MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCOMPUTER BASED SYSTEM DESIGN



INTRODUCTION
A microprocessor is a computer processor on a microchip. It is sometimes called a logic chip. Definition, a microprocessor is an integrated circuit that contains all the function of a central processing unit of a computer. It also incorporates the functions of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit. It serves as the brain of all computers.
Microprocessor Architecture?
Microprocessor architecture refers to the layout of components with a computer’s central processing unit (CPU).


Back end table for the Intel 8080 micro-processor    
Except for two additional instructions the 8085 instruction set is identical and fully compatible with the 8080 instruction.
14 October 2011, a microprocessor is the heart, the soul as well as the brain of instruction set computers.

Types of Microprocessor     
(1) 8 bit
(2) 16 bit
(3) 32 bit
(4) 64 bit     

The different types of microprocessors induces:-
1.         8080 (1974) microprocessors
This increased the 4004’s word length from four to eight bits, and doubled the volume of information that could be processed.
2.         8080 ( was produce in the year (1974) this 8080 were 20 times as fast as the 4004 and contained twice as many transistors. This 8-bit chip represented a technological milestone. It was perhaps most notable as the processor in the first kit computer.
3.         8088 was produced in the year (1979) the created as a version of intel’s 8086, the 8088 was 16-bit processor with an 8-bit external bus. This chip became the most ubiquitous in the computer industry when IBM chose it for its first pc.
4.         80286 microprocessor was produced in the year (1982) with 16 MB of addressable memory and IGB of virtual memory, this 16-bit chip is referred to as the first modern microprocessor novices were introduced to desktop computing with a “286 machine” and it because the dominant chip 1 x s times it contained 130,000 transistors.
5.         80386 microprocessor it was produce in (1985), 80466 in (1989).
The price /performance curve continued its steep climb with the 386 and later the 486 – 32- bit processors that brought real computing to masses.
6.         4004 microprocessor produced in (1970) the 4004 processor, used in a hand-held calculator built by busicon of Japan, was part of a four –chip set called the 4000 family. 4 – bit microprocessors.

History
 The 4 – bit microprocessors was the first general purpose microprocessor introduced on the market. The basign of the early microprocessor was derived from that of the desk calculator. The intel 4004, a 4-bit design, was the grandfather of microprocessors. It was not designed as a general –purpose computer. The shortcomings of the 4004 were recognized as soon as it was introduced. But it was the first general purpose computing device on a chip to be placed on the market many of the chips introduced at about the same time by other companies, infact, were calculations a single bit at a time.

CLASSIFICATION
(1)              Central processing unit
(2)              Microprocessor application
(3)              Semiconductor technology of their design

Advantages of Microprocessor
(1)              Microprocessor is a general purpose electronic processing devices.
(2)              It is a chip that incorporate configurable logic that can reduce the energy.
Disadvantages of Microprocessor
(1)              It is found in a personal computer’s chip
(2)              It has limitation on the size of data
(3)              Most microprocessor does not support floating point operation.
(4)              Over heating physically
(5)              Not bit addressable

Comparison between microprocessor and microcomputer
            Microprocessor and a microcomputer comparing the design microcontrollers, in contrast are usually implanted into machines and other electronics. The mc6800 microprocessor was part of the m6800 microcomputer system that is also the device needed only on + 5 – volt power supply, in contrast with the intel 8080’s. example of microprocessor, microcontroller, microcomputer and CPU.
            Microprocessors, has multi-chip and it is one component of the microcomputer.
What is Microcomputers
Microcomputers are a computer that uses a microprocessor for their CPU. Definition, microcomputer is an compact and relatively inexpensive computer with less capacity. Example, home computer, personal computer and mainframe computer .

Types of Microcomputer     
(1)              home computer
(2)              mainframe computer
(3)              personal computer
(4)              mini computer
(5)              notebook computer
(6)              international business machines (IBM)

Advantages of a Microcomputer    
(1)              They are small and portable
(2)              They are relatively
(3)              Least expensive of all computer
(4)              They cannot occupy space
(5)              Easy access

Disadvantages  
(1)              They are volatile
(2)              They are expensive
(3)              They are often occupying entire
(4)              They were large



Difference between microprocessor and microcomputer  


Microprocessor     
Microcomputer
1
It is a computer chip
it is also a computer chip
2
it is a simple central processing unit (CPU)
it is also a simple central processing unit (CPU)
3.
It can design
It can also design
4.
It can process and controls
It can also process and controls
5.
It executes instructions
It can also executes instructions

Definition of Instruction Set
An instruction set is the part of the computer architecture related to programming. The instruction set of a computer is the collection of commands that is central processing unit can carryout instruction set nomenclature. Include, status register (SRCG). SRCG. Status register C: carry flag Z:zero flag N: negative.
Instruction set and encoding the dual- register set makes sense as the 280. Like most microprocessors at the time and it is very similar, load and store instructions.
Types of instruction Set
(1)              The 8051 instruction set
(2)              Reduced instruction set computer (RISC)


The instruction set 280 microprocessor and 8086

Microprocessor
Intel 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel. It implemented an instruction set designed by data point corporation with time to counter the threat from the zilog z80.
            Instruction set and encoding the dual –register set makes sense as the 280..
Intel 8080
The intel 8080 was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed influenced intel’s 8086 CPU, which spawned the x86 family of processors. It uses the same basic instruction set and register model as the 8008.
Intel 8086  
5th February 2013, intel 8086 instruction set includes a few very powerful string instructions. The z1log z80 includes, move and search block instructions, and Motorola 68000 could execute.

History of computing Microprocessors    
It contains the equivalent of 2300 transistors and was a 4 bit processor. CP/m was written for the z80 as well as software like word star and dbasell –and it formed the basis for the Sinclair.
It has an instruction set of 300 operations intel CPU design to the 8086 powerful design it was able to hold its own against the later designed.
History of the microcomputer   
Hoff was able to contrast the design with the DEC perform, intel CPU design to the 8086. in late 1969, after the 4004 instruction on se had been defined.
RISC vs CISC
For example, the 8086 microprocessor family has these instructions by contrast, the produced instruction set computer (RISC) concept is to identify the speccy used the other popular processor. 5th February 2013 intel 8086 instruction set includes compare data blocks, set data block etc. 280 included move and search block instructions.

Addressing Mode
An addressing mode is the aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs. This is also the ways architecture specify the address of an object they want to access. The 80x86 memory addressing modes provide flexible access to memory.
What is relative Address
Relative and absolute addressing are used in a variety of circumstances. Addressing mode 8051 www.ustudy.in:outline.
            The various addressing mode
(1)              register addressing mode
(2)              relative addressing mode
(3)              direct addressing mode
(4)              indirect addressing mode
(5)              relative addressing mode
(6)              immediate addressing mode
(1)              Register addressing mode it is used to move data to and from registers and to manipulate the data in a register
(2)              Indirect addressing mode: is where the operand is given an instruction
(3)              Immediate addressing mode: the operands value is specified at compile time
(4)              Relative addressing mode: is use to load a register from a constant stored in
(5)              Direct addressing mode: it added the ability to move the 256 byte.

REFERENCES
19 May 2012, Books – 1 Manual of Microprocessor and interfacing – Douglas v. Hall 3.  
Microprocessor and Microcomputer based system design second edition, 8086 instruction set. 70 REFERENCES/ FURTHER READING. Rafiquzzaman, M. (1995)
References and a set of three to ten addressing modes (“from register O”)
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