IMPROVING THE AGED AND SOCIAL SECURITY (A STUDY OF NWANGELE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN IMO STATE)


ABSTRACT
The study was undertaken to examine how social security has improve the living standard of the aged in Nwangele Local Government Area of Imo State. After investigation, the findings depicts that several misconception were used to stigmatize the old people such as sickness and physical weakness because of the biological and physical advancement of the body, mental illness and inability to produces rigidity in manners trails of witchcraft, that prompted youth to abandoned old people in the rural areas hence they are disrespected and disaffectionated. The analysis of the data collected indicate contain characteristics of the aged, first it reveal that aged in Nwangele local government area are not totally neglected. 

They have children and other relation coming home to visit them. They still provide the aged with financial and emotional need they required. This clearly shows, despite the moderation and industrialization of Nigeria role of the family has not changed hence there is a continuation of relationship within the extended family and the aged. On the other hand, it has to be recalled that financial and emotional needs are not provided to the fullest both by the youths and the government. In the same vein, old people are relegated by government which deteriorates their living condition. This invariably means that little or no effort was made by government to improve the lots of the aged in Nigeria socially. However, social security of the good is not totally bad, thought they are exposed to health hazard because of the security of the health care delivery unit. Nevertheless the aged still find position socially because people still have the feedings of being part of the being, this may be attributed to the organic type of relationship that exist in societies that are backward technologically and where industrialization is at its lowest ebb. The contribution of the aged in into the society has a meaningful idea to all the social institutions, people of Nwangele Local Government Area so much believe in elderly advice.                               



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LIST OF TABLE
Table 4.1        Distribution of Respondents by sex ……………….      35
Table 4.2        Distribution of Respondents by Age ………………      36
Table 4.3        Distribution of Respondents by Education
Attainment…………………………………………..      36
Table 4.4        Distribution of Respondents by Marital status …         37
Table 4.5        Distribution of Respondents by Economic status
(occupation)…………………………………………     38
Table 4.6        Distribution of Respondents by religious Affiliation.   38
Table 4.7        Source of income of the Respondents …………….       39
Table 4.8        Responses to the situation of the aged …………..         39
Table 4.9        Response of the respondents towards their
problems ………………………………………………  40
Table 4.10     Relationship between social Background and   
Improvement of aged and social security for test of hypothesis one... 41
Table 4.11 Relationship between economic situation and the improvement of the aged and social security for test of hypothesis two   ………………………………42



A RESEARCH PROJECT ON IMPROVING THE AGED AND SOCIAL SECURITY (A STUDY OF NWANGELE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN IMO STATE)



THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY/ANTHROPOLOGY

FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -          i          
Certification-            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii
Dedication-               -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii
Acknowledgement-  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv
Abstract-        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -          v
List of Table-            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi
Table of Contents -  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vii      
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study …………………………………        1
1.2       Statement of the Problem …………………………………       3
1.3       Research Questions ………………………………………        5
1.4       Objectives of the Study ……………………………………      6
1.5       Significance of the Study…………………………………..      7
1.6       Definition of terms ………………………………………….    7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1       Literature Review (Empirical literature)…………………….   10
2.1.1 The Concept of the aged…………………………………….       10
2.1.2   Reasons for Studying the aged …………………………….      13
2.1.3   Cultural Roles of the Aged………………………………….     13
2.1.4   Privileges and Obligations of the aged in African Society..      14
2.1.5   The needs of the aged …………………………………….        15
2.1.6   Modernization and the Problems of the Aged…………..          16
2.1.7   Social Security and the Aged…………………………….         17
2.2       Review of Relevant Theories ……………………………         18
2.3       Theoretical Framework ……………………………………      25
2.4       Study Hypothesis…………………………………………..       26
CHAPTER THREE:
RESEARCH METHOD
3.1       Research Design ……………………………………………     27
3.2       Area of Study……………………………………………….      27
3.3       Scope of the Study…………………………………………       31
3.4       Population of the Study……………………………………..     31
3.5       Sample Size …………………………………………………     32
3.6       Sampling Technique……………………………………….       32
3.7       Instruments for Data Collection ………………………….        33
3.8       Data Collection Process ………………………………….         33
3.9       Method of Data Analysis …………………………………..      34
CHAPTER FOUR:
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Test of Hypothesis ………………………………………….     41
4.1.1   Relationship between economic situation and improvement
of the Aged and socials security for test of hypothesis two….42
4.2       Discussion of Finding ………………………………………..       42
CHAPTER FIVE:
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5. 1      Summary ……………………………………………………..   45       
5.2       Conclusion ……………………………………………………  46
5.3       Recommendations……………………………………………   48
REFERENCES ………………………………………………     51
APPENDIX …………………………………………………..    53       
  


