Differentiating growth from development is not an easy task. Attempt four functional definitions each from economics protagonists
Growth: It is the steady process by which the productive capacity to the economy is increased over to bring about rising levels of national income Todaro, (1977) in Anyanwu (p. 405 -206).
Economics growth thus refers to the volume of output in the current year vis-à-vis the volume of output in a chosen previous year, it overlooks the distribution of and hence the well-being of the citizens in the economy.
While economic development is generally defined to include improvements in materials welfare especially for persons with lowest incomes, the eradication and early death, changes in the composition of inputs and outputs that general include shifts in the underlying structure of production away from agricultural towards industrial activities Kindleberger and Herriek 1977)
Development: It is a multidimentional process involving the provision of basic needs,
Acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and unemployment, eradication of absolute poverty as well as change in attitudes, institutions and structures in the economy Todaro (1977) in Anyanwu (P 405-405).
Development as the process whereby the level of national production (that is national income) or per capita income increases over a period of time.
Theories of development and underdevelopment were variously perceived complement these views with stage theorists postulation.
Theses theories of development and under development are variously perceived in this form:
a. climate theory
b. Sociological theory
c. Colonial dependency theory
d. Puritanical theory
e. Predestiuation theory
To complement development and under development theories with stage theorists postulations. these stages theorists are not different from theories of development and under development. One of the theorists W.W. ROSTW outline five stages of development
1. Traditional stage
2. Pre-condition for take –off
4. Drive to maturity
5. Maturity stage
while Karl Marx as a theorist postulated five stages which include the following:
a. Communal stage
b. Slave owing stage
c. Feudal stage
d. Capitalistic stage
e. Socialistic stage
That is to say development and underdevelopment theories with stages of development made by theses theorists are not different only that they explain them the way they perceived them it should better done for development to be rapidly take place and why underdevelopment in some countries started and what cause it and ways to development.
Peculiarities of second national development plan serve as a prelude to 3rd NDP (a) What factors are responsible for singling 2nd NDP as unique. (b) How does 3rd NDP complement it?
a. The factors responsible for singling 2nd NDP as unique are follows
i. Because of the increment on amount of money voted on 2nd NDP made it unique
ii. United strong and reliance society
iii. For great dynamic society
other peculiarities of 2nd NDP singling its uniqueness are the achievements which include
1. Reconstruction of projects
2. Rehabilitation and
3. Reconciliation programme was introduced such as NYSC
What are the causes of extreme poverty and what politics have most effective to improve the poorest of the poor?
Before then we need to understand the term extreme poverty. Any way is a very fearing word because when a country or someone is under extreme poverty is even better for such person to die off because he can provide what he/ she will eat neither for the family member and if it is a country here citizens will die for not have access to social amenities or basic things life needed .
Extreme poverty: Is a epidemic, cankerworm, suffering, agonizing which come as a result of lack of water, food, electricity, health care, good access road and other lack of basic social amenities trigger off a country..
Extreme poverty: Is the work of mankind and only mankind can destroy it: Joseph Wresinski
Causer of extreme poverty: These are include:
a. Political regime and dictatorship : Here, politicians were highly corrupt and had economic programmes which did not benefit or create growth, development, employment and education but in stead made the rich richer and poor poorer in the society and when economic wealth of any nation was in the hands of a dictatorship rather than being dispersed out to the people
b. Physical geography and disease: There are great widespread famines and lack of healthcare in poor developing counties were to blame. These factors such as the lack of crops in poorer countries, which made it impossible to produce food, in effect leading to starvation and an increase of famines
c. Wester counties and the global order: Some of western countries include united state and united states are to be blame for the plight of the poor in destitute counties. The colonialisation period example Nigeria and Zimbabwe where colonialism had exploited the countries and lead to tribal divisions, religions conflict and civil war under the colonial period, valuable resources such as diamonds and oil were taken from these counties and given to western countries which have arguably caused long-term poverty in sub-saharan Africa.
The current global order is to be blame with certain dominant global powers and international organizations such as the world trade organization and the international monetary fund not doing enough to help the plight of the poor in impoverished countries.
Lack of good qualitative education: a national that plays with educational sector is doom to suffer any kind of disease which is extreme poverty that has no cure even with kind of medicine. So a country with no regard on education of her citizens faced with this challenge extreme poverty which paralyzed all other sectors.
