1.1 BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR THE STUDY
We know that the dawn of philosophy started with the early Greek philosophers, bearing their minds according to their own understanding. They talked among their minds about man and knowledge. Thus, we saw the Socratic, platonic and the Aristotelian movements. There were other classes of philosophy and philosophers. The summary of their aims and objectives is that they wanted to give a practical rather than a speculative base to philosophy.
When in 1842, the first English speaking missionaries arrived at Badagry near Lagos, it quickly established a mission. Almost without delay, they founded the first Western-oriented school near Lagos, in 1842 (Fafunwa, 1986:23). To these early Christian missionaries, education for the Africans (Nigerians) merely served the purpose of converting them to Christianly. A Christian convert was expected to be able to read the holy bible, the catechism, sing hymns and recite other necessary Christian doctrines. All these were written in English language as at that time. It was only with the passage of time that vernacular translations of these materials were made available.
However despite the presence of this western education and religion, the colonial masters demanded the African chiefs and the educated ones to sell their brothers, sisters, sons and daughters to them. This was not for a joke because those who were so bought became slaves. A slave was regarded as somebody useful in getting something else. They were taken care of simply because they were going to serve certain purposes beneficial to the slave masters in future. They were carried away across the Atlantic Ocean to be resold mainly to the Americans who needed them in their plantations.
This is BESORGS type of caring. I, therefore, do not think that anybody who sold his brother thought well before taking that action. It is not good to trade on human beings. What baffles me is that it has taken long since the colonial masters left Nigeria for their taken long since the colonial masters left Nigeria for their various homes yet the reasoning of our educated leaders is not beyond that of selling a brother. Some of our political leaders sell the lines of their opponents by hiring other people to kill them in one way or the other. It was Socrates who said that an unexamined life is not worth living. Hence the need for this study.
Logically, an educated person is one who is supposed to have benefited from the merits of formal education. Therefore, to be educated presupposes that one must have been adequately brought up from infancy in such a manner that the positive powers of his/her body and mind must have been strengthened to imbibe the essential qualities of his/her culture. Education is not limited to the ability to read and write. The educated is supposed to be a rare figure. She is supposed to be a shinning light within his immediate and distant environment. Even if we interpret the educated to be the one who has had the privilege of going to school, there are still certain qualities that are expected of such a person. For instance, an educated person is expected to live above board in all his/her undertakings. He is expected to show the right way while others follow. It is this high premium attached to education that causes the society to frown when the educated is involved in any untoward activity. Given this high standard set form the educated, associating the educated with any element of corruption could be said to be directly opposite. How then should the educated become afflicted with the scourges of corruption in Nigeria? What is wrong without own educational system? Hence the point of this inquiry.
There is a very bad seed fighting against virtue in our country-Nigeria. This bad seed is today know as 419-a life that thrives on deceit. We have examination 419, Election 419 and material 419. What are we to do about the wasted energies in cultism, drug, adulteration, half-baked doctors, teachers, professors, engineers, lawyers, dishonest leadership and false pastors? We are challenged to examine the root of this evil called 419 and then root it out of our society. Hence the need of this study.
This is important because, whoever is not moral is not educated. This is why great educationists and philosophers of our time like Mathew Lipman, Ann Margaret sharp. Rev. Fr. Prof. Slan Anih, Rt. Rev. Dr. Michael Eneja and others have insisted that the final End of education is not the acquisition of certificates, Diplomas and Degrees but the building up of good character. Is a result of the acquisition of the human values, values of Truth, right action, love, peace, mercy and non-violence. The person who lives the TRUTH in words, thought and deed, perform the right ACTION. With the right Action all around us, PEACE is born. PEACE with God and with man is love. Love leads to MERCY and Non-violence. With this type of education, we can achieve unity in diversity and live in peace in our country-Nigeria.
In Nigeria, almost all the citizens are getting frustrated as a result of our self-imposed socio-political poverty in a land of plenty mineral resources. There are oppositions at every level government and almost at every community in the country as can be seen in the following:
(a) The struggle for leadership and the struggles for class-distinction.
(b) The existence of law against law, logic against logic-for example, the rise and fall of democracy against democracy in Nigeria.
(c) The existence of the crisis of identify and prolonged insincerity on the part of both the ruler and ruled.
(d) The existence of a situation where mediocrity governs and dictates for efficiency and effectiveness like the politicians dictating for the academic professors.
(e) The existence of tribalism in which great and extremely efficient citizens are sent away from highly placed posts only to be replaced by less functionally effective tribes men of the officer in power.
All these and more are being perpetuated by our leaders who are said to be educated men and women. This makes one to wonder what is wrong with our educational process here in Nigeria. Yet man is a creative animal. He designs, innovates and builds up things which change his environment in his favour. This is the wisdom of modelling out ideas which change on already existing order, norms, structures and circumstances to meet the task of the moment. Down through ages, significant developments have been witness in the field of education. Why should the Nigerian situation be different? What do we do?
Many notable scholars have propounded theories and principles, which today are recognized as the basis for some of the practices in education today. This project is an attempt to study the educative contributions of four of such scholars with a view to find out some of the problem with the Nigerian educative process and also to suggest a way out. The four scholars whose works were studied included Mathew Lipman of American, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe of Africa, John Locke of Europe and the Rt. Rev. Dr. Michael Eneja of Africa.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
For a very long time in the history of Education in Nigeria, it seems that education has been suffering under the administration of our educators since they were the policy makers, programme designers and administrators or under our political leaders since they provide the resources with which to run education. Hence, the problems of this study are:
1. To critically study the works of four prominent educationist selected from three different continents of the World.
2. To identify the constraint in the present Nigerian educative process.
3. To identify the causes of these deficiencies; and
4. To identify the strategies for correcting these deficiencies.
1.3 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The significance of the study is to help in solving the social vices in our primary schools, secondary schools, tertiary institutions and the Nigerian society at large.
1.4 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this project is to critically study the educative contribution of Mathew Lipman, Dr. Nnamdi Aziwe, John Locke and Dr. Michael Eneja, and then design an educational reform for improving Nigerian educative process. This would help in improving on our present educational condition. This is very important because in every situation, there are always some areas for improvement.
The study is designed to specifically examine the relationship between.
(a) The educational philosophies and visions of Mathew Lipman and Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe.
(b) The educational philosophies/visions of john Locke and Rt. Rev. Dr. Michael Eneja.
(c) The major educational reforms in Nigeria since her independence.
(d) The existing challenges in the Nigerian educational reforms
(e) Findings and suggestions for an improvement in the Nigerian educative system. The approach used was simple, straight forward and practicable.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The task of defining educational terms like the curriculum of Education, philosophy of a school, principles of Educational management, Educational reform, policy on Education and others, can better be accomplished through the explanation of the separate words that make up the concepts, namely. Education policy, curriculum, strategy, philosophy, Reform, principle, Administration and so on. Some of the terms used in the write up are defined as follows:
EDUCATION: The term Education has been defined in so many different ways by different scholars in the field of Education, for Example.
A.S. Orji (1986) believes that “Education is the some total of all the experiences, whether formal of informal, which a man comes across in his journey of life”. Orji regards this as the wholistic view of Education, which implies the continuous development of the physical, mental and spiritual potentialities of man.
ADMINISTRATION: Is the process of utilizing men and materials in an organization to achieve the goals for which the organization was established. Therefore, Educational Administration can be seen as the Co-ordination of human and material resources towards the attainment of some predetermined educational objectives.
E.B. Castle (1974) defined Education as “What happens to human beings from the day they are born to the day they die”. It is, therefore, a long process which begins from the cradle and ends in the grave. It is a lift long process.
R.S. Peters (1981) says that “Education is the transmission of what is worth while to individuals, to make them knowledgeable and contributing members of the society.
U. Onwuka (1982) says that ‘Education is the training of the young and the inexperienced, so that they may become worthy human beings and citizens.
The above definitions, when carefully and critically analyzed highlight some very prominent points about Education for example, in the views expressed by E.B. castle (1974) and A.S. Orji (1986), it can be seen that Education should not be looked at, from its formal aspect only. Secondly, U. Onwuka (1982) and R.S. Peters (1981) both stress that Education is an intentional activity, which is directed towards helping to change the behaviour of the learner for the better. In other words, Education is not necessarily all that happen to an individual, whether desirable or undesirable, intended or unintended, but an intentional activity that brings about a desirable state of mind-something worthwhile.
REFORM: The advanced learners’ Dictionary of current English defines “Reform” as a make or become better by removing or putting right what is bad or wrong.’ Thus reform means changing the existing form for better, improving on the existing pattern or form of a thing for a meaningful progress.
