DIFFERENTIATING GROWTH FROM DEVELOPMENT IS NOT AN EASY TASK. ATTEMPT FOUR FUNCTIONAL DEFINITIONS EACH FROM ECONOMICS PROTAGONISTS



Growth: It is  the  steady process by which  the productive  capacity to  the economy is  increased  over to bring about  rising levels of national income  Todaro, (1977)  in  Anyanwu (p. 405 -206). Economics growth thus refers to the volume of output in the current year vis-à-vis the volume of output in a chosen previous year, it overlooks the distribution of and hence the well-being of the citizens in the economy.

While economic development is generally  defined to include improvements in materials welfare especially for persons with lowest  incomes,  the  eradication  and  early  death, changes in the composition of inputs  and outputs that general include  shifts in the underlying structure of production away from  agricultural towards industrial activities  Kindle Berger  and Herriek  1977)

Development:  It is a multi dimensional process involving the provision of basic needs acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and unemployment, eradication of absolute   poverty as well as change in attitudes, institutions and structures in the economy; Todaro (1977) in Anyanwu (P 405-405). Development is the process whereby the level of national production (that is national income) or per capital income increases over a period of time.

THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT WERE VARIOUSLY PERCEIVED COMPLEMENT THESE VIEWS WITH STAGE THEORISTS POSTULATION.
These theories of development and under development are variously perceived in this form:
a.      climate  theory
b.      Sociological theory
c.      Colonial dependency  theory
d.      Puritanical theory
e.      Predestiuation  theory

To complement development  and under development theories with  stage theorists postulations . these stages theorists  are not different  from theories of development and  under development. One of the theorists W.W. ROSTW outline  five  stages of development
1.      Traditional  stage
2.      Pre-condition for take –off
3.      Take-off
4.      Drive to maturity
5.      Maturity  stage  

While Karl Marx as a theorist postulated five stages which include  the following:
a.      Communal stage
b.      Slave owing stage
c.      Feudal stage
d.      Capitalistic stage
e.      Socialistic  stage

That  is to say development and underdevelopment theories with stages of development made by theses  theorists  are not different only that they  explain them the way  they perceived them it  should better done   for  development to be rapidly take place and why underdevelopment in  some  countries started and what cause it and ways to  development.

PECULIARITIES OF SECOND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN SERVE AS A PRELUDE TO 3RD NDP (A) WHAT FACTORS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR SINGLING 2ND NDP AS UNIQUE. (B) HOW DOES 3RD NDP COMPLEMENT IT?
a.      The factors responsible for singling  2nd NDP as unique are follows
·     Because of the increment on amount  of money  voted  on  2nd  NDP made it unique
·     United strong  and  reliance society
·     For  great dynamic society

Other peculiarities of 2nd NDP singling its uniqueness are the achievements which include
1.      Reconstruction of projects 
2.      Rehabilitation and
3.      Reconciliation programme was introduced  such  as NYSC

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF EXTREME POVERTY AND WHAT POLITICS HAVE MOST EFFECTIVE TO IMPROVE THE POOREST OF THE POOR?
Before then we need to understand the term extreme poverty. Any way is a very fearing  word because  when a country or someone is under extreme poverty is  even better for such person to die off because he  can provide what he/ she  will eat neither  for the family  member  and if it is a country here citizens will die for not  have access to social amenities or basic  things life needed .

Extreme poverty: Is a epidemic, cankerworm, suffering, agonizing which come as a result of lack of water, food, electricity, health care, good access road and other lack  of basic social amenities  trigger off  a country. Is the work of mankind and only mankind can destroy it: Joseph Wresinski
Causer of extreme poverty: These are includes:
a.    Political regime and dictatorship : Here,  politicians  were highly corrupt and had economic programmes which did not benefit or  create growth, development, employment  and  education  but in stead made the rich richer and poor poorer in  the society and when economic wealth of any  nation  was in  the hands of a dictatorship rather than being  dispersed out to the people  
b.   Physical geography and disease:  There are great  widespread  famines  and lack of healthcare in poor developing  counties were  to blame.  These factors such  as the lack of crops in poorer countries, which  made it impossible to produce food, in effect  leading  to starvation and an increase of famines
c.    Wester counties and the global order: Some of western countries include united state and united states are to be blame for the plight of the poor in  destitute counties. The colonialisation period example Nigeria and Zimbabwe where  colonialism had exploited the  countries and lead  to tribal divisions, religions conflict and civil war  under the colonial period, valuable resources such as diamonds and oil were taken from these counties and given to western countries which have arguably caused long-term poverty in sub-saharan Africa.

The current global order is to be blame with certain dominant global powers and international organizations such as the world trade organization and the international monetary fund not doing enough to help the plight of the poor   in impoverished countries.   

