This model has been experimented in Punjab and Haryana (Api Mandis). Consorted effort have not been made to promote the direct serves by the farmers to consumers or retailer without involving any intermediary in between. In a country like ours there art larger numbers or places where such markets could come up in organized sectors with private investment and can be developed in tuned with the time for forward and backward unkages.
- Contract farming
Contract farming may be defined as an agreement between processing and 1 or marketing firms for production support at production support at pre determined prices. This stipulates a commitment on the part of the farmers to provide a specific commodity in terms of quality and quantity as determined by purchaser and commitment on its part or company to support the farmer for contract farming is becoming poplar in recent years and there are number of success stores. On a daily basis, Indonesia is one good example of this, but we are sure there are others. Where fates exist phones should not be used as there is risk of prices being misheard where email exists this should normally be used in preference to faxes, to avoid the need for data to be entered on computer twice, once in the provinces and once in HQ. In some circumstances, however it may be quicker for data collector to write prices on a price collection form and than fax this to the local radio station and HQ rather than going to the trouble of first entering the information on a computer. Of course, there is no need to collect data on a daily basis and process. It rapidly if you have not made arrangements to broadcast the information. In Bangladesh, for example only a few grain prices are broadcast on the radio, and then irregularly. Here in Nigeria its situation is even horst as no agreement has been reached for the broadcast or market prices. In terms of getting information to farmers to enable item to make quick commercial decisions, the printed media is generally unsuitable. Limiting dissemination to news papers and magazines is a major weakness or several mis around the world, including as we have already noted.
Prior to getting up an mis, or revising an existing one, it is necessary to carry out a detailed examination or how the marketing system functions and to fully identify the needs of farmers. This was well done by GT2 when it assisted Indonesia in the 1980s. so market information services need to try to give farmers information form markets most applicable to them. However, it is not always possible, for reason of cost and logistics. Where it is only possible to give prices for large city where market Hon farmer have to be helped to understand how to translate these prices into something applicable to them. That is, they need assistance in understanding the issues we raised at the beginning of it is presentation, concerning variety, quality, type of transaction etc. they also need to understand the costs incurred to between their farm gate and the city market such information can be conveyed to item through radio broadcasts and through extension workers. In the past, extension workers have rarely been trained about marketing but extension services are now beginning to recognize the importance of their staff being able to advise on marketing and part harvest handing as well as on production issues.
Some market information are good at providing timely price information to farmers, few, if any, are good at providing analysis or time serous of such information to enable farmers to plan off-season production, to decide whether to diversity or to decide whether to sort in the expectation off higher prices later in the your market information higher prices later in the year. Market information services generally lack both the analytical skills and time to do such into considerable details about how to ensure prices are accurate. Mis need to ensure that there is agreement on the variety or each product. Mis in each country need to agreed on quality definitions and consistently apply them throughout the country. Undermost you would have situation where farmers who have poor quality Agricultural product to sell would near that the price was high in a particular market only to find that the price quoted by the this has for the top quality, FAO recommends that the concept or “Fair average quality should be used as the basis for price reporting. The type of transaction can be confusing for farmers and often probably, for the price collectors themselves. In one market there may be several types of transaction farmer solving to retailer, retailer selling to consumer, not to mention the role or commission agents in some countries. Which price does this report on? There are two main criteria to be adopted: which price is cast to collect. Whatever transaction price issued, it must be used consistently. And farmers must understand that is the transaction type referred to. It is not always easy to get the actual transaction price and must admit that collection of prices in markets is a hard job. You cannot just go and ask the trader, because often the price paid is subjected to negotiation and the price the trader quotes may not be the final price. And if prices vary, how the collector does arrives at a suitable “average” to broadcast on the radio. Those are important issues, too complex to go into here, but market information services do need to develop clear guidelines to give to their convectors.
For information to be available and timely it should prefer a big reach farmers on the same day on which it is collected, or early on the following morning. This means efficient market information services operation is essential and the local media must be willing to co-operate. Efficiency market information services dissemination usually involves price collection early in the day rapid completion of price. Collection forms and speedy distribution to the relevant media. For crops that change price rapidly, such as vegetables, prices should I deally be collected and disseminated the contract farming needs to be further developed after identifying areas commodities and markets for market oriented and demand driven production planning. However while providing for it is system alternate marketing under the Apml Act is necessary to draft any appropriate regulation separately for ensuring definition of forms and conditions of the agreement keeping in view the objectives.
