LABOURATORY METHOD OF TEACHING SCIENCE - ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES



          This method is one of the important methods of teaching science because it forms an integral part of effective science teaching.
          Under this method, teacher encourages the students to derive various scientific laws and principles on their own by getting personally involved in the experiment work.

          For this, provision of a well equipped laboratory is made by the teacher. Along with such materials and facilities, proper instructions are being provided by the teacher to the students by which they can carry out their experimentally. They carry on the experiments and record the observation properly, on the basis of which they infer their results or draw conclusions. Entire work of the students is being supervised and controlled by the teacher, as a result of meeting with any kind of accident reduces to considerable extent. Not only this, with this, students perform their work. Without conducting any kind of mistake.
          For science teaching, this method is used to maximum possible extent by the teachers, as a result of which some experts have divided into. 

ADVANTAGES OF LABOURATORY/INQUIRING METHOD OF TEACHING SCIENCE
          The followings are the advantages of labouratory method of teaching science.
1.       Through this method, a science teacher can provides various kinds of learning experiences to the students, as a result of which information gained them turns out to be of permanent kind.
2.       In this method, individual differences and interest of all the students are taken into consideration, as a result of which, it is considered to be one of the psychological method of teaching. As more importance is assigned to student in this method, as a result of which, it is considered as child centred method. As no students is required to accept the beliefs and orders of the teacher and full freedom is provided to them to participated in the labouratory activities, as a result of which they being to learn various important by doing works themselves.
3.       Through this method, students learn to explore various things on their own. They also learn to verify various scientific facts and principles. Some student become able to solve out various kinds of problems arising in this life own their own, as they possess of high level of self-confidence.
4.       Through this Method, an inimate relationship got developed in between the students and teacher, as students are required to acquire necessary guidance for performing practical work from the teacher while the teacher provides proper individual attention to them, by which all of them come closer to each other.
5.       As the students directly get indulged in the experimental function and handle the various complex instruments themselves, thus various kind of practical skills and proficiency get developed in them to considerable extent, with the help of which they proved to the successful in learning their live lost in the future.
           
DISADVANTAGES OF LABOURATORY/ INQUIRING METHOD OF TEACHING SCIENCE.
          These methods have some specific kind of limitations also, some of which are as follows:-
1.       There are some kinds of knowledge which cannot be verified through experiments, as a result of which this method has limited applicability. Not only this, generally if is found that teachers do not allow the student to make experiments independently, as if involves certain kind of risk of occurrence of accident
2.       As all the students get involved in experiment works because of which it becomes necessary to provide them with separate equipments and other materials but it is not possible for the teachers to do so as the main problem in our nation is storage of resources.
3.       For procuring the essential material and essential material and facilities, a huge amount of funds are required, because of which this method is considered to be expensive. It is not possible to make use of such method in school of our nation, especially in government school.
4.       As every students in expected to learn by performing experiments, thus it is felt by some experts that this methods expects to much from the students. In this method, students feels heavy burden on themselves as a result of which they do not get involved in the exploration and investigation processes with their fullest capacities.
5.       Not only the students feel lot of burden on them, but teacher also have the same kind of tendency. Sometimes, teacher fund it difficult to attend to the individual needs of the students, as they differ from each other to considerable extent. As a result of this student get discouraged, as a result of which, it becomes very difficult for teacher to provide timely help and guidance to them.
    DEMONSTRATION METHOD OF TEACHING SCIENCE
          As is clear from name of the method that through the method, various scientific procedures, processes and phenomenon are being shown to the students. This method covers the drawback or limitations found in the lecture method in which much importance was paid to the teacher. This is the method in which both teacher and students got the opportunity to put their views and ideas. Through such opportunities, students feel a sense of belonging with the teaching process.
This method creates such kind of atmosphere in the classroom were student got ample opportunities to get developed. It can be said that in demonstration method, teacher really performs the task of teaching.  
Before the student, certain kinds of experiments are conducted by the teacher.           Students observe it and ask various kinds of questions concerning the experimental function performed by teacher. After observation, students are required to explain every step taken by the teacher properly, as a result of which they feel a kind of compulsion to concentration their attention solely on the experimental process conducted by the teacher. Teacher put various kinds of question regarding the function the observe. Thus a kind of discussion is being held by the teacher in the classroom; in which all the student get the opportunity to represent or put forward their views and ideas.
This is an important method for science teaching as science is not only a theoretical subject but have a considerable portion of practical work also. By carrying out the successful demonstration activities in teaching process, a teacher can provide concrete experiences to the students.
          Through this method, students get opportunities to play active role in learning process, as a result of which their faculties of observation and reasoning get exercised and developed property. Demonstration method can be used in science teaching for attaining number of purposes. It can be used while beginning a new lesson or unit; such demonstration when prescribed for the first to a group of students will stimulate interest and curiosity among them. This can be used to represent various scientific methods and techniques. Through it, students can learn to use and operate various scientific equipments.
Through this method, students can also be taught the procedures by which they can take accurate readings of various equipments. Teacher can taught the students the manner in which they can apply scientific concepts in their daily life through this method. Various kinds of demonstrations can be done by the teacher show the activities by which they can out sort out various kinds of scientific problems.
ADVANTAGES OF DEMONSTRATION METHOD OF TEACHING SCIENCE
1.       This method of teaching serves as model laboratory instruction.
2.       Experiment shown as demonstration points out this matter of observation and indicates this inference
3.       It makes the pupils familiar with the nature and use of apparatus.
4.       Experiments requiring special skill will merely be shown by the teacher. In this method no time is wasted.
5.       Teacher’s time is properly utilized in watching the students doing experiments.
DISADVANTAGES OF DEMONSTRATION METHOD OF TEACHING SCIENCE
1.       There is danger of students being dishonest when teacher has to play the main role in the discussion and demonstration of the topic
       