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the study.
            According to John (1985), to the layman and even and many non sociologists and anthropologist, the concern for old age and the elderly is nonsensical. It sounds totally stupid at least in its peripheral sense to talk of studying the instead of preoccupying ourselves with the study of such disciplines as economics, physics, law crime etc. thus, he stressed that some people do say of what use is it to study the aged? What do they contribute to the sociality that the should be catered for?
            However, Oyedipe (1983) opened that some who make time to observe the trends in life from when a “man” is born to when he is dead, would notice that certain body function would increase gradually from  childhood and thereafter they diminish.
            As the diminishing function set in, the individual finds himself in a fix, he is rejected and or dejected, depressed, lonely, discriminated in social gathering and becomes relatively poor etc.
            Kinmel, (1974) in his own view proposed that this interest has not gone without attack from the public. To some, discussing the aged is an abomination. Some even quote a discussion of the elderly with a discussion of sex, which to them is unmentionable. But there are in our midst the aged in tremendous member, we observed them in our homes, we interact with them, we  know their capabilities and in capabilities are know their limits and we engage them some times in some economic ventures .
            They are human beings like us all they have needs much as we all have. Why then should we not cater for them?
            Why should we not discuss about them, why should at least from the fact that one day we will becomes old, go closer to them in order to proffer solution to their needs, these and many more serve as the basic for the introduction of social security measures in order to improve their wellbeing not only in Nwagele local government areas but the society at large.
            It is therefore the concern of these research to unable us to understand which category of people constitute the aged, identify their problem and needs as well as examining the relevance of social security towards the improvement of their well being in order to put a lasting solution to these menace.

1.2       Statement of the Problem
            In African society, the aged play important role in child customary education.
            They help a great deal in child training by importing traditional values and skills on children who are traditionally believed to be the “leaders of tomorrow”.
            Generally, in African society, both formal and informal process are utilize for the transmission of knowledge, skills, ideas, attitudes and patterns of behaviors. This tribal legends and proverbs are told by the evening fireside and through them much of the cultural heritage of the tribe are kept alive and passed on to the children. More so, this formal education most strongly manifests itself in initiation ceremony often conducted by the elderly.
            Infact, the roles of the aged are obvious. Indeed, they the custodians of the society’s cultural norms and values which are passed to the young ones either in the normal family setting or during important ceremonies.
            However, despite the good role played by these group of people who are said to be the reservoir of wisdom modernization has rather brought about evolution of certain problem which has led to the reduction in the power of and prestige given to the accumulated wisdom of the aged. Their knowledge and experience are seen as not been directly relevance to the problems of the modern age. “This informed the relegation of traditional institution in government in Nigeria today.
            Again, the direct linkage of educational attainment with occupation and income has attained the economic status of the aged quite markedly. The mutual obligation of the extended family system are being systematically eroded by the increasing emphasize on material success and individualism. Therefore, well to do younger adults who live far away from home think less taking care of an aged members of his extended family, who is not directly his parent.
            The foregoing changes has serious implications for the general attitude towards the aged in Nwangele land of Imo state as age as an age of increasing tension and in security.
            This ideology has made the aged in Nwangele local government area to suffer from the following problems health care, poverty, loss of respect and loneliness as their social, economic and psychological needs are neglected. Thus, the negligence has made some of the elderly people to find their ways to the streets as destitute.
            And often times, these elderly destitute are knocked down by vehicles because the lack of all the necessary composure to walk in street with high traffic.
            The study therefore, is an attempt to examine how social security can improve the well being of the aged in Nwangele local government area of Imo state.
1.3       Research Question
            The following research question are posed to guide this study.
1.         Which category of people constitute aged?
2.         What are the reasons for studying these group of people?
3.         What are the cultural roles and the privileges of the aged in Nwangele society?
4.         What are the essential needs of the aged?
5.         Has modernization brought about the evolution of certain problems which the aged in African society did not experience prior to conduct with the western culture?
6.         What are the social security measures adopted by government, private bodies, non – governmental organization (NGO) in order to curb the needs and problems of the elderly in Nwangele society?
7.         What could be the consequential affects of non – conformity to provide the essential needs of the aged.
1.4       Objective of the Study
            This research is primary designed to
i.          Examine the socio – demographic features of the aged.
ii.         Identify the problem of the aged in Nwangele local government area of Imo state.
iii.       Ascertained the level of government. Private bodies, non governmental organization (MGO’s) prevision towards the needs of elderly in Nwangele local government area.
iv.        Evaluate the consequence of non – provision of the needs of the aged.
v.         Examine the significant of social security on the aged in Nwangele local government area.
vi.        Lastly to proffer solution to the problems of the aged in order to improve their living standard in the society.