Planning Under Military Dispensation In Capitalist Market Economy Is A Farce Postulate Ideal Planning Situation In And Inductive Economics
Planning is all about making decisions and soling problems planning might also include specifying milestones or deliverables to be produced, and timeline for achieving the objectives and milestones
Planning are only good intensions unless they immediately degenerate into hard work,. It is upon this bases that we wish to recommend ideal planning situation in directive and inductive economy
Economic planning refers to any directing planning of economic activity outside the mechanisms of the market in this case, planning is an economic mechanism for resource allocation and decision making held in antrast with the market mechanism where planning refers to the direct allocation of resource
Most economics are mixed economics, incorporating elements of market and planning for distribution of inputs and outputs
In directive and inductive economics a lot of factors combine to form an ideal planning situation. They are as fellows:
A ideal planning situation must have the following features under a directive economy
i. There must be systematic knowledge of available resources this involves a comprehensive survey of existing and potential resources of the country.
ii. There must be a central planning authority (planning commission in Nigeria) to prepare and definite plan
iii. Development planning must have definite objectives
iv. On the basis of the objective of a plan, the planning authority will set targets for the different sectors of the economy.
v. Planning authority will allocate resources among the various sectors of the economy to fulfill the targets
vi. A definite time will be fixed to fulfill the targets
In directive and inductive economics, planning can take various forms and styles we can have transformational planning which is type of planning that embraces all sphezes of economy. It is centralized planning equipped with harsh powers of command, in transformational planning resources are allocated by a centralized administration not by the mechanism of price. In transformational planning, the use of capital, land and labour is untimely brought within the supervision of such administration . decision on the outputs are also taken by administration it is compulsive and directive and hence regimentation is the consequence. In this type of planning state acts as a collective capitalists. It is contrary to democracy.
In deed, development planning in a directive economy is ideal. Development planning involves (i) assessment of resources which can be assembled for the total planning efforts. (ii) the distribution of resources aiming various sectors of the economy and (iii) external direction or regulation of the nations economy by a governmental agency in order to increase the pace of development.
The following are the trod objector of development planning which makes it suitable for directive and in due five economies first it help to achieve full and stable employment. Sadly, it leads to letter utilization of productive resources. In contrast, resources are not properly utilized in free market economy. Thirdly, it helps to achieve price stability. Here government organs are used to stabilize the price amist all odds
In induction, the successful implementation of plan for economic growth and development in a directive economy depends largely on the conditions and circumstances preventing in the country. In this case, the recommended planning situations includes (a) reliable and efficient government. Ran means strong and efficient government that can give directives to move the economy. (b) credible planning agency (c) purposeful administration (d) adequate find (e) functional data base (f) balanced economy
In the economy there as seven steps to successful project planning which are
i. Every project needs a road map with clearly defined goals that should not change after the first phase of the project has been completed.
ii. Develop a list of deliverables and make sure all project team members are familiar with the list
iii. A document that clearly outlines all project milestones and activities required to complete the project should be created and maintained
iv. Budget for each project should be created
v. Project manager should choose team members who can partner together
vi. Progress report guidelines should be created and made monthly, weekly or daily as the case may be
vii. Identify risks involved in project execution and discuss alternatives with chief executives
These step should get you started with delivering your project on time within your budget, under directive and inductive economy .
The four points agenda of the incumbent governor of enugu state stem from the global agenda of MDGs (2020) . explain how these agenda could facilitate rthe mateiralsiation of the vision 2020
We then we need to outline four points agenda of governor Enugu State which includes
a. Physical infrastructure development
b. Economic expansion and employment
c. rural development
d. service delivery
while the global agenda of MDGs 2020 are include
1. Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger
2. Achieving universal primary education
3. Promoting gender equality and empower
4. Reducing child mortality
5. Improving material healthcare
6. Combating the hiv/aids and malaria scourge
7. Ensuring environmental sustainability
8. Developing a global partnership for development.
The agenda of incumbent Governor Enugu can help a lot to facilitate the materialization of the vision 2020 because it anchor on infrastructural development which a lot of projects such as road construction, building of different classrooms in some schools and electricity as well
However, these agenda of Governor enugu state can help vision 2020 to materilaise on the area of economic expansion and empower this has to do by empowering people of Enugu which include men and women who will take Enugu State tomorrow to a greater light after the limelight of Surlvan chime of them there are so many projects from four points agenda that will make vision 2020 to materialized.
