FRCN RADIO STATION IN EFFECTIVELY SPREADING FAMILY PLANNING AND CHILD SPACING PROGRAMMES



ABSTRACT
This study was an effort to investigate the role of radio in the campaign for family planning and child spacing in Nigeria, with particular focus on Enugu state. The survey research method was used. The work was anchored on agenda-setting theory. A total of400 copes of questionnaires were distributed, and the gathered data were analyzed using percentage and frequency method. The findings of the study show that there are programmes designed to sensitize the people on the importance of family planning. Again, the study showed that FRCN radio stations encounter problems such as language usage in programme packaging for rural people, and that adequate emphasis is not place on family planning sensitization on radio. The study therefore recommends as follows Government, NGOs and other well meaning individuals should encourage (through the radio) the adoption of effective family planning method the peculations of rural communities in Nigeria in terms of language, norms, factors should be considered in the design of family planning programmes on radio media; the need for further survey in other rural settings across Nigeria as a way of generating a more representative empirical statistics on the role of the radio in the provision of family planning information.



 CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
            Concerns about high fertility and low contraceptive prevalence in sub-sub-Saharan Africa (more especially Nigeria) have stimulated policy and program efforts aimed at promoting family planning in the region. Substantial money and time are currently being expended for the purpose of educating people about the advantages of fewer children and motivating them to adopt family limitation.

            The use of radio to achieve these objectives has recently increased and both government and private agencies are involved in developing and implementing programs through the use of media facilities (JHU/PCS, 1991). The proponents of this approach have argued that the increasing availability of radio in developing countries can be effectively used to influence people’s behaviour. Parlato (1990) argues that a well-designed media campaign can be effective in creating a positive social environment for a behaviour by bringing about a shift in popular opinion Piotiow et al; (1990) not that mass media (radio in this case) can be a powerful tool not any for creating awareness about new technology but also for stimulating people’s desires for more information and facilitating their efforts to apply the information to their own behaviour.
            Apart from simply advertising family planning in the media, the use of an “enter – educate” approach has become attractive to communication experts (Kincaid et al; 1992). This approach uses the entertainment components of mass media, such as song and drama, to drive home the intended message. The assumption here is that people tend to adopt a behaviour faster if they are motivated by those they consider role models. Therefore using popular and respected entertainers is believed to be an effective means of getting people to adopt a new behaviour (kincnid et al; 1988).
            Evidence from recent studies on the interrelation between mass media and family planning in developing counties continues to mount in support of the claim that the media do influence behaviour. For instance, studies such as those conducted by Bertrand et al; (1987) in Guatemala and piotrow et al; (1990) in Nigeria document remarkably strong relationships between exposure to family planning messages in the media and contraceptive behaviour. West off and Rodriguez (1993) examined the relationship between exposure to media messages on family planning and a number of indicators of reproductive behaviour (including ever and current use of contraception, intention to use among nonuser, desire for more children, and ideal family size). The results indicate that women who are exposed to such messages in the media are more likely to use contraceptives and to desire fewer children (strong relationship that survive numerous controls). The study also documents a positive association between the intensity of exposure (measured by the number of sources of exposure) and researcher examines the impact of radio in the campaign for family planning and child spacing in Enugu metropolis.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The problem militating against family planning and child spacing in Enugu metropolis borders on cultural background of the people who although live in township have their cultural orientation from their ancestors who were predominantly farmers and needed to bear many children to assist in their farm works and also attack the enemy who may want to encroach in their lands. The mentality of providing workforce and self defence after many years became the real life of the people which they further passed unto their children and grand children and has since become their way of life which not even. Western influence can change in most of them.
            Act of bearing multiple children was used to assess a man’s greatness and wealth in the past and has lingered till present days. It was even considered a taboo in the old Nkanu, Nsukka, Awkunawnu, Udi, Ezzagu, Nenwe and other villages now making up the residents of the Enugu metropolis, for a man to bear few children as it was seen as a mark of weakness and mediocrity on the part of such a man.
MALE CHILD
            The importance attached to male child in Igbo setting in general where Enugu belongs is that which forces a man to continues to bear more and more children to have enough male children man does not consider female children an asset because according to custom a female child is another man property since she will leave her father house and be given to marriage but a male child is the one that will represent the man (Obi) which significantly means his home or his absence even if a man has 7 female children without a male child or with just 2 or 3 male children such a man can still go ahead even to take another wife to seek for more male children these factor also contributes to the problem of child spacing and family planning in Enugu metropolis because it is a custom handed down to them by their fore fathers which they believe will not have to change in their own time.
STRESS
            Another problem is stress because my keen observation into the bursting and hustling life of the coal city is that people out of frustration and disappointment sometimes result to what they consider as available source of pleasure (sex) coupled with the fact that most people also rejects the use of condom and other preventive measure because they believe it robs them off the real and natural taste of sex they now cling to their lives as a replier to stress, disappointment and frustration of the day. Thereby bearing multiple children uncontrollably.
            As a result of these problems associated with unchecked. Child birth and population increase, the researcher deemed it necessary to engage in a study on the impact FRCN can play in spreading information on family planning through specially designed programmes, there by sensitizing people on the need to adopt control measures in checking child birth, mortality rate, etc, in the country and especially in Enugu state.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
            The object of this study are as follows:
1.         To find out whether there are designed programmes on family planning by the FRCN Enugu radio station?
2.         To find out if the programmes have been making impact on family planning and child spacing sensitization in Enugu metropolis.
3.         To    discover the lapses of the RADIO STATION IN EFFECTIVELY SPREADING FAMILY PLANNING AND CHILD SPACING PROGRAMMES.
4.         To find out ways to overcome the identified lapses.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
            This study is significant in a number of ways as highlighted below.
This study will help bring into focus, the mass media needs of the rural communities. This is realizing the fact that at present; the rural population of this country is not adequately targeted as well as the urban population.
            This study will try to suggest ways of reaching the rural people better than is done at present, where mass education programmers with urban. And rural dwellers as target audience are produced mostly in English language and in highly technical terminologies is never in the best inters of public enlightenment Again, this study will assist the government identify the areas of needs of the rural people in terms of communication.
     This is because mass communication should be a two –way process i.e from government to the people, and from the people back to the government . communication needs (especially on family planning)of the people will in no small measure help realize the dream of mobilizing the people through various agencies of government the federal government whose responsibility it is to formulate executive national policies on communication will find this study invaluable. It has been pointed out by communication experts in Nigeria that the infiltration of western communication policies into the country in particular, and the third world in general has done little or nothing in reorienting the use of communication infrastructure for socio-cultural development of our people.
    Finally, the study will also serve as a stepping stone for future research works and theories for students, professional and policy makers.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.         Are there designed programmes on family planning and child            spacing by FRCN Enugu?
2.         What impact has the stations made in terms of family planning and child spacing sensitization in Enugu metropolis?
3.         What are the lapses faced by FRCN Enugu in effectively reaching the target people on family planning and child spacing?
4.         Are there solutions to these lapses?
RESEACH HYPOTHESIS
H1 The FRCN designed programmes on family planning and child spacing.
Ho        The FRCN did not designed programmes on family planning and child spacing
H2        As a result of proper entightment on family planning which FRCN have refrain positive contribution towards family planning and child spacing.
Ho        As a result of proper enlightment the FRCN did not refrain positive contribution towards family planning and child spacing.
H3        despite the enlightment from the FRCN as medial out – fit, still there are face with audience non-compliance
Ho        The non-compliance on family planning and child spacing have cause population increase.
H4        As a result of increase in population the masses have adopted family planning and child spacing as a preventive measure.
Ho       Increase in population is because the masses did not adopted preventive measure for family planning and child spacing.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
BROADCASTING
            Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and audios or visual mass communications medium, but usually one using electromagnetic radiation (radio waves). The receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset thereof. Broadcasting is the practice of creating audio and video program content and distributing it to the mass audiences of radio, television and internet media.
            Broadcasting, according to Dunu (2002), is the most pervasive machinery or channel of communication that uses electromagnetic impulses to reach the public instantly without the connection of wires. Broadcasting is to spreed idea, information or an impression to a larger audience simply for the purpose of carrying a larger audience. It is the singular most powerful universal means of instant public communication through the conveying of information, entertainment, education and persuasion in form of programmes. Amongst it’s unique attributes is the ability to instantly reach a wider more varied group of consumer, than any other medium.
            It’s unique usefulness lies in its capacity to surmount geographic and economic barriers to extend to the rich and the poor, old and young, rural and urban dwellers, the educated and the illiterate, the professionals, the majority and the minority.
RADIO 
            Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic radiation of a frequency significantly below that of visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 3? KHZ to 300?GHZ. Radio is an electronic device that receives transmitted signals (electromagnetic impulses) and reconverts them into audio messages.
            According to Okunna (2009), radio is relatively cheap and can operate without electricity. It is therefore within the reach of the rural populace than television. Radio is portable and transistor radio sets are widely owned especially in the rural areas.