POLICY: Policy is the thinking at a higher order level of abstraction which expresses Education goals and this means, method or strategies of achieving them. It is the basis of day-to-day administration and serves as a guide to administrators when deciding the lines along which the educational system should be conducted in order to achieve the educational objectives.
CURRICULUM: The term “curriculum” is derived from the Latin world CURRUS which means a race course-running course-or a race track for chariots. Thus, it becomes a course which one. Runs to reach a goal. For example, one starts running form point “A” and on getting to the finishing point “B”, one is given a prize.
The definition of the term curriculum, as it is applied in education lacks consensus among Educators. For some educators, a curriculum simply means a collection of syllabuses or subject mater of instructions such as: English, chemistry, mathematics, Biology, Geography, History, physics, Igbo Language, social studies, Economics, French language religious knowledge, philosophy, agricultural science, Latin and other school subjects.
In order to maintain the original Latin connotation, some educators refers to a curriculum as a course of study which students pursue and complete for targets defined in terms of high grade, passes, award of certificates and other forms of academic awards.
For others, a curriculum means a plan of what the school intends to do. For example, Neagley and Evans (1967) maintain that “A curriculum is all the planned experiences provided by the school to assist the learners in attaining the designated learning out-comes to the best of their abilities”.
Caswell and Campbell (1935) view the curriculum as the experiences children have, under the guidance of the teacher.
Taba (1962) defines the curriculum as a plan for learning; while Macdonald (1965) defines curriculum as planned material that precedes instructing.
VISION: A vision is a clear mental picture of the future which must represent a significant improvement on the current state. It must b supported by a clear and realistic path to its realization and requires consistent and sustained effort for its achievement.
PHILOSOPHY OF A SCHOOL
The philosophy of a school can be defined as “a system of principles for the conduct of life”. It can also be called the mission statement. The mission statement will be based upon the values of the administration, those of staff, the community and the society at large.
VALUE: Values are guide lines for behaviour and they govern each person’s actions and attitudes.
PRINCIPLE: A principle can be defined as a generally accepted truth which is based on experience and the available information.
STRATEGIES: A strategy is the plan or approach to be used in order to arrive at the desired goal. It is the method to be used in order to achieve the desired objectives of Education.
1.7 SOME SOCIAL VICES IN THE NIGERIAN SOCIETY
The violent economic class struggle between the rich and the poor has created what is today known as the “Social-gap”. This social-gap is the gulf between the “haves” and the “have-nots”. Though one can argue that social-gap is a phenomenon in human existence, there is an extent of it which proves unnatural and indeed evil. For example, when through human action, effort is not made to bridge the gap. Instead, efforts are purposefully made to widen and deepen the social-gap between the “haves” and the “have-nots”. In Nigeria, for instance, the virtue of hard work is rejected in preference to the vice of short- cut to riches; resulting in increased crimes like 419 (deceit) ritual killings, armed robbery, secret cults, prostitution, bribery, corruption, tribalism and other various forms of fraud.
Thus in Nigeria, gone are the days when the virtue of contentment was extolled and revered. On the contrary in today’s set up, no one wants to occupy the rear seats the rear seats hold no promises or attraction. The race is for the front seats and everybody craves for them. It is the wish of every Nigerian to belong the superior class and as a result of this Nigerian strive to acquire wealth no matter how, by fare of foul means.
The rich have monopolized the nation’s wealth, sat down on it to manipulate the poor. The poor cannot but squeeze wealth out from the rich through fraudulent means in a bid to paddle their own economic canoes. Unfortunately, the poor does not know exactly whom to loot. There is looting everywhere. This is because many Nigerian do not understand that money is not the only wealth. They fail to understand that health, time, skills, ideas, energy, knowledge, and so on, are all interior wealth which are convertible to concrete wealth.
All these social vices and many more can be eradicated from our society through an authentic educational system-with critical, creative and caring thinking. This study has some contributions to make towards achieving this, hence the need of the study.
1.8 SOME SOCIAL VICES IN OUR INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING
Any right thinking Nigerian would accept the fact the we have a problem in our educational system. Our educational institutions are producing young people who are more specialized in all kinds of vices than they are specialized in virtue. This is why we say that our educational institution are deteriorating. As a result of this, we are worried about the harm that is being done now. We shudder at the great harm that will be done in future, if something is not done to checkmate the current drift. Our worries gave rise to this study.
I think that the vices to which our young ones are prone to stem form what obtains form our Nigerian society some example are as follows:
(a) The students indulge in examination malpractices in order to pass their examination without hard work because of the emphasis laid on certificates rather than on virtue and hard work-ability.
(b) Some students injure and kill, fellow students because of cultic activities. Thousand of laces have been lost because of cultism. It is believed that the cultic activities of the students stemmed from those or their parents. Many Nigerians are in one secret cult or the other. They believe that they cannot make it the top without aligning to one cultic group of the other. During political campaigns, we hear of kidnapping of children and even adults for the purpose of ritual killings aimed at fortifying their positions and for abundant wealth. If elders under take these for the said purposes, our youths emulate their actions and the result is disastrous.
(c) If we make our children lazy in primary schools by extorting money from them in place of hand-crafts, they would not be hard workers when they grow up.
(d) We frustrate our youths after they have graduated in the university and served the nation for a full year by allowing them to roam the streets unemployed.
(e) We compound their frustration by leaving them to appoint some political thugs or school drop-outs as Local government Chairmen, counselors or special advisers to the governors and eve the president.
(f) These political appointees are allowed to convert the public fund into their personal accounts, so that with a few months, they have saved millions of naira in their personal account. With the public fund so converted into personal account, they would be able to acquire many private cars and build many mansions and so on.
(g) In Nigeria as it is now, the gifted children must come from the ruling class whether you like it or not No matter how brilliant a student may be, if he/she has no “Abraham” in the government, he/she is not a gifted child. Does it then follow that the children of the poor are never gifted all over the world or I this peculiar to Nigeria? One could go on an on enumerating the various social vices in our society. Thus, consciously or unconsciously, the society has made the young ones to believe that true and authentic education has no much relevance to the daily struggle in life. Thinking about these social ills in Nigeria raises some questions in one’s mind. For example, what is wrong in the Nigeria’s policy on Educational curriculum of Nigeria? What and what can be done to improve on the Nigerian educational reforms.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
In Jomtiem, Thailand, Education for all Conference was held in 1990. the conference made a global commitment to Universal Primary Education and Gender parity. In September 2000 in New York, world leaders adopted what came to be known as the millennium development Goals (MDGs) The Millennium Development Goals in Education were adopted from the Jomtien resolution of 1990. The MDGs require all countries to provide a complete Primary Education for all children, reduce adult illiteracy and achieve gender parity at all levels of Education not later than 2015.
The economic goals of the United Nations Millennium Assembly include cutting in half the proportion of people whose income is less than ($1) One dollar a day, developing a global partnership for a development and reversing the loss of environmental resources. The Health goals include reducing by two thirds the mortality rate for children under(5) five years old; reducing by three quarters the material mortality rate and combating HIV/AIDS, material and other diseases.
Education is the most important single factor for the achievement of the (MDGS) millennium Development Goals. With regard to the need for the education of girls, the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan, noted “Study after study has tught us the education of girls. No other policy is as likely to raise economic productivity, lower infant and maternal mortality, improve nutrition and promote health, including the prevention of HIV AIDS. No other policy is as powerful in increasing the chances of education for the next generation (FEASHMAN) 2005:10).
2.2 THE VISION 20/2020 AND ITS ACTUALIZATION
A vision may be said to be a clear mental picture of the future which must represent a significant improvement on the current state. It however must be supported by a clear and realistic path to its realization and requires consistent and sustained effort for its achievement. Talking about vision 2020, its objectives are that by 2020, Nigeria will be one of the countries with the largest economics in the world, able to consolidate its leadership in Africa and establish itself as a significant player in the global economic and political arena.
Can Nigeria achieve this without the help of authentic education?
Nigeria’s economy is the biggest economy in the West African sub-region. Yet, Nigeria has realized very little of her economic potential. Previous efforts at planning and visioning were not sustained. The history of economic stagnation, declining welfare and social instability has undermined development for most of the past thirty (30) years or more. But in recent years; Nigeria has been experiencing a great turn around and conditions seem right for lauding unto a path of sustained and rapid growth, thus justifying its ranking among the first eleven (11) countries of the world.
These are countries identified by Goldmar Sachs to have the potential for attaining global competitiveness based on their economic demographic setting and the foundation for reforms already laid.
The previous administration had declared the intention to pursue the vision of placing Nigeria among the twenty (20) largest economies in the world by 2020 and the current administration is committed to the achievement of this vision. This aspiration is likely to be a mirage unless the right thing is done. Until education occupies its rightful position in our country, the notion of Nigeria being an industrialized nation in the future will be a child’s play.