1.5       Significance of the Study
            The significance of this study cannot be over emphasized. A study on the aged and social security is necessary since it serves as mechanism to improve the lot of the elderly in terms of their psychological, economic and social well being in any society, it would address the issues that promoted to the problems of the age.
            More so, it would proffer solutions the problem. It is also intended to expose the culture roles and privileges of the aged and why it is necessary to cater for these categories of people.
            Finally, as  an academic research, the study will serve as the essential report the government, non – governmental organization (NGO), private and public people who may intend to improve the lot of the aged.
1.6       Definition of Terms
AGED: The aged are a social category found in every human society it implies chronological advancement in years, compiled with physical incapacitation as a result of near and fear of the body from daily activity.
OLD AGE: Old age is defined by the social security act of 1935 as the eligibility for social security benefits. More so, old age refers to the age at which most people retire from work and claims for particular kinds of welfare benefit such as pension. Old age characterized by extreme physical, frailty, mental process slow down, and organic brain disease more common.
AGEISM: this is the process of systematically stereotyping and discriminating against people simply because they are old.
AGEING: this is a developmental and continuous process of change in the individual right from conception to death.
PHYSICAL AGING: This refers to body maturation or period of obvious biological and physiological change in the individual over time
PSYCHOLOGICAL AGING: This refers to the developmental stage in the emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspects of the individual’s personality.
SOCIAL AGE: Social age relates to the movement of an individual from one state to another. It also relates to experience in the course of life and the manners in which he relates his aging to his own society. Social age is grouped by social roles and habits. Social security: refers to a programme of protection and helps initiated by public legislations. It is geared towards providing for the sick, disabled, unemployed and the employed aged and destitute. Social security is thus a welfare programme. It exists in every society but differs in courage, emphasis, and even in implementation


CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Introductions
            This chapter is devoted to presentation of data collected from the filed the course of this study and to test the research hypotheses that were tentatively formulated in chapter two. The analysis of data shall be based on the returned questionnaires from the field. The social characteristic of respondents will be given a frequency table. A description of the table will also follow each table. The numbers of returned copies of questionnaire were 120.
Table 4.1: Distribution of Respondents by Sex
Sex
No of respondents
Percentage%
Male
40
33.33
Female
80
66.67
Total
120
100
Source: Filed work survey, 2012

The data in the table 1 above shows 33.33% of the respondents are men while 66.67% are female.