FAMILY PLANNING
            Family planning is one service that is appropriate and beneficial in all settings. Family planning is the ability for a woman or couple to determine when and how many children they are going to have by practicing safe sexual practices. This keeps the prospective parents healthy and without child until a time of their choosing.

RURAL WOMEN
            In the context of this study, rural women is a set of woman within a particular geographical location sharing common socio-economic and political interest, but without those basic amenities like pipe borne water, electricity, good roads and educational facilities and forming a mass of low income earners.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
SOURCES OF LITERATURE
            For the purpose of this study, information was gathered from wide range of source including books, journal publications, reports in newspapers and magazines, and internet source. During the course of the research, the researcher also had access to seminar papers and official organizations.
THEORETICAL ORIENTATION
            Every study in social sciences is predicated on a theoretical orientation. The theories enable us understand and reach an informed decision about an empirical study.
            This research work is predicated on one major theory – Agenda – setting theory. This is because of the fact that the focus of the study on the role which radio plays in bringing the message of family planning to the people, and helping them make informed decisions.
AGENDA – SETTING THEORY
            Lippman (1922), quoted IN Ojobor (2002), state that the media (radio) help to “put pictures in our heads” This explain the power of the mass media (in this case radio) to set the agenda and raise issues of public importance. This function is closely related to public opinion generation, since it is often the mass media that raise issues upon which public opinion is expressed. Mccombs and show (1972) wrote that members of the “audience not only learn about public issues through the radio, they also learn how much importance to attach to an issue or topic from the emphasis that mass media place upon it”. It is common knowledge that in Nigeria today, apart from Network News at 4pm and 10pm, phone – in programmes line health watch, police diary, etc rank as most popular programmes on radio (especially, FRCN).
            The emphasis placed on them and the manner at which health – related issues (in the case of health watch) are addressed and listeners are allowed to contribute to the programmes, tell very listener how important the subject matters are to the governments, the people and the media. If there is an opinion poll, the programmes would most likely not rank badly (Ojobor, 2002). This is a typical case of an instance where the radio is setting the agenda, and can help in affording the people the opportunity to be enlightened about family planning, and child spacing and how it will be beneficial to them.
POPULATING GROWTH AND THE NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING
            In Nigeria, child spacing or the timing of every birth, including the first and last, can improve the like hood of survival and of good physical and emotional heath for the entire family at all stages of life. All available evidence indicates that the level of reproduction has been persistently high in the last three or four decades of four decades and still remains so at present (Fraser and Weisberg, 1981; Odaman, 2005). If the nations populations is left to grow uncontrolled, the national resources will sooner or later be outstripped by the increasing demand of the growing population.
            This was probably the fear kishindo (1995) expressed about the Malawian experience when he observed that Malawi’s population has been growing at the rate of 3.7% during the 1977 – 87 intercensal period, compared 60 2.9% during the 1966 – 77 intercensal period and that if the population continues to grow at that rate, it would double in 19 years. Although the influx of refugees from the Mozambican civil was contributed significantly to the rapid population growth, the 3.2% annual growth, when Mozambican refugees are excluded, is still high in the context of the country’s natural resources.
            In the quest to stem the tide of unbridled population growth, the government of the federal republic of Nigeria in 2002 came out with a population policy paper on family planning and fertility regulation. According to the policy paper, the value of family planning and child spacing on the stability and well – being of family shall be promoted and family services shall be incorporated in maternal and child health care. This is to help reduce maternal and infant morbidity and mortality as well as reduce rapid population growth in the shortest possible time in order to ensure sustainable development which can be achieved only by reducing population growth to bring it to per with the available national resources. This will invariably lead to the attainment of good quality life and high standard of living in the country.
            It is perhaps because of the foregoing that world leaders in 1974 accepted family planning as a human right of individuals and couples. Article 14 (F) of the world population plan of action states that:
All couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education and means to do so; the responsibility of couples and individuals in the exercise of the right takes into account the needs of their living and future children, and their responsibility towards the community.                      
                       