ESTABLISHMENT OF A WORLD FOOD PRESERVATION CENTER
A world food preservation centre (WPPC) is proposed in response to a pending civilization threatening food shortage and our limited ability to adequately increase food production. Some estimates put losses of food in developing countries after it is produced and before it is consumed 50%. Those losses are particularly threatening to individuals and farmers who are living in the midst of food insecurity. Although numerous organizations have attempted to address it is problem world divide, the magnitude of the effort has not came close to the enormity of the problem most or those programs are also short term and require continuums input by post harvest specialists form developed countries in order to be sustainable. A critical need exists for a substantial and sustainable worldwide program that can significantly reduce losses and waste or food in developing countries. The worldwide of presentation center proposed here meets it is need by educating young scientist in developing countries about low-input, appropriate technologies especially for preserving food post harvest. It also conducts research on post harvest technologies especially suited for application in developing countries such as biological control, solar refrigeration, and co-ordinated transport and marketing schemes that support and sustain the local production of food commodities. This is also one of the basic prospect of which Agricultural co-operative marking ought to adopt to enhance marketing efficiency.
- Increasing our food supply producing post harvest losses.
Post harvest losses of food arguably pose our greatest vulnerability to food security worldivide. Estimates of postharvest losses of food are highly variable in developed countries post harvest losses and waste or food have been estimated to be from 10 to 60%. In developing countries these loses often run at 50% or more. A United Nations food and Agriculture organization (FAO) study estimates that one third or the food produced for human consumption is lost won divide a refer harvest. All estimates are post harvest losses are probability conservative in that they do not reflect the cumulative losses from all stages in the food pipeline from the field to the fork. Although there is no agreement on the specific percentages of post harvest losses, there is no doubt that these losses are enormous and merit worldivide attention. Unfortunately, most or the resources directed towards our post harvest problem have been used to study the problem rather it an attack it. It is not to negative a number of highly effective programs that have addressed it is problem in academia, the United Nations FAO, and international laboratories. Kader has recently written a very comprehensive review on post harvest education and extension efforts internationally and fronted out opportunities for collaboration. The bosthaneost education foundation is during an excellent job of developing and implementer post harvest attention programs for farmers in developing countries
- The magnitude of the effort needs to match the enormity of the problem.
Although considerable attention has been dram to the enormity of food losses and waste due to post harvest sonage, limited number or resource have been devoted to its solution. Although here are excellent extension and educational programs that address postharvest losses encountered in developing countries, this total effort does not approach the enormity of the problem. Also, present programming in many cases are not sustainable since they are dependent on at continual input form post harvest specialist in developed countries will irregular and uncertain budget.
- Establishment or a world food preservation center. In propose an initiative that can have a major impact on reducing post harvest losses in developing countries worldivide and that will not require a continuous input from post harvest specialist in developed countries. It involves the establishment or a world food preservation center that would educate young scientist in developing countries in adaptable appropriate technologies for food preservation, and conduct post harvest research that is especially society to sustain and support food production in those countries. This concept has been received enthusiastically by young scientists in developing countries who are motivated to solve their own problem. The world food preservation center will educate native scientist form developing countries and arm them wilt the latest technologies for food preservation in their country. Such individuals would be able to return to their country and develop self-sustaining educational and extension programs in their own. These programs will continue to grow through the education received by students of these native scientists. Farmers in those countries will be educated through extension program demonstrating the latest technologies adapted for their post harvest preservation needs. Given that many farmers in developing countries live in the margins or food insecurity, a reduction in post harvest lessos could have an immediate and significant impact o their livelihoods. Once the goods of the world rood preservation centre are sown it is expected that they will grow to have a major positive impact on the food security of participating developing countries. Economic arguments for investing in the development of postharvest research and extension program in developing countries are compelling. There would be a tremendous return on investment. A study in Nigeria determined that at least 50% of the production of purist and vegetables is cost due to wastage and valve destruction. If the world food preservation center is establish and young scientist exculpated, it will book great benefit in upholding and minimizing food lost in every countries around the glob. There is agreement no divide that post harvest food losses and waste in developing countries are enormous problem we think and included that the world food preservation center proposed here has the impetus and potential are having a major impact insuring it is problems in a sustainable manner will positive impact on world hunger and health and also enhance agricultural marketing, there by reduce poverty among farmers. This is also one of the basic prospect in enhancing co-operative marketing are agricultural product.
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Pimentel D Glampretro:food,land, and the US Economy.sanfrancsco, (A94104-0457:carrying capcity networkL1994).
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A SEMINAR WORK ON
PROSPECTS FOR CO-OPERATIVE MARKETING
OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT
TO THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
MANAGEMENT AND OF TENSION.
FACULTY F AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
COURSE CODE: AEM 561
COURSE TITLE: AGRICULTURAL MARKETING AND CO-OPERATIVE