What qualifies a country is an industrialized nation?
There are certain parameters that serve as benchmark for assessing any country in terms of its level of industrialization. These include; among other things, the following:
1. Literacy level
2. Life expectancy
3. Mortality rate
4. Per capital income
5. Gross Domestic product (GDP)
6. Infrastructural status
7. Education sector
(a) What percentage of the nation’s budget goes to her education sector.
(b) Does it meet with the internationally accepted standard?
(c) Can Nigerian government beat her chest and shout
EUREKA when it comes to issues concerning her Educational sector? Other problems include the followings.
2.3 SCHOOLING WITHOUT THINKING
Nigeria has been operating a system of education that is pedagogically oriented. This is the type of education our colonial masters gave to us.
In this type of educating; they taught Nigerians what they called the 3Rs-READING, WRITING and ARITHMETIC: This was to enable the products of the white man’s education to read their letters of INSTRUCTION and replay on how their directives were carried out.
The little knowledge of ARITHMETIC was to enable the Nigerians to calculate some basic ARITHMETICAL Processes of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and everything to the benefit of the colonial masters-the white men.
The Whiteman thought that we; Nigerians; were not worthy to be taught REASONABLENESS-to think critically before taking any action. That was why there was no teaching of CRITICAL, CREATIVE and CARING thinking in our schools. The colonial masters taught Africans to regard their fellow Africans as property for sale in order to boost their Atlantic slave Trade of the 18th and 19th centuries.
They taught Nigerians to act before thinking and even to act without thinking. As a result of this, the spirit of DICHOTOMY, TRIBALISM; FAVOURITISM; RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION and DIVISION spread all over the country. This was very bad for the Nigerians.
2.4 LACK OF DATA COLLECTION
Absolute; reliable and relevant educational data, such as: school age; population, cost of education, death and birth rate, school land; teaching materials and infrastructures are crucial in the educational process as other inputs depend(s) on them. For instance; in Nigeria, if the (UBE) Universal Basic Education is implemented, it will affect the primary school in the following ways:
i. The population of each school will drastically increase.
ii. Class size may even double
iii. There will be increase in the physically challenged population of the school-the deaf; dumb; lame; blind; deformed on various ways.
iv. There will be increase in the population of the mentally retarded
and those with very high (I.Q) intelligence quotience.
v. The need for teachers with differing qualifications and expertise
vi. There will be dramatic increase in service providers and facilities nurses, medical doctors, security men and women and soon.
2.5 FALLEN STANDARD OF EDUCATION
The controversy over the poor standard of Education in our country-Nigeria-is very much alive today when compared with the standard in the previous years. Article son the above problem continues to feature in both research and non-research journals with in and outside the country. Some Nigerians believe that the standard of Education has dropped due to several factors.
These factors tend to centre around the opnions that some teachers are not at present performing their jobs as conscientiously as they should.
Apart from the above factors, there seem to be other factors which contribute directly or indirectly to the academic performance in the educational system. These factors may include the following:
i. Education expansion without careful planning
ii. Ineffective and haphazard school inspection system in our schools
iii. Inadequate availability of school infrastructures like laboratories classrooms, libraries and others.
iv. Inadequate availability of school equipment
v. Poor financial support for education
vii. The socio-economic background of students parents
viii. Poor remuneration for the teachers. It should be noted that these factors hinder the effective performance of teachers in the educational system.
2.6 NON ENFORCEMENT OF LEGISLATION AND GOVERNMENT DIRECTIVES
Many legislations and directives have been made towards effectives have been made towards effective implementation of educational reforms in Nigeria. For example: legislations exist on child labour and parents’ refusal to send their children to school. Despite their constant violations, it is difficult to identify any one who has been implicated for the violence.
27. INADEQUATE SPACE TECHNOLOGY IN NIGERIA
In Nigeria, we are mainly consumers of the products and services of technology. At present, we cannot claim to possess the technical know how to participate actively and independently in space related activities as service provider. For example: going to the moon and other planets of the universe. Computer technology is a course that has become the talk of the moment because of its versatile application.
There is hardly anything that does not make use of computer(s) at present, yet over (80%) eighty percent of Nigeria citizen are still computer illiterates. This is a challenged to our educational system in Nigeria.
2.8 PREVALENCE OF OUT-OF-SCHOOL CHILDREN
Depite the Nigerian free and compulsory education policy. It is paradoxical that very many Nigerian children of school going age are still found hawking along major roads and streets in Nigeria and even beyond. The is an indication that some parents are generally not behaving responsibly towards the education of their children. There appears to be parents’ delinquency, leading to child abandonment in many homes in Nigeria. This is because although many parents know the value of education, they still prefer to keep their children out of the school because of economic activity. They use their children for making money. On the other hand, many drop out of school and cannot continue because financial constraints. This is a challenge to our educational reforms Nigerian.
2.9 SHORTAGE OF SKILLED TEACHERS
Although, there is a general improvement on the training and recruitment of teachers into the school systems, there is the persistent shortage of teachers in the science and vocational oriented disciplines. For example: in some schools to day, some introductory technology equipments are still lying in the crates or cartons in which they were brought in, due to the lack of skilled teachers to handle them. The some incidents exist in Mathematics and other science oriented subjects.
2.10 POPULATION EXPLOSION IN SCHOOLS
There is no doubt that free universal basic education policy has increased the social demand for education in the country with its attendant problems on the provision of teaching and learning materials as well as maintenance of discipline Generally, facilities are inadequate to match demands while various facilities to inadequate match demands whole various vices crop up due to inadequate supervision.
2.11 PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
Etymologically, the word philosophy means “love of wisdom” Plato attributed this world to his master, Socrates who called his students “lovers of wisdom”. Philosophy is considered from its or professional sense when in is treat as an academic discipline which involves scholars. They use logical, consistent and systematic thinking in their efforts to reach consistent, coherent and sound conclusion about man, the world and every thing. It is the knowledge of all things through their ULTIMATE CAUSES. Philosophers clarify and analyses concepts, terms, ideas and so on, through a process of critical thinking and rigorous questioning about every thing.
Education, on the other hand, has been defined in various ways according to different people and situations,. The definition even vary at the etymological level, for example: “Educare” meaning “to form or train” and “Educere” meaning “to lead out”. In a broad sense, Education will include all those processes through which one acquires the experiences which enable a person to gain new knowledge or argument; the knowledge one already has or those activities through which the intellect or the will is strengthened.
Strictly speaking, education refers to the conscious planned systematic imparting or a acquisition of knowledge in a system called school. That is known as formal education. John Dewey (1971) sees education as “intelligently directed development of possibilities enhance in ordinary experience”. He tae education as a process of living professor B.O. Ukeje (1973) declares” “in general therefore the process of education occurs whenever any influence produces a change in the physical or mental behaviour”. Others define education as the” aggregation of the processes by means of which an individual develop abilities, attitudes and all forms of the behaviour of positive value in the society in which he lives. In a nut shell, we can define education as the modification behaviour of an individual for adequate adjustment in the society.
Philosophy of education implies an inquiry ion the fundamental nature of education. We use it to study the evolution of thinking in the field of education. It is an aid for those whose job in education is to examine ideas, arguments, problems and innovations involved in the actual practice of educational.
A country’s needs and aspirations determine the philosophy of Education of that country. This is true of Nigerian Education.
2.12 PHYSIOLOGICAL SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT IN EDUCATION
There are different schools of though. some of them are as follows:
1. PROGRESSIVE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
This is a school of though in education that believes that people have unlimited potential to be developed through education. Their basic progressive premise in that education is a process of reflective inquiry. It has close friendship with Reconstructions and pragmatisms. They believe in teaching the child how to think and not what to think.
2. LIBERAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
People who belong to this school of thought in education strive to develop intellectual powers of the mind, making a person literature in the broadest sense-intellectually, mortally, spiritually and esthetically. A teacher of liberal philosophy of Education regards himself as a student scholar of exceptionally. Wide and lively intellectual interest. The liberal student always in the process of learning.
3. BEHAVIOURAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
This school of though believes that behaviour is modified through the correct application of positive and negative reinforcement in order to bring about behaviour that will ensure the survival of the human species, societies, individuals and to promote behavioral change.
4. HUMANISTIC PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
Humanism is a broad philosophical point of view which holds sacred the dignity and autonomy of human being the freedom and dignity of he individual person. Thus, humanism and existentialism belong to the same stock –they say the same thing. Their main aim is to enhance personal growth and development, self-actualization. The educator in this school of thought is only a facilitator.
RADICAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
Radical thinkers of education describe education in terms Radical thinkers of education describe education in terms of theory of political consciousness, raising an action in view of bringing about scial, political, economical and religious changes in the society. In a radical education setting. The educator is primarily a co-ordinator. He suggests but does not determine the direction for learning. He promotes equality between the teacher and the learner.
2.13 AN AUTHENTIC PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION FOR
On thinking on how to re-educate the Nigerian or on the sort of Education that is relevant to him, it is perhaps more important to first of all; understand the kind of person he is and the values which dominates him. This is very important because values form the foundation of the common modes of operation in every society. In deed the survival and maintenance of society depend on the transmission of essential value patterns to its member. It is important to note here that we are not talking of being lettered-ability to read and write or identify letters. Rather, we are looking at education both from formal and informal or Western and indigenous point of view. If one is not liberated form ignorance, automatically than one will never appreciate the value of being informed or educated. The form of education that fulfills this aspiration is one that liberations the mind form IGNORANCE, whether it is acquired from within the four walls of a class room or anywhere at all.
Professor Chukwudim Okolo (1993) Listed the problem of Nigeria as: “consumer or squan dermania consciousness ethnicity and nepotism and the problem of values exhibited by the leader and the led alike”. In addition to all these, one can pint bribery and corruption, selfishness no sense of duty, examination malpractice, armed robbery and kidnapping, as other ills that cripple our nation Nigeria. With this type of mentality, progress, social importance, social values, powers and authority and determined in terms of material wealth and achievements. This is why it is common for out policy implementers and leaders to see their chances in offices and opportunities to “share in the rational cake”, rather than see them as calls for duty to serve the society.
Another supreme value characteristic of the Nigerian is “Cheap fame” or “base honour”. A Nigerian is, indeed, a lover of cheap fame, since in cultivation of the low values, he gives very title attention to a good name, good moral life, one characterized by honesty and moral integrity. This is unlike the ideal life supported by Socrates when he said, “The problem is not, to live but to live well”. ST Augustine added, “to live rightly and honorably”.
Another ill in the society is the problem of ethnicity and nepotism. This is a cankerworm that attacks Nigeria as an entity. Those is authority award contracts to friend sand relatives, whether qualified or not. Often the money for such contracts is misapropirated without the execution of such contracts. There is also discrimination in giving job appointments and in Dissemination of social amenities to ethnic groups in Nigeria. Clannishness and nepotism are valuable in Nigeria. Clannish ness and nepotism are valuable in Nigeria because of the material and social favours they engender. Thus, politics, for a Nigerian, becomes a private gamble and not a service to the nation but a theatre for competing for selfish interests.
The brief sketch for the dominant values of the Nigerian, drawn above, is a sufficient indication of the kind of person he is. It is the Nigerian who needs to be changed whose values and mentality need to be qualitatively brought to agreement with the Nigerian society-for the common good of the society. Certainly, there is no other means to change people, their ideals and values than through education. Education banishes ignorance and redirects societal goals and pursuits. Like Plato put it, “if man lacks education, he is the most savage of beasts: the production and maintenance of a good society is the main objective of John Locke’s theory of education.
Philosophy of education is not just an abstract discipline studied and debated in a purely intellectual environment rather it is a foundation, a life, a system of belief used (or eight to be used) daily.
For Karl Marx, man has unique dignity and superiority over the animal kingdom John Dewey believes that the root of man’s dignity is his creative labour, his ability to interact with and transform nature to suit his needs. The dignity of man consists in thought, in creative thought since the (man) is essentially, according to Rene Descartes, “ Res cogitans” (a thinking substance) and not a mere “Res extensa” (just an extended matter).
John Stuart Mill observed that the lot of mankind will not improve until a great change occurs in the fundamental constitution of the people’s mode of thought. Rev. Fr. Prof. Stan Anih is of the opinion that the Nigerian condition will not improve unless there are drastic changes in the fundamental modes of the people’s thought and that for the Nigerians to change their present mode of thought, it will be through an authentic education.
Daniel Webster has this to say:
“if we work upon marble, it will perish;
if we work upon brass, time will efface it
if we rear temples, they will crumble to dust,
but if we work upon men’s immortal minds,
if we imbue them with high principles,
with just fear of God and love of their
fellow men, we engrave on those tablets,
something which no time can efface
and which will brighten and brighten to all enenity”
All said and done, this nation (Nigeria) must undergo a lot of required structural re-organization. Our leaders must be out and be committed to eradicate illiteracy and “educated illiteracy” schooling without thinking-from the country come the year 2020 A.D.
3.1 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES OF MATHEW LIPMAN
In late 1960’s Mathew Lipman was a full professor of Philosophy at the Columbia University. In New York. He left Columbia and set up the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for children (IAPCED), as part of Montdair state University. He invented a method of teaching and learning known as “Philosophy for children (P4t) in which students at every level begin by reading an episode aloud, raising questions about it and then discussing the questions. It is this metrology, involving mutually criticism and scrupulously careful voicing of opinions and judgment, which educators recognize as to become citizens in a democracy.
According to Matthew Lipman, he was influenced by many philosophers Lipman, he was influe who emphasized the necessity to teach for thinking and not just for memorizing. Some of the philosopher and psychologists included the following
1. John Deney: (a) For his intense sympathy for the children.
(b) His seeing the importance of artistic creativity in getting the child to be emotionally expressive.
2. Justus buchler: an American philosopher in the 20th century =, for.
(a) This important studies in the cloture of human judgment
(b) For his understanding of the role of judgment in the education of the child.
3. LEV VYGOTSKY: A 20TH century Russian psychologies who recognized:-
(a) The connections between classroom discussion and children thinking.
(b) The connections between the child and the society by means of and through the teacher.
(c) The connections between the language of the adult world and the growing intelligence of the child.
JEAN PIAJET: A 20th century psychologist and educator, whose work illuminated the relationship between thinking and behaviour.
4. GILBERT RYLE: A 20 century British philosopher, who analyzed the connections between language, teaching and self teaching.
5. GEORGE HERBERT MEAD: An American Philosopher and social psychologies, whose work dearth almost exclusively with the social nature of the self.
6. LUDWING WITTGENSTEIN: A 20th Century Austrian British Philosopher, who explored withenoromous sensitivity the complex social relationships that are expressed through the subtleties of langue.
3.2 APPROACHES TO PHILOSOPHY FOR CHILDREN
There is only one philosophy for children but there are many different versions of each for instance, there are many different versions of the philosophy of science, the philosophy of psychology, the philosophy of Art and so on. There is a difference between Philosophy with children and philosophy for children (P$C) as inented by Matthew Lipman, assisted by Margaret sharp.
Philosophy with children is a small offshoot of philosophy for children in the sense that philosophy with children utilizes discussion of sense that philosophy with children utilizes discussion of philosophical ideas, but not through specially writing children’s stories. Philosophers. With children aims at developing children as young philosophers. Philosophy for children aims at helping children to utilize philosophy as to improve their learning of all the subjects in the curriculum.
PHILOSOPHY FOR CHILDREN AS DEVELOPED by Mathew Lipman is identifiable as the best approach to the improvement of children’s thinking because of so many reasons. Some of the reasons are as follows:-
I INTEREST: Children work best at whatever it is that most keenly interest them. This is what P4C does because
(a) it involver imaginative fiction
(b) it is about children like themselves
(c) it involver children in discussion of controversial issues, for example, ethics
Philosophy for children goes beyond critical thinking
II. EMOTION: Philosophy for children (P4C) is not limited to the improvement of critical thinking. It recognizes that thinking can be intensely exciting and emotional and it provides was in which children can talk about and analyze those emotions
III. CRITICAL THINKING: Philosophy for children (P4C) wholly embraces critical thinking, but it does so with greater breadth and depth. Critical thinking is generally only an addition to the existing curriculum, but p4c recognizes the need children have to de oil truthfully with what they find problematic or puzzling
Iv. VALUES: Children discover early enough that our treatment of value issues tends to be ambiguous, vague and muddled. Consequently, they welcome efforts to get them to thank precisely and clearly. But this does not mean that their thinking should be dispassionate or lacking in feeling. Children can think better about issues that concern them, when their thinking, in addition to being critical, is appreciative, caring and compassionate.
v. CREATIVITY: Good thinking can be charged with imagination, like when we enter whole heartedly into a story or develop a hypothesis. Philosophy for children is, therefore, specially successful in the area of creativity.
vi. COMMUNALITY: Philosophy for children is dialogical. It stresses the need to open the dialogue to all members of the community. In other words, it stresses shared inquiry. The world can think better about how to treat innocent victims when it feels compassion for them, than when it does not.