            Though there is a growing interest with the intense efforts of the government to popularize the use of modern family planning methods by integrating it into maternal and child health in Nigeria, it seems many people still do not apply family planning methods. Lindroos and Luukkainen (2004) contend that Nigeria is a country where modern family planning usage is one of the lowest in the world. This may be due to lack of useful information to those who really need the information, as a majority of the Nigerian populace live in the rural areas where there is poor access to modern means of communication including the mass media.
            Family planning provides the society with some socio – economic and health benefits (Odaman, 2005). Awareness of such benefits can significantly enhance the use of contraceptives, which in turn, will reduce population growth and overtime have positive effects on national development.
            In this connection, Ugoji (2008) observes that family planning programmes strive to prevent unwanted pregnancies, help achieve birth spacing and help couples limit family size so as to reduce maternal/infant mortality. Further, Odaman (2005) enumerates some of the family planning methods to include the use of safe period, calendar or rhythm, oral pills, vaginal ring, withdrawal, condoms, injectables, intrauterine devices (IUDs), Norplant and sterilization.
            Despite the gain, contraceptive use is still low and needs high usage in some of the world’s poorest and most populous places, including Nigeria. At least, three in 10 pregnancies are unintended in some regions, and millions of couples are still unable to effectively choose the number and timing of their children. Moreover, some developing countries (such as Nigeria) that have not substantially reduced that fertility levels in recent decades are in danger of seeing their development or progress halted or slowed. These challenges are immense, but not insurmountable. The past 50 years demonstrate that successful family planning programmes can be developed even under difficult circumstances. For example, the one child per family policy in the peoples republic of China, however draconic has helped to check birth rate and population explosion and the country is arguably better is also accepted worldwide. In 1994, representatives from 179 nations met in Cairo, Egypt at the international conference on population and development and agreed to provide reproductive health care to all people by the year 2015 – a goal that called for countries to “meet the family planning needs to their population” and provide “universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family planning methods” (Population Reference Bureau, PRB 2004).
            Diachronically, family planning methods, among other social issues have engaged the interest of media researchers. Alkhenomia (1999) remarks that: Researches in the field of mass communication at one time or the other have conducted researchers to study the influence of a given idea or practice via the mass media, through a socio – cultural structure. Also systematic inquiries have been conducted about the attitudes of receivers or audience towards such practice.
            In line with the foregoing, it is pertinent to look at the role radio can play in spreading information on family planning especially in the rural areas.
THE ROLE OF RADIO IN THE CAMPAIGN FOR FAMILY PLANNING IN NIGERIA
            As regards the modern of family planning, Oladeji (2008) contends that communication and decision making play a vital role in ensuring informed choice of family planning and reproductive health behaviour. Effective communication/decision – making allows people to seek what is best for their own health and to exercise their right to good  quality heating care (Rimal et al,  2002).in the same vein, it has been argued that the mass media, especially radio have been quite effective in creating family planning awareness in urban Nigeria. Perhaps, this is because the urban dwellers have greater access to radio. According to a survey of predominantly urban areas, about 90% of all urban house holds have radios and about 60% own televisions in Nigeria (Information, Education and communication, IEC, July 1996) and the likelihood that people living in urban areas would readily have access to family planning information as purveyed though radio media is high. But to make this level of family planning awareness effective among the generality of Nigerians, the mass media (radio) should have a hold in the rural areas where a larger numbers of the people live. The spread of radio and the increasing literacy rates in many rural communities offer new opportunities for family planners and other health care organizations to inform the public and reach opinion leaders (Piotiow et al;). Making the most of these opportunities requites skill in helping the news media cover family planning.
            While examining the knowledge and practice of family planning methods among the currently married adolescent women (CMAW) in India, Narsary (2009) observed that exposure to radio and husband – wife communication play a significant role in family planning matters. Obaid (2006) and Abd EI – Aziz (2006) have also identified radio media as effective instrument in family planning education in Jordan and Egypt respectively. Similarly, in a more recent research conducted with an aim to assess the knowledge, understanding and attitude of couples towards family planning across two ecological settings of jammu district in India, dbingra et al; (2010) found that radio and television were the major accessible sources of information on family planning to couples. Since 1972, the average family size in developing countries has dropped from about three children. This trend has saved millions of lives and provided additional benefits to woman and children who when healthy can achieve greater levels of education and empowerment (International Planned Parenthood federation, PPF (1992).
            Most studies on mass media campaigns are emphatic on the issue of the people’s attitude in term of the degree of reception and adoption of a particular idea, programme or innovation. According to deification precede behavioural change or modification for the achievements of the desired goals. He further states that for a modification attitude and behaviour, an effective communication must be presented and articulated before there can be any useful mobilization. However, when communicating with the rural dewellers, the problem of the appropriate medium to be used arise.
Broadcasting has come to mean the communication of news, instruction and entertainment by radio or television. Before the invention of wireless telegraph, however, the term broadcasting was mainly an agricultural term. It meant the free scattering of seeds as against careful planting in drills and rows. The parable of the sower in the new testament of the Holy Bible may not be superfluous at this juncture. It states that some of his seed fell on good ground and did well, some of them fell on stony ground or on the way side or among thorns and were wasted. When considering radio, everything put out by these powerful media is like seeds. True as the parable of the sower, some minds are closed up that nothing new can enter them and establish a place. This may be true of some rural dwellers. Most of them are regulated by solid entrenched socio-cultural norms, ethos and values. They believe so much in taboos, but a proper and proficient use of the broadcast media can be useful in the opening up of the minds of the rural dwellers through certain subtle means.
            In this connection, babalola (1986) state that broadcasting transcends the barriers of literacy and it reaches all the people without discrimination except those imposed by the people’s own selective will. Among literate persons, it is believed that broadcast messages have immediacy which the print message lacks. Broadcast messages are of course easily forgotten but their impact continues to exercise an influence at the subconscious level. Indeed, a radio message tends to have greater mass appeal and this arguably makes it more effective for reaching the grassroots. However, Nwuneli (1984) considers the forgoing positions as mere rhetoric. He contends that because of Nigeria’s large size, it is impossible to mobilize the entire population through centralized directives. He suggested the decentralization of communication for meaningful change to take place at the local level. He stressed the need for the village level communicator recruited among the people of the rural areas for more effective communication with the rural dweller. His argument is also borne out of the contemplation that people are more responsive if they participate in decision making and have a state in a particular project. In other words, the decentralization of information would involve the use of smaller, less expensive and less cumbersome mass media technologies. For instance, cassettes and video tapes on land rovers could be used to reach isolated communities with the campaign messages, thereby creating intercommunication among the people and feedback to the government or development agents. Moemeka (1989) has made the point that development, whether at the socio-economic or socio-political levels, is not an easy task because it involves several variables or factors. To him, development communication (which also subsumes family planning issues) is not merely a matter of transmitting information about raising aspirations facilities. It is much more than the exchange of problem solving information. It also involves the generation of psychic mobility or empathy, raising aspiration, teaching of new skills and encouragement of local participation in development activities using different strategies (Moemeka, 1981). Therefore to develop a people, especially those in the rural areas, a panoply of communication strategies including community radios must facilitate the exchange of information needed to enhance the improvement of the people in socio-economic or socio-political terms. Without prejudice to any of the methodologies, it is instructive to note that the entire range of communicative dynamics are considered an important vehicle for disseminating information about family planning in a continent (Africa) where a larger percentage of the population live in the rural areas.
            In Nigeria, and elsewhere, governmental agencies (GAS) as well as non government organizations (NGS) have deployed a number of means to communicate family planning information to the populace. GAs and NGOs like the federal ministry of health (FMH), the Action Health (AH), women Heath and Action research centre (WHARC), society for family Health (SFH), women Advocates Research and Documentation centre (WARDC), planned parenthood federation of Nigeria (PPFN), safe motherhood, ladies Association (SMLAS) women, children’s Health and community Development (WOCHAD) Initiative and many others have one time or the other used the broadcast media to get across family planning information and services to the generality of the people.
            Family planning and advancement programmes such as “Flavours” (radio), “one thing at a time” (radio) “African in progress” (radio), “story” (radio) “wetin dey” (television) and “the widow” (television) are currently on air in most parts of Nigeria.