Table4. 2: Distribution of respondents by age.
Age bracket
Male
Percentage%
Female
Percentage%
60.64
14
35
18
22.5
65.69
9
22.5
10
12.5
70.74
7
17.5
15
18.75
75.79
3
7.5
15
18.75
80 and above
7
17.5
22
27.5
Total
40
100
80
100

Source: fieldwork survey,2012
The table II above reveals the age distribution of the respondents which indicates that 57.5 percent of the total respondents fall into the age bracket of 60-64 (35%) on the male side and (25%) on the female side. Age 70-74 shows 36.25%, age 75-79 indicates 26-25%: while the age bracket 80 years and above indicate 45%
Table 4.3: Distribution of respondent by religious affrication 
Religion
Male
Percent
Female
Percent%
Total
Percentage%
Christianity
17
42.5
37
46.25
34
45
Islam
9
22.5
29
36.25
38
31
Traditional
10
25
13
16.25
23
19.1
others
4
10
1
1.25
5
4.1
Total
40
100
80
100
120
100
Source: field work survey, 2012
The table iii above shows that 45% of the respondents were Christians 31.62% were Muslims, 19.17% were traditional religions people and 4.17% were others (those who do not believe in the existence of God). The table therefore shows that the bulk of the respondents are Christianity who so much believes in the existence of God and Jesus Christ.

Table 4.4: Distribution of respondent by marital status
Marital status
Male
Percentage%
Female
Percentage%
Total
Percentage%
Married
4
10
1
1.25
5
4.17
Divorced
25
25
13
16.25
23
19.17
Windowed
17
42.5
37
46.25
54
45
Separated
9
22.5
29
36.25
38
31.67
Total
40
100
80
100
120
100
Source: field work survey, 2012
Analysis from the above table reveals that out of: 120 respondents, 5 representing 4.17% are married, 23 representing 19.17% are divorced, 54 representing 45% are windowed  are windowed and 38 representing 31.62% are separated.
Table 4.5: distribution of respondents by economic (occupation)  
Occupation
Male
Percentage%
Female
Percentage%
Total
Percentage%
Farming
7
17.5
16
20
23
19.17
Business
13
32.5
41
51.25
54
45
Civil servant
9
22.5
13
16.25
22
18.3
Others
11
27.5
10
12.5
21
17.5
Total
40
100
80
100
120
100
Source: field work survey, 2012.
Table v: Shows different distribution of the respondent: It is obvious from the above table that 18.3% of the respondents are civil servants. Majority of the respondents representing 45% are into business while 19.17% of them are farmers.
However, 17.5% of the respondents are artisans.
Table 4.6: distribution of respondents by educational attainment
Education
Male
Percentage%
Female
Percentage%
Total
Percentage%
No education
11
27.5
10
12:5
21
17.5
Primary
7
17.5
16
20
23
19.17
Secondary
13
32.5
41
51.25
54
45
Tertiary
9
22.5
13
16.25
22
18.3
Total
40
100
80
100
120
100

Source: Field Work Survey, 2012

From table vi above it was observed that 17.5% of the respondents did not attend school. The total sample others are primary school 19.17% secondary 45% and tertiary 18.3% respective.
This table therefore shows that holders of secondary school certificate (WAEC) dominates the sampled population.
Table 4.7: Source Income of the Respondents
Source
No of responses
Percentage%
Relatives
85
70.83
Others
35
29.17
Total
12
100
Source: field work survey, 2012
 Table vii above reveals that out of all the 120 respondents 70.83% of them depend solely on their relatives ie (children brothers and sister for their income, while 29.17% of the respondents earn their income from their source which may include petty trading, personal business etc. Table 4.7: respondents to the situation of the aged.

Table 4.8: responses to the situation of the aged
Assessment
No of responses
Percentage%
Good
10
8.3
Fair
50
20.83
Bad
35
41.07
Poor
35
29.17
Total
120
100
The figure in the table above show that 8.3% of the respondents assess the situation of the aged as good and 20.83% of the respondents assess it as fair, while 41.07% of them assess the situation of the aged as bad and 29.17% it as poor. This table therefore shows that the bulk of the respondents assess the situation of the aged as poor and thus below average.
Table 4.9: Response of the respondents towards their problems.
Health problem
No of responses
Percentage%
Sight
47
39.17
Hearing
36
30
Pains
15
12.5
Others
22
18.33
Total
120
100
Source: Fieldwork survey, 2012
Analysis from the above table reveals that 39.17% of the respondents have vision or eye problems while 30% of the them had ear problem and 12.5% had general body pains where as 18.33% had other sicknesses such as fever, headache, heart problems just to mention but a few:



4.10    Test of hypotheses
Hypothesis
Ho:      There is no significant relationship between social background and the improvement of the aged and social security in Nwangele.
H1:      There is significant relationship between social background and the improvement of the age and social security in Nwangele.
Table x: relationship between social background and improvement of aged and social security for test of hypothesis one.
Relationship/background
Good
Fair
Bad
Poor
total
Christianity
1(3.2)
7(.7.9)
18(15.8)
12(11.1)
38
Musher
4.4.5)
12(1.2)
23(22.5)
15(15.8)
54
Traditional
3(1.9)
6(9.5)
6(9.6)
5.(2.0)
28
Others
2(.0.4)
-(1.0)
(2.1)
3.(15)
5
total
10
25
50
35
120
Source Calculated By the Researcher
Decision: From the above table, we can deduce that since the x2 calculated as shows in the appendix is less than x2 table at 0.05, we therefore accept the number hypothesis (HO) and reject the alternative Hypothesis (Hi) which means that there is no significant 4.11            Relationship between economic situation and improvement of the Aged and social security for test of hypothesis two. That is the situation of the economic situation of Aged is not been effective by the economics situation with particular reference to study area.
4.2       Discussion of Findings
            From the study conducted, it was observed that 35% of the respondents were males while 66.67% were females. However a significant number of the male respondents were involved in business and other means of livelihood. In the same vain, most of the women in the study also engaged in business to sustain their life. This trend of course showcases their living standard and as well affords them the opportunity of not staying idle at home it also gives them satisfaction as it enables them to exercise themselves on daily basis irrespective of the fact that some of the respondents source for other means of livelihood as indicated in the course of carrying out this study, majority of them solely depend on their relatives such as brothers, sisters and children for their survival. They are gradually coping and adapting to the socio-economic situation which is the present trend for a substructure.
            Furthermore, the present status of the nations encouraging has changed the thought towards the aged. For example many of the elderly trace their bad condition to people at the national level who uses the resources meant for all and sending for their own selfish interest. This is manifested in the way the aged are been treated today in our society. They are no longer respected by the youth. They are no longer honored and received as practice traditional days before the advent of modernization, Europeanization and indoctrination era. They are rather seen as witches and wizards which has actually jeopardized the prestige accorded to them during the primordial era.
            In an attempt to improve the lot of the aged, its usual solution in which the government provides most of their basic needs, is put forward, but this is highly neglected because the responsibility is for the children and extended family to take care of their aged parent.
            The situation is so bad that they can’t afford to buy nor purchase the things which they sell. Nevertheless, hypothesis one, tested in this study revealed that there is no significant relationship between social background and improvement of aged and social security. But in the real source, there is an association between the two variables because social background has to do with income level, occupation, education and status.
Therefore, the (aged) with good social background will definitely adjust to a given situation. 
Finally, the result in hypothesis two, stated that there is no significant relationship between economic situation and improvement of aged and social security. In most cases, economic structure and improvement of aged are positively related. For instance, and elderly person with viable economic standing will live an enviable life and be heard in the society without any element hesitation.



CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY: SUMMARY CONCLSTUIN AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       SUMMARY OR FINDINGS
            This research has attempted to determine the extent to which social security has improve the living standard of the aged with particular reference to the Nwangele people of Imo state, in order to achieve the purpose of this study, a twenty-six (26) item questionnaire was administered on a sample of one hundred and twenty (120) persons of Nwangele North Local Government Area which were tested against the two hypothesis.
            The questionnaire items were aimed at deterring, the extent to which the aged in Nwangele could be assessed. The data collected through the questionnaire were duly analyzed using sample percent ages and the hypotheses were tested using the chi-square method.
            The study reveals the demographic background of respondents, their socio-economic and religions life etc.
            Also noted is the fact that most of the respondents were Christians and Muslims but majority of them were women.
            The study revealed that in an attempt to adjust and adopt to the challenging structure of the society, most of the aged in Nwangele are involved in farming and other business in order to meet up with their challenges. Thus, their dependence on their children, relatives is gradually decreasing.
            Moreso, it was observed in the course of carrying out this study that modernization has complicated the problems of the aged instead of alleviating them. Thus modernization has brought about the evolution of certain problems which the aged in Nwangele did not experience prior to contact with the western cultures.
            The problems ranges from coneliness healthcare, poverty, and loss of respect.
            In the essence, the result of the test showed that there is no significant relationship between social background and improvement of aged and social security in Nwangele. These failures have some consequential effects the aged greedy in their social, economic and psychological needs.