THE DISCOVERY METHOD OF TEACHING SCIENCE
·                    Discovery, as a teaching approach, has a long history to it, which blossomed during the curriculum development years of the sixties. Despites the long existence of the term “discovery” users of the term in science education hardly realized that they use it in many ways. Discovery, as a teaching approach, has a history much longer than the currents manifestation, which blossomed in the 1960’s Willoughby (1963) and bolding (1969) that the teaching methods of Socrates are related to the current use of the term and skinner (1968) believe the great principle expounded by Rousseau in Emile was discovery: let the and student learn from nature. Let him go directly to the facts, to things which alone are incorruptible. More recently, Dewey’s learning by doing has been regarded as being synonyms with discovery teaching. Similarly, it is possible to trace much of the current interest is discovery teaching to plangent and burner. Discovery teaching and leering discussion in the 1950’s and 1960’s (Schulman and kusiar, 1966) and the interest continue leg (Abimbonla, 1981, olarinoye, 1982). During this penned, learning by Discovery dominated by the writing of educational psychologists, but real manifestation of the Discovery movement for teachers was in the development of methods for teaching science by “discovery” Discovery teaching curriculum projects were common during his period -sexually in  mathematics science. Representative programs in science include Elementary science study, physical science study this paper is therefore an attempt to provide a base form which the analysis of the farm can begin – the conceptions of the discovery held by philosophers of science philosophers of science is a useful tool for their paralysis because of its pedagogical value. The implications of the result of the analysis are explored with specifies suggestion for curricular and instructional design. One hopes that users of the term “discovery” will pay attention to its compile nature. Committee, chemical Education Materials study; Biological sciences curriculum study; and science through discovery in the U.S. In spite of the under use of the concept of discovery in the development on curricula, there is still no general a agreement on the meaning of the term. For example, kindler, (1966), in repeating on the competence on learning by discovery mused that: there is no agreement what we failed to agree about the meaning of the concept of discovery.
·                                                   Disadvantages                       
(1)         it takes a long time to reach objectives.
(2)         if the objective is too hard then there’s the risk of learners not taking part fully.
                  Advantages of discovery Strategy or Approach
1.            it shift from extrinsic to intrinsic motivation
2.            Increase intellectual development.
3.       Increase in memory retention
4.       Discovery is available to student investigative process.
Disadvantage of discovery method of teaching science
1.            This method consumes a lot of time
2.            It is costly as abundant teaching materials are required.   
      
 (4)           Simulation / game method of teaching science          
            This method involves the incorporation of games and plays in teaching Science. It is useful especially at the lower classes where the students inadvertently from the subject of the study. several games are being developed with scientific concepts. E.g spider web is very useful in learning development stages of insects. In this era of improvisation especially with local material resources, the method it adopted might prove very effective in demystifying abstract nature of science like chemistry and physics.
Simulation/game as a strategy has proved very effective in the
learning of mathematics
ADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION METHOD TEACHING OF SCIENCE
1.       They can save a lot of clerical work for students.
2.       It helps in development of skills
3.       It develop high-involvement learning
4.       It create lower cost and risk.
DISDVANTAGES OF SIMULATION METHOD OF TEACHING SCIENCE
1.       This method may not be effective in teaching a large number of students.
2.       The method cannot be used in teaching dull students.  
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