Lack of good qualitative education: a national that plays with educational sector is doom to suffer any kind of disease which is extreme poverty that has no cure even with kind  of medicine. So a country with no regard on education of her citizens faced with this challenge extreme poverty which paralyzed all other sectors.

PLANNING UNDER MILITARY DISPENSATION IN CAPITALIST MARKET   ECONOMY IS A FARCE POSTULATE IDEAL PLANNING SITUATION IN AND INDUCTIVE ECONOMICS
Planning is all about making decisions and soling problems planning might also include specifying milestones or deliverables to be produced, and timeline for achieving the objectives and milestones

Planning are only good intensions unless they immediately degenerate into hard work. It is upon this bases that we wish to recommend ideal planning situation in directive and inductive economy

Economic planning refers to any directing  planning of economic activity outside the mechanisms  of  the market  in this case, planning is an economic   mechanism for resource  allocation  and decision making held in antrast with the market mechanism where planning  refers to the direct allocation of  resource

Most economics are mixed economics, incorporating elements of market and planning for distribution of inputs and outputs

In directive and inductive economics a lot of factors combine to form an ideal planning situation. They are as fellows:

An ideal planning situation must have the following features under a directive economy
·     There must be systematic knowledge of available resources this involves a comprehensive survey of existing and potential resources of the country.
·     There  must be a central planning  authority  (planning commission in Nigeria)  to prepare and  definite plan
·     Development  planning must have definite objectives
·     On the basis of the objective of a plan, the planning authority will set targets for the different sectors of the economy.
·     Planning authority will allocate  resources among the various sectors of the economy  to fulfill the targets
·     A definite  time will  be fixed  to fulfill the targets

In directive and inductive economics, planning can take various forms and styles we can have transformational   planning which is type of planning that   embraces   all sphezes of economy.  It is centralized planning equipped with harsh powers of command, in transformational planning resources are allocated by a centralized administration not by the mechanism of price. In transformational planning, the use of capital, land and labour is untimely brought within the supervision of such administration decision on the outputs are also taken by administration it is compulsive and directive and hence regimentation is the consequence. In this type of planning state acts as a collective capitalists. It is contrary to democracy.   

Indeed, development planning in a directive economy is ideal. Development planning involves
(i)       Assessment of resources which can be assembled for the total planning efforts.
(ii) The distribution of resources aiming various sectors of the economy
(iii) External direction or regulation of the nation economy by a governmental agency in order to increase the pace of development.

The following are the trod objector of development planning which makes it suitable for directive and in due five economies first it helps to achieve full and stable employment. Sadly, it leads to letter utilization of productive resources.  In contrast, resources are not properly utilized in free market economy.  Thirdly, it helps to achieve price stability. Here government organs are used to stabilize the price amidst all odds

In induction, the successful implementation of plan for economic growth and development in a directive economy depends largely on the conditions and circumstances preventing in the country.  In this case, the recommended planning situations includes
(a)  Reliable and efficient government.  Ran means strong and efficient government that can give directives to move the economy.
(b)  Credible planning agency
(c)  Purposeful administration
(d)  Adequate find 
(e)  Functional data base
(f)   Balanced economy

1.   In the economy there as seven steps to successful project planning which are
2.   Every project needs a road map with clearly defined goals that should not change after the first phase of the project has been completed.
3.   Develop a list of deliverables  and make sure all project team  members are familiar with the list
4.   A document that clearly outlines  all project  milestones and activities required to complete the project should  be created and maintained
5.   Budget for each project should be   created
6.   Project  manager should choose  team members  who can partner together 
7.   Progress  report guidelines should be created and made monthly,  weekly  or daily as the case may  be
8.   Identify risks involved in project execution and  discuss alternatives with  chief executives

These step should get you started with delivering your project on time within your budget, under directive and inductive economy.  
         


THE FOUR POINTS AGENDA OF THE INCUMBENT GOVERNOR OF ENUGU STATE STEM FROM THE GLOBAL AGENDA OF MDGS (2020). EXPLAIN HOW THESE AGENDA COULD FACILITATE RTHE MATEIRALSIATION OF THE VISION 2020 
We then we need to outline   four points agenda of governor Enugu State which includes 
a.      Physical infrastructure development
b.      Economic  expansion and employment
c.      rural development
d.      service delivery

While the global agenda of MDGs 2020 are include 
1.      Eradicating extreme poverty  and  hunger
2.      Achieving  universal primary education
3.      Promoting gender equality  and empower
4.      Reducing child mortality
5.      Improving material healthcare 
6.      Combating the hiv/aids and  malaria scourge 
7.      Ensuring  environmental sustainability  
8.      Developing a global partnership for development.

The agenda of incumbent Governor Enugu can help a lot to facilitate the materialization of the vision   2020 because it anchor on infrastructural development which a lot of projects such as road construction, building of different classrooms in some schools and electricity as well 

However, these agenda of Governor Enugu state can help vision 2020   to materialize on the area of economic expansion and empower this has to do by empowering people of Enugu which include men and women who will take Enugu State tomorrow to a greater light after the limelight of “Surlvan Chime” of them there are so many projects from four points agenda that will make   vision 2020  to materialized.