3.3 THE INVENTED METHOD
Philosophy for children urges children to think up questions and to try to answer one another’s questions through open discussion. This method combines learning and enthusiasm, feeling and thought, imagination and understanding. The system emphasizes the importance of critical thinking, creative thinking and caring main arteries of judgment in the community of inquiry (COI).
In the community of inquiry (COI) children puzzle over many of the same concepts that philosophers puzzle-concepts like TRUTH, GOODNESS, JUSTICE, KNOWLEDGE and others. They have onions on these matters and they learns to develop these opinions into considered judgments.
The children in a class, plus their teacher are seated in a circle or semi-circle so that they can speak face to face with one another. The students read the assigned episode aloud no more than one paragraph at a time. When the reading is completed, the teacher recruits questions asking such questions as
“Did anything in this reading puzzle you?
Did this episode make you wonder?
Can you put your feelings in the form of a question?’
The teacher then writes each child’s question on the chalkboard, adding to it that child’s name, as well as the page and the line number in the text that is at issue. Next, the teacher asks who wants to begin the discussion? The hands go up and the teacher selects one child to begin by discussing one of the questions written on the board.
Suppose the question is something like:” Are Harry and Bill friends?” Before long, the children will begin to see that the concept of FRIENDSHIP is vague or ambiguous or both. The teacher may then introduce a discussion plan on the nature of friendship. The ethical implications of friendship are bound to be noticed by the students. In this weary, the children engage in concept-development that can help them not only with philosophy but with all their studies that deal with concepts.
It is a method that provokes their thinking and does not rest until it has evoked their capacity for CRITICISM and self criticism, and His in turn engages them in self CORRECTION.
This method stimulates the children to think for themselves rather than allow others do their thinking for them. Also children love to be able to express their ideas to one another, defend their reasoning if necessary and help one another become aware of the implications of their assumptions.
Any child that is capable of using language intelligent is capable of schooling and growth, and is, Therefore, capable of the kind of discourse and conversation that philosophy for children involves.
3.4 ADVANTAGES OF THE METHOD
Some of the advantages of the method of philosophy for children are as follows:
(a) Children are urged to discover for themselves the criteria for distinguishing between valid and invalid reasoning (logic)
(b) To discover the criteria for distinguishing between supported and unsupported theories of knowledge-epistemology.
(c) Between acceptable and unacceptable forms of moral judgment –ethics e.t.c.
the soundest way of doing this is to see education in all its vast complexity as a mode of inquiry and to see philosophy as a mode of inquiry into that mode of inquiry. This is to say that “INQUIRY” is the genius if which the various forms of philosophies are species. Thus there is ethical inquiry aesthetic inquiry, social inquiring, scientific enquiry and so on.
Another advantage of this method is that it provides our various forms of knowledge and under standing with coherence and consistency. Children learn that most of the questions they ask can be dealt with in a reliable fashion by seeing them as occasions for philosophical inquiry. They also discover that this same method is in use now throughout the world and that the time will come when this one basic method will enable them to communicate clearly with other children in similar programs in many countries and continents.
3.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES OF NNAMDI AZIKIWE
It is almost impossible to write Lincoln University’s 20th century without mentioning the name of Nnamdi Azikiwe, popularly known as Zik. In essence, Zik and his alma mater shared a mutually beneficial relationship. Among the factors which influenced Zik’s interest in Education were:
1. The influence of Dr. James Kwegyir Aggrey. Dr. Aggrey, a Ghananian, was a member of the foreign missions conference of North America which visited Nigeria in 1920 under the auspices of the PHELPS-STOKES FUND. Zik heard Dr. Aggrey’s sermon on Lagos. DR. Aggrey discussed the importance of Education for Africans and also praised American education. He later presented Zik with a directory of institutions of higher learning for African-Americans in the United States.
2. President James A. Garfield’s biography:
After reading Garfield’s biography from log cabin to the white House, Zik became impressed with how James Garfield was able to become a president in spite of relatively poor economic and social background. Nnamdi Azikiwe also read President Abraham Lincoln’s biography. Lincoln, like Garfield, achieved the highest political position in the nation, overcoming his social and economic deficit. The lives of the two presidents made Zik realize that it was possible to achieve greatness in spite of obstacles.
3. The Marcus Garvey Factor
While in secondary school, Zik was exposed to the ideas of Marcus Grvey. Garvey emphasized empowerment of Africans, redemption of African for Africans, and African racial pride. The philosophy of universal fatherhood; universal brotherhood as well as the universal happiness which characterized Zik’s later life was nursed in the crucible of Garveyism.
4. United States philosophical symbolism:
America symbolized an anti-colonials power having wrenched itself from the claws of British colonialism Zik psychological tormented by British colonial oppression, felt that the United States would provide a psychological safety-value from colonialism.
5. Inadequate opportunity for Higher Education in Britain:
As Britain was Nigeria’s colonial master at the time; one would expect that Zik would have undertaken his educational career in that country. But Britain did not have financial opportunities for indigent foreign students to complete their education.
On the contrary, the United States had many charitable organizations that were willing to redeem the financial obstacles of foreign students. Therefore Zik was influenced in his decision to attend school in the United States because of the possibility of financial assistance form charitable organizations.
When Zik first arrived in Washington D.C on his way to Storer College, his eyes caught the inscription at the Washington D.C Union Station. The inscription read:
“Let all the end thou aim’st be thy country’s, they God’s and truth’s. Be noble and the nobleness that lies in other men, sleeping but not dead, will rise in majesty to meet thine own”.
This inscription emphasized in Zik the majesty of patriotism and the need to pursue high moral character. Later in his life manifested these qualities in his fight to restore and uplift the dignity of he Africans.
Storer College was another benchmark in Zik’s academic journey in the United State of America. Storer College was located in Harper’s Fery, we west Virginia. It was at Harper’s ferry that John Brown carried out his raid in 1859 in on attempt to end slavery-an institution that dehumanized the Africans.
Harper’s ferry, thus, represented a struggle for the emancipation of the black man.
For Zik the struggle during his time would not to humanize that black man but to restore his dignity. The black man had experienced emancipation on from slavery in the 19th century. He would experience a restoration of his dignity in the 20th century.
After his preliminary studies at Storer College, Zik transferred to Howard University. At Howard University. he came in contact with leading black educators of the time. Among these were Prof. William. Hansbery, an anthropologies, Prof. Tunnek and Dr. Ralph Bunche, both political scientist and Dr. Alain LeRoy Locke, a philosopher sopher (Azikiwe 1970).
Zik’s intellectual encounter with these educator’s enriched his educational philosophy. Ater, Zik transferred to Lincoln University in Penny/Lancio to complete his first degree course.
3.6 NNAMDI AZIKIWE AT LINCOLN UNIVERSITY
Lincoln University symbolized perseverance, persistence and unflinching determination to succeed. On balance, Zik’s life career reflected the above qualities. For Zik, Lincoln University represented much more than a metaphor for struggle and triumph. The university’s philosophy and objectives benefited Zik’s quest for the type of education that would make a successful man out of him. Lincoln’s university’s philosophy reflects and open-arm and humanistic policy in which education should be a liberating as well as a redemptive instrument. This policy presented Lincoln university as an institution that opens its doors of progress and hope to the economically deprived, socially despised and political marginalize.
Slavery had dehumanized the African colonialism had marginalized him politically and oppression as well as exploitation had physical and psychologically bruised him. Lincoln’s mission was to restore his dignity through the enlightenment which education provides.
At the Lincoln University, Zik harnessed his mental energy to excise his intellectual objectives, that is, the use the power of the pen to denounce the evils of the British colonialism. This was evident in his article. “Murdering women in Africa” (Crisis 1930) in this article. Zik criticized severely the British massacre of Nigerian women who opposed unjust taxation. Also in his review of “Georgia Nigger” by John L. Spivak (Journal of Negro History 1933) Zik denounced the economic and social slavery which still tormented the African-Americans especially in the southern states. Zik was also a frequent contributor to the Lincoln University student news paper-Lincoln news, now Lincolnian. In these columns, Zik discussed several nagging issues of his day namely:
- The upsurge of Nazism and Fascism
- The threat to the survival of democracy particularly the exclusion of the Africans from the rewards of democracy.
Zik also used his columns to encourage the Lincoln students to pursue academic excellence and as a result to become functional citizens not only of the United States but of the world at large the introduction of a course on African history was a major legacy which Zik left for the Lincoln University, it was a legacy well appreciated.
Zik’s Spirit to Philanthropy
The spirit of giving to the needy, the spirit of helping the struggling become a visible trait in Zik’s human relations. The University of Nigeria, Nsukka which Zik founded was premised on a philosophy of providing education in Nigeria to those who could not afford the financial requirements of overseas education.