Economic planners in nigiera are applauded for sound plan formulation but castigated for atysonal failure in plan implementation discuss
Economic panning refers to any directing or planning of economic activity outside the mechanisms of the market. Planning is an economic mechanism for resource allocation and decision –making held in contrast with market mechanism where panning refers to direct allocation of resources.
Nigeria has mixed economics, incorporating elements of markets and planning for distribution of inputs and outputs. In effect the level of canalization of decision making in the planning process ultimately depend on the type of planning mechanism employed.
Economic planning can apply to production, investments, distribution or all three of these functions over the years nigiera are applauded for sound plan formulation Nigeria economy has been piloted with chams of development planning hat span through years. But the handicap that has always bedeviled this plans is poor implementation mechanisms.
Theoretically development plans of any sort involve decorate efforts on the part of government to speed up the process of social and economic development of a country in most mixed earomes like Nigeria economic plans are useful for provision of policy framework within which the economy and other sectors operate. Today development plans has always served as a course of actions that should be followed to amoe at ensage economic goals of the society
The essence of economic planning by government therefore is that it could make a conscious choice regarding the rate and direction of growth . it is therefore reasonable to say that through a national comprehensive plan, it will be possible to make rational decisions to achieve deliberate consitent and well – balanced action towards socio – economic development and good governance.
A body known as national economics counc was set up in 1955 to coordinate the nations growth in line with the recommendations of the world bank mission to Nigeria this later led to preparation of national development plans with which Nigeria is been piloted.
Since 1960 therefore, Nigeria has formulated and launched development plans which has made it possible for government to articulate policies in the following areas equitable distribution of income, increase in employment opportunities, improvement in social services and efficient allocation of available resources to eliminate waste
Preparing and implementing development plan thus becomes one of the way by which successive government no Nigeria before and after the country’s independence have been trying to better the socio- economics conditions of Nigerian citizen
This is because policies contained in such development plans touch on the various aspects of the society, which include the political, economic, educational, social , and agricultural sectors.
Good as this economic plans may sound in 1986 , there was a gradual movement towards a cessation of national development plans and subsequent failures in the implementation of such plans in Nigeria it is important to note that this has made the business of governance, haphazard in the country. Plans were succeeded by conter plans and each and in abysmal failures arising from numerous factors.
It is important to note that rela journey towards neglecting the tradition of development planning and skillful pursuit of the objectives of development plans in Nigeria started with the Babngida administration. In response to the problems encounter during the 4th national development plan period, the Babangida administration suspended in October 1998 the idea of a five year development plan which had hitherto almost became a well esladished traditions
Substantial facts in our economic history show cases evidences that military intervention in 1966 and its subsequent prolonged rule in Nigeria become the genesis of funcating the process of adhering to nation development planning as a strategy for economic and social development. What the nation has inherited in the absence of well-articulated development plan are budget frauds, road contract scandals, oil scams and unchallenged or unchecked high level of financial corruption at all levels of government in Nigeria.
It is however imperative to note that since the recommencement of democratic government on may 29th, 1999, the administration of president Olusegun Obasanjo has begun a series of bold economic and political reforms to put the country back on a sound economic and political footing.
Today we can easily recount the problem associated with poor implementation of articulated plans in Nigeria to include:
1. Political instability which often lead to change in plans
2. Inadequate capital which makes plan difficult to achieve
3. Misplacement of priorities which mosttime diverts investments to projects that yield no economic outputs to the people
4. Insufficient statistical data which places most plans on wrong projections
5. Inadequateskilled personel which makes plan implementation difficult
6. Rapid population growth which tend to destabilize planning
7. Over-reliance on foreign aid leads to abysmal failures
8. Corruption and nepotism has affected our planning by buseing decisions on selfish and parodual considerations.
9. Burden of economic plans
The predicaments are manifestations of neglecting practice of development planning in Nigeria which denies Nigeria the required blue print for development . what this means is that the level of development in Nigeria today does not match the level of resources available . this is the result of high level of corruption which lack of adequate resource utilization for development has made possible.