RADIO CAMPAIGNS: PROBLEMS AND IMPEDIMENTS
            With the wonderful qualities the radio apparent with people and mobilized them for empowerment and subsequent development. Nevertheless, the power of the radio as channel of communication in the third world has often been taken for granted by uncritical writers and scholars of media studies (Okunna, 1999: 188).
            In sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria, an overwhelming majority of the populations, sometimes up to 90%, live in rural areas. In such societies, therefore, no meaningful mobilization can take place without effectively communicating with and mobilizing rural dwellers. This is what Edeani (1993:1) means when he says, “rural development… “Holds the key because of the enormous size of the rural population as compared to the small percentage living in the cities”
            The major problem, according to Okunna (1999: 189), is lack of access to the channels of mass communication (radio).
            The greatest impediments to access have always included poverty and illiteracy. Some rural dwellers are poor peasants who can hardly afford their daily meal. Acquiring radio, to them, is a luxury they cannot afford. Again, the problem of illiteracy has become an insurmountable hurdle before rural dwellers, and has hindered and progress of national campaigns such as family planning.
            Another problem arises from the centralized mass media approach which is adopted in most third world counties, of which Nigeria takes the forefront. Programmed are packaged mostly in English language, not minding the local dialects of the rural dwellers. Even when some are translated into the three major languages (Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba), considerations are not given to other dialects such as Itsekiri, Ibibio, Igala, etc.
            It is by means of this platform we examine how effective radio media have been in communicating family planning and child spacing messages to urban and rural dwellers, using Enugu metropolis, Nigeria as a case study.
SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
Giving birth is something in which mankind and animals are equal, but rearing the young, and especially educating them for man’s years is something which is a unique gift and responsibility of a man. It is for this reason that it is important for human beings to put emphasis on caring for children and the ability to look after them properly, rather than thinking only about the number of children and the ability to give birth. For it often happens that man’s ability to give birth is greater than their ability to bring up the children.  
   