Zik’s Lincoln experience re-affirmed his belief in education as a constructive social force which could be harnessed for social progress. It was on this premise that he encouraged Asquith’s commission on Education, 1943 which suggested the establishment of universities in Nigeria to educate Nigerians who would build a strong nation. One sees in him a man with an intense passion for freedom and democracy.
EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES OF JOHN LOCKE
John Locke was born on 29th August 1632 at Warrington Somerset, England and died in 1704. he was a British Philosopher, an Oxford academic and a medical researcher. John Locke was often classified as one of the greatest British empiricist. His main interests were metaphysics, epistemology Political philosophy, Philosophy of mind and education. John Lock’s reputation rested on his greatest work:- the monumental-an Essay concerning Human understanding.
Perhaps the most important of his goals is to determine the limits of human understanding- the theory of knowledge. John Locke propounded many educational theories, some of which are as follows:
3.8 THE THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE
According to John Locke, knowledge is publicly verifiable: measurable, plain and demonstratable facts-not imagination. He believes that the only knowledge that could be relied upon is REASONING. He deviced methods of knowing namely:-
i. Intuition and
INTUITION: According to John Locke intuition based on abstract reasoning. For example, mathematical truths.
i. if x = y
y = z
= x = z
if x is equal to y
and Y is equal to z
it then follows that
x is equal to Z.
ii if A = B
B = C
= A = C
If A is equal to B
And B is equal to C
it then follows that A is equal to C.
Thus intuition is the power, which the mind possesses for apprehending the truth.
John Locke tells us that the best instance of knowing is the intuition or intuiting.
DEDUCTION: This is also an intellectual activity based on logical reasoning, for example:
1. All ATU student are intelligent.
Obidigwe is an Atu student.
Therefore, Obidgwe is intelligent.
2. All Hausas are black.
Usman is an Hausa man.
Therefore, Usman is back.
If the first premise is TRUE and the second premise is also TRUE, it then follows that the third premise must be TRUE. John Locke believes that knowledge, like good character, is set of mental habits rather than is body of BELIEF. He says that knowledge is the perception of the agreement or disagreement of two ideas, which may be of four sorts namely
(a) Identity or Diversity
(d) Real existence
THE LIMITS OF HUMAN, UNDERSTANDING
John Locke wrote four books in the Essay on the theory of knowledge. He considered the sources and the nature of human nature.
In book one, John Locke argues that we have no innate knowledge. That is to day that at birth, human minds is a tabularsa, a sort of blank slate on which experience writes. The argument is, if a new born baby has innate ideas or knowledge. Why is he not conscious of these innate ideas at the particular point in time, that is at birth? The child with innate ideas does not have to wait till twenty years; for example, to manifest these ideas.
In book two, John Locke tells us that knowledge comes from the senses alone. For John Locke, the senses give us impression known as perceptions or pictures. These perceptions fall back on the mind as raw materials. The mind then operates upon these raw materials, using the process of reflection.
He claims that ideas are the materials of knowledge and all ideas come form experience. The term “idea” John Locke tells us “stands for whatsoever is the object of the understanding when a man thinks”.
According to John Locke, experience is of two kinds namely:-
SENSATION: According to John Locke, sensation tells us about thing and processes in the material world.
ELECTION: This tells us about the operations of our own minds. It is a sort of internal sense that makes us conscious of the mental processes we are engaged in. we get some of the ideas only form sensation, some only form reflection and others from both.
3.10 THE THEORY OF LEARNING
WHAT IS LEARNING? How are skills and knowledge acquired? John Locke is of the opinion that “learning is the last and least part of education”. Learning is a great help to virtue and wisdom but without them, it say that, education without virtue and wisdom makes the educated more foolish or worse than he was before getting education.
John Locke is a of the opinion that from infancy onwards, the child’s efforts towards bodily pleasures, towards power in possession an Dover others, should be thoroughly frustrated. When this is done, the result will be that habits of self-centered, aggressive behaviour and of preferring ignorance to learning will not become established in the child.
He believes that skills and knowledge are acquired by example and practice instead of charging children’s memories with rules and principles. Thus John Locke does not believe that students should have to crame in order to pass their examination at all levels of education.
3.11 THE THEORY OF VALUE
What knowledge and skills are worthwhile learning? What are the goals of Education? According to John Locke, knowledge and skills worthwhile learning are the knowledge and skills needed in order to act in accordance with the laws of nature, to treat our possessions and persons responsible and to avoid coming under the absolute control of others. He believes that the pursuit of TRUTH is a duty we owe to God and ourselves. John Locke tells us that the goal of Education is the welfare and prosperity of the nation the nation’s welfare and prosperity should be in terms of personal happiness and social usefulness of its citizens. Education, for John Locke, provides the character formation necessary for becoming a person and for being responsible citizens. His Education Philosophy is an effort to show how democratic constitutional monarchy might be preserved and improved to achieve a government with the consent of the governed.
3.12 THE THEORY OF CONSENSUS
Why do people disagree? How is consensus achieved? Whose opinion takes precedence?
John Locke says that wrong doing is sign of ignorance and because of this, people should be enlightened:
(a) To use their own power of reason
(b) To be prudent
(c) to be reflective
(d) To be calculatory instead of being move by impulse –sudden inclination to act without thought.
According to John Locke, the curiosity in children is an appetite after knowledge and so it should be encouraged in them, not only as a good sign but as a great instrument nature has provided to remove that ignorance they brought into he world with them at birth.
3.13 THE THEORY OF TRANSMISSION
Who is to teach? By what method? What will the curriculum be? To John Locke, learning should be managed by a tutor, assisted by genuinely interested parents. That is today that teaching should come form both the home and the school-from the parents as well as form the teacher. He believes that manners should be learnt by example and Latin learned by speaking-by practice or by doing.
John Locke is of he opinion that the best way to get men do what is wanted is not to terrify or force them but by motivation. Arouse them and then rely on desires, while letting them think that they are acting for their own sake and their own free will.
John Locke believes in having different curriculum for the poor and for the rich.
3.14 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES OF MICHAEL ENEJA
His Lordship, Rt. Rev. Dr. Michael Eneja was born at Ibagwa-Nsukka of Enugu State of Nigeria around 1919. He grew up to be a priest of God and an educator. He fought against the Government take-over of mission schools. The Eastern Nigerian Catholic Council (E.N.C.C) under the chaplaincy of Rev. Fr. Michael Eneja defended the retention of mission schools until the end of the Nigerian Civil War.
At the end of the Nigerian civil war in 1970, the government of East Central State under Mr. Ukpabi Asika took over the schools form the missions. The use of Education as the most effective single fctor by which a Religion could be established was one of the reasons for Government attack on church ownership of schools. For example “The merits of he East Central State Public Education system” government Printer; Enugu 1970 page six(6) has this to say about the Government take over of the mission schools:
“it will no longer be possible for voluntary Agencies to compete for the favours of the community By setting up mushroom denominational schools in the same area solely for evangelical Reasons…. This will make for stability, combat sectionalism and satisfy our basic educational and national needs”.
Commenting on the matter later, Bishop Michael Eneja had this to say:-
“I consider the take over of schools by the government as perhaps the greatest harm that has been done to this great country of ours….in my humble opinion it has set us at least fifty years backwards--- a country which would have done much for himself and the entire world. Lt the schools be returned to their owners”.
Michael Eneja’s views on the Government take over of schools were predicated on his belief and convictions, that what (whosever) takes over education, takes over our children and youths, and whosever takes over the children and the youths, takes over the society.
His views were that there should be partnership in education between the government and the voluntary agencies. There should be co-operation and not confrontation since the aims and objectives of the two bodies are not mutually exclusive. Both bodies aim at peaceful, just, God-fearing and progressive society.
The take over of schools manifestly affected the relationship between the church and the member of the general public.
Comparing Education under the mission schools with the education after the government take over of schools Bishop Michael Eneja had this to say:
(a) ACADEMIC EDUCATION: in his area, he difference is most easily observed even though there are more nursery schools now.
(b) PRIMARY SCHOOL: The virtues of obedience, truth, honesty, hard work e.t.c are not easily seen in the pupils. Laziness dishonesty, anger, lies e.t.c abound. The academic work is poor-hand writing, languages, the simple algebra, division, multiplication e.t.c for them are mysteries.
(c) EXPO” This has eaten deep in to al level of Education-nursery, primary, secondary, vocational, colleges of Education, Universities. In those days many students preferred to fail rather than to copy-to copy is a DISGRACE. All should struggle to exterminate this ugly practice.