ECONOMIC PLANNERS IN NIGIERA ARE APPLAUDED FOR SOUND PLAN FORMULATION BUT CASTIGATED FOR ATYSONAL FAILURE IN PLAN IMPLEMENTATION DISCUSS
Economic panning refers to any directing or planning of economic activity   outside the mechanisms of the market. Planning is an economic mechanism for resource allocation and decision –making held in contrast with market mechanism where   panning refers to direct allocation of resources.

Nigeria has mixed economics, incorporating elements of markets and planning for distribution of inputs and outputs. In  effect the  level of canalization  of  decision  making  in the planning  process  ultimately depend on the  type of planning mechanism employed.

Economic planning can apply to production, investments, distribution or all three of these functions over the years Nigeria are applauded for sound plan formulation Nigeria economy has been piloted with champs of development planning hat span through years. But the handicap that has always bedeviled this plan is poor implementation mechanisms. 

Theoretically  development plans of  any sort involve decorate efforts  on the part of government   to speed up the process of social and economic  development of a country like  Nigeria economic plans are  useful  for provision of policy  framework within   which the economy and other sectors operate. Today development plans has always served as a course of actions that should be followed to amole at ensage economic goals of the society

The essence of economic planning   by government therefore is that it could make a conscious choice   regarding the rate and   direction of growth. it is  therefore   reasonable  to say  that  through  a national  comprehensive plan,  it will be  possible to make  rational  decisions to achieve  deliberate consistent and well – balanced   action towards  socio – economic  development and good  governance.

A body known as national economics’  council was set up in  1955  to coordinate  the nations growth in line with  the  recommendations  of the world bank  mission to Nigeria this  later led to preparation of national development  plans with which Nigeria is  been  piloted.

Since  1960  therefore, Nigeria has  formulated and launched development plans  which  has made it possible for government   to articulate policies in the following  areas  equitable   distribution of income,   increase in employment opportunities,  improvement in social services and  efficient allocation of  available  resources to eliminate waste

Preparing and  implementing  development plan  thus  becomes  one  of  the way by which successive government   no Nigeria before and  after  the  country’s independence  have been  trying to better the socio-economic  conditions of  Nigerian citizen

This is because policies contained in such development plans touch on the various aspects of the society, which include the political, economic, educational, social, and agricultural sectors.

Good  as this economic plans may sound in 1986 , there was a gradual  movement towards a cessation of  national  development plans and subsequent failures in the implementation of such  plans in  Nigeria it is important to note  that this has made the business  of governance, haphazard in the country. Plans were succeeded by counter plans and each and in abysmal failures arising from numerous factors.

It is important to note that real  journey  towards  neglecting  the tradition  of development planning  and skillful pursuit  of  the  objectives of development plans  in Nigeria started with the  Babngida  administration.  In  response to the problems encounter  during the  4th  national development plan  period, the Babangida  administration suspended  in  October  1998 the idea of a five  year  development  plan which had hitherto almost  became a well established  traditions

Substantial facts in our economic  history  show cases evidences that military intervention in  1966  and its   subsequent prolonged rule in Nigeria  become the genesis of  funcating  the  process of adhering to nation development  planning as a strategy  for  economic  and social  development.  What the  nation  has inherited in the absence  of  well-articulated development plan are   budget frauds, road contract scandals,  oil  scams and unchallenged or unchecked high level  of financial corruption  at all levels of  government in Nigeria.

It is however imperative to note  that since  the  recommencement of democratic government on may  29th,  1999,  the  administration   of  president   Olusegun Obasanjo has begun a  series of bold  economic and  political  reforms  to put the country back on a sound economic and  political  footing.

Today we can easily recount the problem associated with poor  implementation  of  articulated plans  in  Nigeria to include:
1.      Political  instability which often lead  to change in  plans
2.      Inadequate capital which makes plan  difficult to achieve
3.      Misplacement of priorities  which most time diverts investments  to projects that  yield no economic  outputs to the people
4.      Insufficient statistical data which  places most plans on wrong projections
5.      Inadequateness killed personnel which  makes plan implementation difficult 
6.      Rapid population  growth which  tend  to destabilize planning
7.      Over-reliance on foreign aid leads  to abysmal failures
8.      Corruption and nepotism has affected our planning by bussing decisions on selfish and parodual considerations.
9.      Burden of economic plans 

The predicaments are manifestations of neglecting practice of development planning in Nigeria which denies Nigeria the required blue print for development. What this means is that the level of development in Nigeria today does not match the level of resources available. This is the result of high level of corruption which lack of  adequate resource utilization for development  has made possible.
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