(Julius Nyerere cited in centre for Disease control, 1983).
            The above dictum could not have been more germane than in a 21st century Africa where the health benefits of family planning associated with child spacing and the use of specific methods can play a major role in protecting the lives of infants, children, woman and the family as a whole.
            The effectiveness of mass communication in mobilization for development has been given a pass mark by many scholars. However, if effective behavioural and attitudinal change towards family planning especially in the rural areas must be achieved, radio has an important role to play.
            Empirical and theoretical data reviewed in this study are without doubt, directly or indirectly related to the subject of the study. And they attest to the claim that the rural audience are not properly reached by the radio in terms of enlightenment on family planning and child spacing issues.                     

   
                             

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Method/Design
            The researcher employed the survey method of data collection. This was because the major source of primary data for the study was the views of the target members of the population. The researcher also used formal measuring instrument, which was the questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered personally to respondents at their place of work. This method was necessary in order to avoid delays and some possible distortions.
Description of Research Population
            Population is the study of the character, numbers and distribution of living organisms residing in or migrating through particular places. The study of population is a quantifiable foundation for concepts in sociology, ecology genetics and evolution by means of natural selection.
            According to Ary et al (1976), population is an entire group of people, objects or events all having at one characteristics in common.
            According to National population census 2006, Enugu State has a total of 3,257,298 population.
Sample and Sampling Technique
            Sampling arises in research because of the need to avoid bias. Also, neither time nor resources would permit a complete census of the entire population of the study.
            The sampling technique adopted by the researcher is simple random sampling, simple random sampling consists of observations that are drawn independently from common population identifiably distributed (Wannocot, 1969). The simple way to ensure an unbiased sample is to give each member of a population of an equal chance of being included in the sample.
            A sample will be drawn rather than examining the entire population for several reasons, as mentioned earlier. Such as time, limited resources, etc.
SAMPLE SIZE
In the words of Onyeneja (1997), a sample size is “a smaller group of elements drawn through a definite procedure from a specified population”.
            In determining the sample size, Taro Yamani’s formula was used. The formula is given below:  S             =          N
                                                                                          1 + N (e)2
Where:
S          =          sample size
N         =          Population size
I           =          Constant
E          =          Margin of error (at 5%)
Therefore,
S          =         
            =         
=         
            =         
            =         
            =         

INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
Questionnaire, as a major tool of data gathering, was employed in sampling to views of the people. It was drafted as to outline the objectives of the research and bring out the research and bring out the research questions tailored to provide viable solutions to the problem at hand.
            Also, the researcher augmented the questionnaire with oral interview, where necessary, to buttress points or elicit more answers.

VALIDITY OF RESPONSE/RELIABILITY DATA
            In order to ensure validity of response that were given, the researcher imposed in-depth re-checks on the questionnaires issued to target respondents. Questionnaires that were not appropriately answered in the manner described by the researcher were deemed to lack consistency, and were consequently rejected.

METHODS OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
            The data collected was analysed in accordance with simple percentage and frequency. The simple percentage will help to show the dominance of a specific response, and show the relative size of the different categories of response expressed in percentages.
i.          The Peculiarities of rural communities in Enugu state in terms of language, norms, prejudices and other predisposing factors should be considered in the design of family planning programmes on radio media.   
ii.         This study is obviously delimited to Enugu state. Therefore, there is the need to carry out similar surveys in other rural settings across Nigeria as a way of generating a more representative empirical statistics on the role of the radio in the provision of family planning information.            
     

CHATPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION
            In an attempt to analyze and evaluate the raw data collected in the study, it is pertinent to give elaborate details which will serve as a guide throughout the analysis.
As earlier stated in chapter three of this study, the research method used is the survey research method. Taro Yamanis formula was used to get the sample size of four hundred (400). The researcher administered questionnaires to the sample population of four hundred (400) respondents which where all collected and the analysis is based on the responses of this sample.

SOCIO- ECONOLMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
RESPONDENTS
Table i:
Sex Distribution of the Respondents
Sex
No. of Respondents
Percentage (%)
Male
111
28%
Female
289
72%
Total
400
100%
Source: field survey 2013.
            The table above shows that 72 percent of the sampled population were female, which 28 percent of them male. This implies that more opportunity of participation was given to the woman more than their male counterparts. This is necessary because issues of family planning affect women more than men. 
Table ii:
Age Distribution of the Respondents
Age
No. of Respondents
Percentage (%)
18 – 27yrs
48
12%
28 – 37yrs
112
28%
38 – 47yrs
200
50%
48 and above
40
10%
Total
400
100%

Source: field survey 2013.
            The information in table II above shows that 200 respondents, representing 50% of the sampled population were aged between 38 to 47 years. Another 112 (28%) fell within the ages of 28 – 37 years, while 48 respondents (12%) fell within the ages of 18 to 27 years, another 40 (10%) were from 48 years and above. This implies that majority of the sampled respondent were aged between 38 years and 47 years.
Table iii:
Distribution of the Respondents by marital status
Marital status  
No. of Respondents
Percentage (%)
Single
98
25%
Married
302
75%
Total
400
100%

Source: field survey 2013.
            As seen in the table above, 302 respondents representing 75 percent of the entire population sampled were married, while 98 respondents representing 25 percent indicated single as at the time of this study. This shows that this study will make great impact in the lives of these woman since majority of them already have their own family.
Table iv:
Distribution of the Respondents by Educational Qualification
Educational
No. of Respondents
Percentage (%)
FGLC
203
51%
WAEC/NECO
130
33%
B.SC/B.ED
46
11%
Others
21
5%
Total
400
100%

Source: field survey 2013.
            The data as seen in table IV shows that 203 respondents (51%) had first school leaving certificate as their highest qualification, and those with WAEC/NECO as their highest qualification were 130 (33%). While 46 respondents (11%) had B.Sc/13.Ed, only 21 respondents (5%) had such certificates as trade test, etc. this implies that majority of the respondents in Enugu state sampled had less education, and as such, were not exposed to modern ways of family planning and child spacing through reading as compared to those that more education and equally picked up more information through reading of books and magazines.
Table v:
Occupational Distribution of the Respondents
Occupation
No. of Respondents
Percentage (%)
Farming
109
27%
Business/Artisan
200
50%
Civil service
91
23%
Total
400
100%

Source: field survey 2013.
            From the table above, majority of the respondents sampled were either business people or artisans. This was revealed in the table as 200 of them representing 50% indicated this. Also, 109 of the respondents representing 27% indicated farming as their main occupation, where as 91 of them indicated civil service as their occupation.      