(d) SECONDARY AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS:
These are not better, for instance, in those days, clever students, in their senior Cambridge examination9s) get exemption form matriculation-that is DIRECT ENTRY into the Universities in England; United States of America, Australia, India e.t.c. this is because the examination is internationally recognized. Out SSCE/WEC are not so. It is regional. This means much for parents and their children, who have to send money and time of their children are to be admitted into universities in those other places. It is very good toe enter into international competition in Education, just as we do in football, sports, music e.t.c.
E. SPIRITUAL EDUCATION: At present, practically nothing is done with regards to spiritual formation of students in the schools. In those days, great emphasis was in it. For instance, the child is helped to know God, creation, the teachings of Jesus Christ, the ten commandments, the virtues, the vices, the sacraments, the rewards in this life and the next e.t.c to make this easier, the character formation is enhanced by the study of the control of the four internal and six(6) external senses and eleven passions.
4.0 SOME OF THE MEETING POINTS OF THE FOUR EDUCATORS-WHERE THEY AGREE WITH ONE ANOTHER.
4.1 THE FOUR CAUSES OF EDUCATION
Some of the areas where the four great philosophers and educators- Matthew Lipman, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, John Locke and Dr. Michael Eneja-agree with one another may include the following:
The four great educators seem to agree that at every stage of Education, we are face to face with the four main causes of Education. These four main causes of Education are very important in the process of achieving on authentic education. The four main causes of Education are;
(a) The efficient cause of Education
(b) The material cause of Education
(c) The formal cause of Education
(d) The final cause of Education
4.2 THE EFFICIENT CAUSE OF EDUCATION
The efficient cause of Education refers to the facilitators-the teacher-who must be the embodiment of what he or she is trying to impart and whose technique must be adequate for the duty in question. John Locke, like others, is of he opinion that the best way to get people to do what is wanted is not to terrify or force them but by MOTIVATION. Arouse them and then rely on desires, while letting them think that they are acting for their own sake and their own free will.
4.3 THE MARTIAL CAUSE OF EDUCATION
The MATERIAL CAUSE OF Education refers to the Educandus – the candidate for education, the child to be educated, who must be disposed to receive the INSTRUCTION and TRAINING. The educators agree that the curiosity in children is an Appetite after knowledge and so it should be encourage din them. This means that he learner must be ready to learn before his or her education becomes meaningful. This is very important because, for a learner not ready to learn, to learn is annoying but for a learner ready to learn, not to learn is annoying. Therefore, the facilitator should arouse the interest of the learner in order to learn.
4.4 THE FORMAL CAUSE OF EDUCATION
The formal cause of Education, in this case is the content of education, the course material and the methodology involved in teaching and learning. Here we talk of the extra-curricula-which should include education in human values, involving critical, creative and caring thinking.
Matthew Lipman emphasizes the importance of critical, creative and caring thinking-making use of “Saying, doing and feeling” as the main arteries of judgment in the community of inquiry (COI).
4.5 THE FINAL CAUSE OF EDUCATION
This refers to the final objectives of Education which are aimed at and which must be kept in view at every stage in the educational process. The Educators agree that the final End (or the final cause) of Education is not merely the acquisition of certificates, diplomas and degrees but the building up of character.
Good character is the product of he acquisition of the human values of truth, right action, peace, love mercy and non-violence.
These are the six basic human values. Other human values are derived form them. The person who lives the truth in word, thought and deed performs the right action. With the right action all around us, peace is born. Peace with God and man is love. Love leads to mercy and non-violence. This is the summary of final cause of education.
Our Lord Jesus Christ Himself gave us the same lesson on the final cause of education in the form of SERMON on the Mount in the following pattern:
1. Be poor in spirit.
2. Be meek and gentle.
3. Be sorrowful over wrong action.
4. Be upright in judgment.
5. Be upright merciful.
6. Be pure in hear
7. be a peace maker
8. Be prepared to be persecuted for saying the truth.
The educators agree that with an authentic form of the final cause of education, we can find or achieve peace in diversity any where.
4.6 REASONING IN CHILDREN: In children reasoning is in practical form. That is to say that children learn more by doing and so they should be taught with concrete reasoning that are obvious and at the level of their thinking. This is because practical behaviour make deeper impressions on children than any rule of verbal instruction.
4.7 TEACHING LOGIC TO CHILDREN: In teaching logic to children, we should not treat logic as a group of skills acquired in a highly specialized pattern. We should look at logic teaching as the development of abilities the children already possess, not as bestowing new and unfamiliar skills. Children can learn logic because they can learn language. Associating reasoning skills with linguistic competence seems to be reasonable because perceiving the relationship between sentences require logical thinking and children do speak languages. Children should be treated as RATIONAL beings by making them sensible. Their questions should be answered and explained without any deceit. They should be told the reason of doing or saying something concerning them in life.
4.8 EDUCATION AND THINKING:
The four philosophers and educationists are of the opinion that education should encourage individuals to develop their potentials through the production of good habits of thinking. They believe in the use of the pattern of self-directed inquires in the process of Education as follows: First, a problematic situation is met with. Secondly, follows IMAGINATIVE THINKING based on the topic through DIALOGUE with others an eventually a solution is proposed. Thirdly the outcome is compared with the original puzzle, to see whether the need for inquiry has been satisfied or not. If it has not, another round o inquiry begins until the solution is arrived at, for every problem has solution.
4.9 MAN POSSESSES TRAITS:
The four educationists believe that man posses many traits, some of which are as follows:
1. The trait of natural freedom-the right to life and liberty
2. The trait of necessity for labour
3. The trait of capacity for labour, and many others not mentioned here. As a result of this, they believe that the bet way to get men to do what is wanted is not to terrify or force them but by motivation-to arouse them and then rely on desires while letting them think that they are acting for their sakes and out of their own free will.
4.10 WRONG DOING: The educationists say that wrong doing is a sign of ignorance and so people should be enlightened:
(a) To use their own power of reason
(b) To be prudent
(c) To be reflective
(d) To be calculatory instead of being moved by impulse-sudden indication to act without thought.
The great educators recognized the connections between classroom discussion and children’s thinking, between the child and the society by means and through the teacher; and between the language of the adult world and the growing intelligence of the child.
4.11 A RESUME OF MAJOR EDUCATIONAL REFORMS IN NIGERIA
There has been series of educational reforms in Nigeria some of which are as follows:
(a) The launching of the Nigerian National Policy on Education in 1977 and the subsequent restructuring of Nigeria’s education system into the 6-3-3-4 structure were efforts aimed at correcting the shortcomings of our educational system, have many factors crippling them. For example, the problems that beset the implementation of these projects, among others, are funding, personnel management, political instability, infrastructure and proper ideology.
(b) THE ESTABLISHMENT OF VARIOUS TERTIARY
INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA
Many universities and other many institutions of higher learning had been built in Nigeria and yet our country’s technological know-how had not been improved reasonably.
(c) ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMISSIONS, COUNCILS AND BOARDS TO HANDLE EDUCATION IN NIGERIA.
One of the major educational reforms that have taken place in Nigeria is the creation of some commissions, councils and board to handle our education system. Some of them are as follow
1. THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITIES COMMISSION (N.U.C)
This is a parastatal entity under the federal ministry of Education. The N.U.C is responsible for the development of the universities in the country.
2. THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION (NCE)
The national council of Education recently established the National Examinations Counsil (NECO) to conduct examiantons for both junior and secondary, schools jointly with the West African Examination Council(WAEC).
3. THE NATIONAL BOARD FOR TECHNICAL EDUCATION
This board is responsible for quality assessment and program accreditations at Polytechnics, Professional Institutions, technical colleges and Training Centres.
4. THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR COLLEGES OF
This provides advice to the Federal Ministry of Education and co-ordinates all aspects of non-degree teacher education in the country.
5. THE JOINT ADMISSIONS AND MATRICULATIONS BOARD (JAMB) is the central body responsible for administering applications to tertiary institutions and conducting the University matriculation examinations.
6. THE NATIONAL BUSINESS AND TECHNICAL EXAMINATIONS BOARD (NBTEB). This board administers technical and business examinations in the country.
7. THE NATIONAL UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION COMMISSION (NUBEC)
The National Universal Basic Education commission (NUBEC) with its tributaries at every state and every local government Area as the State universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) and Local government Education Authority (LGEA) respectively, is responsible for the effective management of educational system at the primary and junior secondary school level in the country.
Despite all these reforms and more, it is easy to see that the education in Nigeria since her independence has not been maximally functional. Can we say that the enormous number of primary, secondary and university graduates being produced yearly do meet up the required standard at these levels and so can be said to be functional. This makes one to wonder what is wrong with the Nigerian education system.
Unfortunately, what we have today in Nigeria is on educational system that does not work-an educational system that creates more problem than it offers solutions-an educational system that produces “educational illiterates” (world Bank Repot 2003).