5.2       Conclusion
            In conclusion, social security means a programmer of protection, and helps initiated by public legislator, imperatively, it is geared towards providing for the sick, disable, unemployed and employed aged and destitute. It is thus a welfare programmed for the improvement of the aged in every human society, although it differs in coverage, emphasis and even in implementation.
            Furthermore, the research to state that this study would have one way or the other contributed to the understanding of the right of the aged. It would open our eyes a bit to other areas. But since this study is limited to a local government, Nwangele local government areas in Imo State, the findings and the recommendations can be used in other areas, effort should therefore be made by social scientist to further study on the factors affecting the improvement of the aged and social security of the aged in their areas so as to improve the societies awareness and the knowledge of gerontology in Nigeria.
            Apart from this, other studies include social life of the aged in this new millennium ways of improving the aged and social security. This would be understood where policies should be defected. First and foremost, is the present value and important attributed to the older section of the society and must obvious implication of this is the cost of our culture and realization?
            The present young generation instead of sitting with their grand parent to listen to folk tales and stones of our heroes they rather prefer to watch tale-vision, video film, vcd playing, ludo game, read novels and others, they do not even want to travel to the village to visit the old grand parents because they feet it would be boring or they will be bewitched. This has made our culture so boring, no excitement in tradition and the cost of pride and dignity in our culture.
            The research therefore conclude that in an attempt to correct this inappropriateness, there should be a meaningful re-orientation and re-defining of our role to the aged. We should discard and new ways of dealings with the aged and go back to the older pattern.
            More so, the young generation do not bother to seek advice from people and supposedly simile member of the society, but this research find out that instead of being simile, the old were extremely wise and intelligent, hence it is worth while if the government can provide seats in the parliament for some representative of other section of this society. They should realize that no amount of learning can take the place of wisdom gain through experience.
5.3       Recommendations
            This research would be meaningless and in fact wasteful if recommendations are not made. For result oriented recommendations, the research shall base her suggestions on her findings. Therefore, I wish to make the following recommendations. That the government should please establish or create a forum, probably state by state, where the needs of the elderly ones could be catered for with adequate and sound physical and mental health care.
This should be well organized with responsible people placed in changed.
            More so, the government help a lot of old people out there, who if given the chance will be extremely productive, although about sixty in the way the government and the individual will benefit. There is some aged (mostly men) who a re still physically and mentally alert enough to continue their jobs, this people will feel great resentment in the fact that they are retired. This present a need for the government to involve pre-retirement education, and re-orientation programmer so that those that will retire will be probably prepare for it.
            Presently, with the state of economy, there is need for the government to review the pension scheme. The present pension paid is not enough for the old to survive on and in most cases, these people have to give up in banks for hours and at the and they might not get their money for weeks or another’s the government can also help the aged in improving their lot through the provision of instrument from medical care for the aged of all categories (both the formal and informal section) provision of counseling activities of primary and secondary schools and also in tertiary institutions of higher learning, subjects and courses that would promote interaction and respect for old people (Oyeneye, 1990) viewing the position of the elderly in terms of their experiences in society, there should also be provision of adequate, and accessible be recreational facilities for the elders. This will enhance and promote interaction and co-operation between the elderly and also between the younger generation and aged. And this will greatly promote our culture and traditional heritage.
            Finally the governmental bodies should conduct more research on gerontology since the aged are on important category of our economy. Thus, more awareness by the society should be created for their needs and problems.
            However, since this provision is not avoidable, the young people should take care of the elderly because we will definitely be old one day. It is my sincere belief that if these recommendations should be adhered to, the problems and needs of the aged could be commiserated if not totally discarded in society.


REFERENCE
Adegbuyi, O. O (1995). The Social Situation of the Aged: an original essary submitted to sociology Department Ogun State University.

Balogun, O. M (1992). The Elderly in Labour Force: And Essary Submitted To Sociology Department Ogun State University.

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