Table vi
Distribution of the Respondents by their Earning per month  
Earning per month  
No. of Respondents
Percentage (%)
Less than N3,000
213
53%
Between N5,000  & N
 10,000
89
22%
Between N10,000 & N 20,000
51
13%
Above N20,000
47
12%
Total
400
100%

Source: field survey 2013.
            The table above revealed that 213 of the respondents earn less than N3,000 per month and this represents 53 percent of the entire sampled population. This goes a long way to prove that the people of Enugu state are mostly peasants. However, 89 (22%) of them earn between N 5,000 and N 10,000 per month. while 51 (13%) of them earn between N10,00 and N20,000 per month. On the other hand, 47 (12%) of them earn from N20,000 and above per month.
ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Table vii:
View of respondents on whether they own radio set in their homes.
option 
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
yes
389
97%
No
11
3%
Total
400
100%
    
Source: Field survey, 2013.
            The response from the table above shows that 97 percent (389) of the respondents own at least a radio set in their their homes, while 3 percent of them state otherwise. This implies that majority of the population of Enugu State own radio, and therefore can be reached by radio messages.   

Table viii:
Opinion of respondents on whether they listen to FRCN radio station.
option 
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
yes
400
100%
No
-
-
Total
400
100%
   
Source: Field survey, 2013.
            The table above shows that all the respondents agreed that they listen to radio messages, even those who had earlier admitted not owning a radio set, stating that they at least listen to that of their friends.

Table ix:
Opinion of Respondents on whether FRCN radio stations devote adequate time to public enlightenment programmes as much as they do to entertainment.  
Option   
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
yes
124
31%
No
276
69
Total
400
100%
   
Source: Field survey, 2013.
            Majority of the respondents as represented by 276 (89%) categorically stated that adequate time is not devoted to public enlightenment programmes as compared to time given to entertainment programmes by FRCN. Of the other hand, 124 (31%) of the respondents however agreed that adequate time is devoted to public enlightenment programmes    

Table x:
Opinion of Respondents on whether FRCN radio stations give consideration to urban listeners in programme planning than to rural listeners.
option 
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
Yes
276
69%
No
124
31
Total
400
100%
   
Source: Field survey, 2013.
            276 respondents representing 69 percent of the sampled respondents state that FRCN consider urban listeners more than the rural listeners in their programme planning.
            However, 124 respondents representing 31 percent disagreed.     




    

   Table xi:
Opinion of Respondents on the extents to which FRCN do better in rural programme coverage than other radio stations.
Extent
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
Maximum extent
254
64%
Minimum extent
146
36%
Total
400
100%
Source: Field survey, 2013.
            The response in the table above shows that while 64 percent of the respondents indicated maximum extent, 36 percent of them, however disagreed.


Table xii:
View of Respondents on whether they know any FRCN radio programme on family planning.  
Option
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
Yes
241
60%
No
159
40%
Total
400
100%
   
Source: Field survey, 2013.
            241 respondent (60%), as seen in the table above stated that they know at least one radio programme on family planning. On the other hand, 159 (40%) of them indicated otherwise.

Table xiii:
View of Respondents on the extents to which the programme affect their lives.  
Extent
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
Maximum extent
241
60%
Minimum extent
159
40%
Total
400
100%
   
Source: Field survey, 2013.
            Table XIII shows that while 241 responded representing 60 percent of the sampled population indicated maximum extent respondents representing 40 percent stated that the programme has minimum effect on their lives.  

Table iv:
View of Respondents on whether they know what family planning and child spacing is. 
Option
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
Yes
298
75%
No
102
25%
Total
400
100%
   
Source: Field survey, 2013.
            As seen in the above table, while 298 respondents (75%) agreed that they actually know what family planning is, 102 respondents (25%), on the other hand stated that they do not know what family planning is. This implies that for maximum effect more efforts should be made in enlightening the public (especially the rural dwellers) on the importance of family planning.     

Table xv:
Opinion of Respondents on the best family planning method known to them.
Option  
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
Total abstinence
156
39%
Natural family planning
100
25%
Oral
97
24%
Contraceptive
-
-
Other
47
12%
Total
400
100%
   
Source: Field survey, 2013.
            The table above shows that 156 respondents representing 39 percent of the sampled population indicated total abstinence as the best method of family planning known to them. Another 100 respondents representing 25 percent indicated natural family planning as the best among other. While 97 respondents representing 24 percent chose oral contraceptive, 47 respondents representing 12 percent indicated others such as intra uterine contraceptive device (IUCD), withdrawal method, etc.  

Table XVI:
Opinion of Respondents on whether radio has effectively played its role in the campaign for family planning in Enugu state.   
Option
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
Yes
149
37%
No
251
63%
Total
400
100%

Source: Field survey, 2013.
            From the table above, majority of the respondents as represented by 63 percent indicated that radio has not effectively played its role in the campaign for family planning in Enugu state. On the other hand, 149 respondents representing 37 percent agreed that radio has effectively played its role in the campaign for family planning in Enugu state.


Table xvii:
Opinion of Respondents on whether there problems encountered by radio in its bid to sensitize the rural people on the importance of family planning.  
Option
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
Yes
251
63%
No
149
37%
Total
400
100%

Source: Field survey, 2013.
            As seen from the table above, 251 respondents (63%) agreed that there are problems encountered by radio in its bid to sensitize the rural people on the importance of family planning. 149 respondents representing 37 percent, however, disagreed.




  
Table xviii:
Opinion of respondents on whether there are solution to the problems encountered by radio in its bid to spread information on family planning.
Option
No. of respondents
Percentage (%)
Yes
251
63%
No
149
37%
Total
400
100%

Source: Field survey, 2013.
            251 respondents representing 63% of the sampled population indicated that there are solutions to the problems encountered by radio in its bid to spread information on family planning. 149 respondents representing 37% of them, however stated that there is no solution to the problems encountered by radio in it bid to spread information on family planning.

TEST OF TECHNIQUE
            In order to make use of the proportion of the normal curve and for effective and efficient analysis of data collected, the researcher made use of “chi-square” in testing the hypothesis.
            The chi-square is normally used where the researcher wants to test that the proportion of the population posses certain characteristics that is equal to some particular characteristics.
The test therefore appears thus:
X2        =         
Where X2       =          chi square
Σ                      =          sum total
O                     =          Observed frequency
E                      =          Expected frequency
Decision criteria: Accept Ho if X2 0<X2E. if it is other wise rejected.
Test of Hypothesis 1
H1          The FRCN designed programmes on farming planning and child spacing.
Ho          The FRCN did not designed programmes on farming planning and child spacing.
Source of test question (table xii):
s/n
Option
No. of Respondents
Percentage
1
Yes
241
60%
2
No
159
40%

Total
400
100%
Expected frequency =          Total observed
                                                            Total number of opinion
            =         
X2        =         
Where X2       =          Chi-square
            O         =          Observed frequency
            E          =          Expected frequency
            DF       =          Degree of Freedom
Level of significance           =          0.05
Chi-square calculation
O
O-E
O-E
(O-E)
241
200
41
1681
8.405
159
200
41
1681
8.405
400
400
0
X2
16.81
X2          =         
            =         
            =          8.405  +  8.405  =  16.81
Therefore X2  =  16.81
Degree of freedom
Formula         =          (r-1)    (r -1)
                        =          (2 -1)  (2-1)
(1)                   (1)
DF                   =          1
Therefore X2 (0.05) =          3.84
Calculated value      =          16.81
Critical value            =          3,84
Decision Rule:         From the hypothesis tested above, it was observed that the calculated value of 16.81 is greater than the critical value of 3.84 with one degree of freedom. Since the calculated value of the alternate hypothesis which states that the FRCN designed Programmes on family planning and child spacing is greater than the critical value of the null hypothesis which says that the FRCN did not designed programme on family planning and child spacing. The alternate hypothesis is accepted while the null hypothesis is rejected.
TEST OF HYPOTHESIS 2
H2        As a result of proper enlightenment on family planning which FRCN have refrain positive contribution towards family planning and child spacing.
Ho        As a result of proper enlightenment the FRCN did not refrain positive contribution towards family planning and child spacing.

Source of test question (table xiii)
s/n
Extent
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
1
Maximum extent
241
60%
2
Minimum extent
159
40%

Total
400
100%

X2          =             
Where            O         =          Observed frequency
                        E          =          Expected frequency
                        DF       =          Degree of frequency
Level of significance           =          0.05
CHI-SQUARE CALCULATION
O
E
O-E
(O-E)2
241
200
41
1681
8.405
159
200
41
1681
8.405
400
400
0
X2
16.81
X2        =         
            =         
=         
8.405      +  8.405  =  16.81
Therefore  X2  =  16.81
Degrees of freedom
Formular        =          (r-1)                (c-1)
                        =          (2-1)               (2-1)
                                     (1)                    (1)
DF       =          1
Therefore X2 (0.05) =          3.84
Calculated value                  =          16.81
Critical value                        =          3.84
Decision rule
If the calculated chi square valve is higher than the critical value of 3.84 we will accept the alternative hypothesis Hi and other wise reject null hypothesis Ho.
Decision: The hypothesis confirmed thus, that as a result of proper enlightenment on family planning which FRCN have refrain positive contribution towards family planning and child spacing Enugu metropolis.
Test of Hypothesis 3
H3        Despite the enlightenment from the FRNC as media out-fit, still there are faced with audience non-compliance.
Ho          The non-compliance on family planning and child spacing have cause population increase.
Source of test question (Table Xvii)
s/n
Option
No of respondents
Percentage %
1
Yes
251
63%
2
No
149
37%

Total
400
100%

X2        =         
Where            O         =          Observed frequency
                        E          =          Expected frequency
                        Df        =          Degree of Freedom
Level of significance           =          0.05

Chi-square calculation
O
E
O-E
(O-E)2
251
200
51
102
0.51
149
200
51
102
0.51
400
400
0
X2
1.02

X2          =         
            =            + 
            =         
            =            +   
            =          0.51  +  0.51  = 1.02
:.  X2   =          1.02
Degree of Freedom
Formula         =          ( r  -1) (c-1)
                                    ( 2 – 1)           (2 -1)
                                        (1)                  (1)
DF       =          (i)

:.  X2  (0.05)   =          3.84
Calculated value      =          1.02
Critical value            =          3.84
Decision Rule
            From the hypothesis tested above, it was observed that the calculated value of 1.02 is less than the critical value of 3.84 with one degree of freedom. Since the calculated value of the alternate hypothesis states that the non-compliance of family planning and child spacing have cause population increase is greater than the calculated value of the positive hypothesis which says that despite the enlightenment form the FRCN as media out-fit, still there are faced with audience non-compliance, the alternate hypothesis is accepted while the positive hypothesis is rejected.
TEST OF HYPOTHESIS 4
H4        As a result of increase in population the masses have adopted family planning and child spacing as a preventive measure.
Ho        Increase in population is because the masses did not adopted  preventive measure for family planning and child spacing.

Source of test question: (table xviii)
s/n
Option
No of respondents
Percentage %
1
Yes
251
63%
2
No
149
37%

Total
400
100%

X2        =         
Where            O         =          Observed frequency
                        E          =          Expected frequency
                        Df        =          Degree of Freedom
Level of significance           =          0.05

Chi-square calculation
O
E
O-E
(O-E)2
251
200
51
102
0.51
149
200
51
102
0.51
400
400
0
X2
1.02

X2          =         
            =            + 
            =         
            =            +   
            =          0.51  +  0.51  = 1.02
:.  X2   =          1.02
Degree of Freedom
Formula         =          ( r  -1) (c-1)
                                    ( 2 – 1)           (2 -1)
                                        (1)                  (1)
DF       =          (i)
Therefore X2 (0.05) =          3.84
Calculated value                  =          1.02
Critical value                        =          3.84
Decision rule
From the hypothesis tested above, it was observed that the calculated value of 1.02 is less than the critical value of 3.84 with one degree of freedom. Since the calculated value of the alternate hypothesis states that increase in population is because the masses did not adopted preventive measure for family planning and child spacing is greater than the calculated value of the positive hypothesis which says that As a result of increase in population the masses have adopted family planning and child spacing as a preventive measure. The alternate hypothesis is accepted while the positive hypothesis is rejected.
Discussion of findings
            In the course of carrying out this research work, the following were the finding of the researcher.
            That the impact of FRCN in the campaign for family planning and child spacing has a positive impact in the lives of the people of Enugu state as seen in the representing 60% of the total respondents say that FRCN programmes helps in promoting the programme son family planning and child spacing, where as 159 persons representing 40% or the respondents say that FRCN programmes can not help in promoting family planning and child spacing.
            As a result of proper enlightment on family planning which FRCN have refrain positive contributing towards family planning and child spacing in Enugu metropolis and to elicit the response form the audience. Table XIII was used to address the situation and in compliance to this, 241 respondents representing 60% said that FRCN has made tremendous impact toward family planning. While 159 persons representing 40% of the total respondents say that the FRCN is not living up to their responsibly.
            The things I discovered in this work was that FRNC radio stations encounter problems such as language usage in programme packaging for rural people, and that adequate emphasis is not place on family planning sensitization. This was addressed in table xvii as 251 respondents representing 67% out of 400 respondents reach in Enugu state agreed that government, NGOs and other well meaning individuals should encourage (through the radio) the adoption of effective family planning method; the peculiarities of rural communities in Enugu in terms of language, norms, factors should be considered in the design of family planning programmes on radio media.

  

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
            This study was aimed at investigating the role of radio in the campaign for family planning in Nigeria with special focus on Enugu metropolis. Also investigated were. FRCN programmes on family planning, and the impact these programmes have on the lives of the rural people.  
            Related literatures were reviewed under the following headings: population growth and the need for family planning, the role of radio in the campaign for family planning and child spacing in Enugu, theoretical orientation and all the related strands were tied together in the summary of literature review.
            In carrying out the study, four research questions were tested using percentages and free quencies method of data analysis.
            The study established three things
a.         There are designed programmes on family planning and child spacing by FRCN radio stations. Programmes such as ‘Health watch’, today women and ‘Radio Drama’ that portray, in details, the importance and effectiveness of family planning in the country.  
b.         That the radio stations FRCN have made little or no significant impact in the lives of the people in Enugu in terms of family planning sensitization.
c.         That there are lapses faced by FRCN radio stations in effectively reaching the people of Enugu as regard to family planning some of the lapses include little or no consideration given to the people in programmes packaging; English Language  is more often used in programme packaging especially those concerning family planning.
Another submission of this study is that adequate emphasis is not placed on the importance of family planning, as more entertainment programmes are given prominence rather than sensitize on the need for family planning
CONCLUSION
            Radio as an audio medium has the capacity to cut through the barriers of illiteracy and poor in infrastructural facilities which could limit the ability of the print media to reach large audiences. It also has other peculiarities which make it the true mass medium, it term of reaching a mass audience in the developing world such as Nigeria. It is relatively cheap and can operate without electricity; it is therefore within the reach of the rural dwellers than television which can also transcend such barriers as illiteracy and infrastructural facilities.
            The need to spread information about effective child spacing and family planning cannot be overemphasized, especially a third world country such as Nigeria where population is continuously on the increase amidst less resources. To effectively achieve this, these has to be solutions to the identified lapses / problems faced by radio in its bid to sensitize the rural people Enugu state.
RECOMMENDATIONS
            If local communities in Nigeria hope to effectively grapple with the challenges of inflated family size female genital mutilation, “area boys” cultism in the streets, sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS, malnutrition among others, which are threatening to tear down families in rural as well as urban areas, there is the need to find better ways of disseminating the information on family planning and ensure behaviour change. This study suggests that the radio media is a critical component of effecting this much desired change. It is on the strength of the fact that the broadcast media have played and would continue to play to key role in spreading the messages of family planning to rural dwellers that the following recommendations are made:
1.         Radio / family planning programmers and other stakeholders including the government should find a way of skirting round the problem of the non-adoption of effective family planning methods and strategies among rural Nigerians.
2.         The radio programmes designed to achieve this objective must emphasize that family planning is by choice, not by chance. In other words, families should give birth to the number of children they can emotionally, financially, physically and psychologically, take care.
3.         Increasing use of radio media in rural areas as a way of reducing the level of ignorance or incidence of misapplied family planning methods must be encouraged.      

REFERENCES
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Aikehnomia, D. (1999). The print media and Family planning campaign in Nigeria. Lagos: Department of mass communication university of Lagos.
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Federal government of Nigeria (2006). The National Pupation commission Abuja: Federal Government of Nigeria.
Centre for reproductive rights and the women Advocate research and Documentation (centre (2008). Broke promises: Human rights, Accountability and material Death in Nigeria. New York and lagos. Centre for reproductive Rights and women Advocates Research and Documentation centre.
https//www.z.org/eglish/bodies/cedaw/does/ngos/CRR Nigeria41.Pdf (Retrievedjuly20,2012)
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