We, Nigerians are yet to sit down and ask ourselves “EDUCATION FOR WHAT?” After over one hundred years of Western education in Nigeria and fifty years of our independence, we discover that our brand of Education is not linked to development. Our type of educational system does not teach pupils how to ask PROBING QUESTIONS-questions at the Higher-Order-Thinking Level. In examining the several decades of development plans of Nigeria (1962 till date) one can see that our education has increased quantitatively but not qualitatively. What then is wrong with our education system.
The fault is from the pedagogical educative system which lacks the merits of Andragogical Education.
Andragogical educative process is the type of education that treats man as man, not as an object or thing. In the Andragogical system of Education both the teacher and the taught are participants and members of the community of Inquiry (COI). According to Rev. Fr. (Prof.) Stand Anih, “Community of inquiry (COI) is the road to the best communal empowerment of group autochthonous living” through this educative process, we insist that our students become habitually inquisitive, well informed, truthful of reason and so.
5.0 FINDING, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Hiving gone through some educational philosophies of Mathew Lipman, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, John Locke and Dr. Michel Eneja, and the Nigerian Education Reforms, some challenge to the Nigerian educational [system/reforms] were discovered. The following are the challenges and the suggested strategies for overcoming the existing deficiencies with a view to bringing stability and progress in the Nigerian educational system.
5.1 SCHOOLING WITHOUT THINKING
The pedagogical type of education our colonial masters gave us, in which they taught Nigerians what they called the 3Rs- Reading , writing and Arithmetic is still in us Nigeria today.
Our educational system should include the 4th R- which is REASONABLENESS. To do this, Nigeria should adapt and Andragogical system of education. This is an educational system of education that promotes critical, creative and caring thinking in the classroom, so as to teach the Nigerian citizens reasonable thinking capable of generating meaningful dialogue. MEANINGFUL DIALOGUE Provides an ecumenical self-correcting process of fallibility flexibility. With this ability of self-correcting process, an individual is always equipped with the most agreeable and pleasant manner to present a bitter truth to enhance its acceptance for the sake of peace and equilibrium in our society. With this type of genuine dialogue, all the factors militating against our democracy would be flushed out, to give peace and progress chance to reign in Nigeria. Reformer, believes in using reason to search for the truth rather than simply accepting the opinions of the authorities or be subject to superstitions. The grand norms of the African Thinkers (University) would be of much help in this regard.
5.2 STATIC EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM
The type of absolutizing, perfectionist curriculum used by our colonial master is still in use today. In some places of the country, teachers are made to teach without a well depend curriculum is, to say the least, a professional misconduct.
The educational curriculum-whether at the Nursing school level, should be redesigned to help the participants to operate at Higher-Order-Thinking (H.O.T) level. This would help the participants to cultivate a moral renovating educative method that involves critical, creative. And earring Thinking in a community of Inquiry (COI) –in search for the authentic truth and meaning. this can also be achieved through the introduction of the Adragogical educative process of the African Thinkers University into our educational system at all level.
5.3 SHORTAGE OF SKILLED TEACHERS
There is the persistent shortage of teachers, especially in the science and vocational oriented disciplines. This is a challenge to our educational system.
Education is a dynamic process which requires constant review and reassessment of its practice, methods and services. The teacher, being the key-figure in this process, must be able to cope with the demands and changes inherent in the education system. In order to keep pace with all these, the teacher would require periodic up grading, refresher and other improvement causes generally referred to as IN-SERVICE courses. This is essential for the well-being of the education system in our country. On shortage of vocational teachers, there are millions of Nigerian (s) who are skilled in farming, wood work, radio and television repairing, auto-mechanic, masonry etc. who are either literate or semi-literate-working as artisans-many of whom are good teachers in their own rights, particularly in technical fields. These few existing teachers in schools to assist in teaching vocational courses their knowledge can be blended with the teachers’ theoretical perspective this can continue until enough skilled teachers are produced.
5.4 LACK OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY
The two big science-space technology and under technology-determine the economic and military power of a nation. Any country without these potentials is classified as under-developed.
Nigeria should Endeavour to join the space club in order to reap from the immense benefits which the space science promises for a better tomorrow.
The National Space Research Development Agency (NASRDA) which has been established in Abuja, should be well funded in order to be more functional.
The University of Nigeria Nsukka, has been designated one of the approved national centres for basic space sciences. Enough fund should be provided for these centres for a meaningful progress and development. The money so provided should be prudently spent.
A new space policy and program should be approved by the Nigerian Federal Government, with a view to making all these efforts materialize and the project centres well funded.
Nigerian citizens working under foreign governments like America, Britain, and many others, should be invited to return home to help develop our own technology here in our country.
5.5 WRONG CONCEPT OF FREE EDUCATION
There is the general misconception that everything about free education should be free- including the provisions of school uniforms; textbooks, meals, traveling cost and other personal experiences. Education is hardly free because resource inputs are always needed and some one has to pay for them in one form of the other.
The government at all levels, individuals and groups of individuals should help the schools to embark on agro based projects as finance yielding ventures such as:
(a) Cassava farms with garri, starch and tapioca (Abacha) processing units
(c) Rice farms with rice milling and packaging processing units.
(d) Fish farms with cold storage facilities.
(e) Groundnut farms with storage and groundnut oil processing facilities. This can be a source of learning and employment for the students.
The federal Government can provide the fund for establishing all these in the schools, because occasionally this country witnesses a financial rain fall from a variety of sources, like crude oil sales, and recovered loots from the past government officials. For example, in 200, the soiss government promised to release to Nigeria the $618 million (N90 billion) starched in her various banks by one of Nigeria’s past leaders (Vanguard Dec. 2003 p. 14).
We were further told that this is only a fraction of what the SWISS government has discovered and willing to release to Nigeria as part of the massive deposit of looted national treasury. However, the SWISS government cautioned the Nigeria Government, that the way and manner this first sum is dispose off will determine the release or confiscation of what will determine the release or confiscation of what educational needs.
Since most of the children may have missed enrollment at the statutory age of six years, but could still be young enough to benefit form basic education. Some flexibility should be introduced in the school system for multigrade classrooms where these children could be accommodated. This arrangement could be reference to as seond-chance-strategy of schooling.
ii. This second-chance-strategy will involve establishing special educational centres to be known as “Drop-in-centres” (DIC) or “learn-and-work centres”, in the Major cities or the Federation and in such specific locations such as parks, markets, mechanics villages and motor parks. In these centres, mid-day lesson, based on normal school curriculum could be organized for out-of-school children who engage on businesses. They could spend longer years in the process, provided that the school curriculum is systematically covered.
iii. PERSECUTION OF PARENTS
Another strategy is the faithful implementation of the legislation on persecuting parents who fail to send their children to school. This would force the parents to comply with the legislations on the free and compulsory basic education.
5.10 LOW COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
Computer Technology is a course that has become the talk of the moment because of its versatile applications. There is hardly anything that does not make use of computer at present; yet over (90%) ninety percent of Nigerian citizens are still computer liberates. What a big challenge to our educational system in Nigeria!
(a) Computer literacy should be made compulsory in our schools at all levels.
(b) Our schools at all levels should, therefore, be equipped with computers through the combined efforts of the governments-Federal, state and local government-individuals and groups of individual.
5.11 BOY-CHILD GENDER DISPARITY IN ENVIRONMENT AND VICE-VERSA
A noticeable gap in school enrolment exists in the south-East Geopolitical zone. Thus more girls enrole into our institutions of learning than boys. The reverse may be the case in other parts of Nigeria like the Northern sates. The implications on the future literacy rate of the unfavoured group of people are real.
There is, the need to mobilize more boys or more girls, according the need, into our schools system and ensure that they are retained in the schools.
5.13 ESTABLISHMENT OF BACK YEAR SCHOOLS
Nigeria is eager to catch up with the educationally develoed countries of the world and the eagerness to redress her educational backwardness is highly appreciated.
(a) There is the need to match this eagerness with available resources.
(b) Therefore, there should be disciplined expansion of schools and environment, so that demographic targets pushing us towards unrealistic expansion on the different areas of education may be more restrained in the interest of qualitative education, which we are all seeking for.
(c) This would check the present trend whereby every “dick and Harry” would establish a school and become the sole proprietor.
5.13 NON-ENFORCEMENT OF LEGISLATIONS AND GOVERNMENT DIRECTIVES:
Many legislations and directives have been made towards effective implantations of educational reforms effective implantation of educational reforms in Nigeria. For example, Legislations exist on child labour and parent’s refusal to send their children to school. Despite the constant violations of these legislations and directives of the government. It is difficult to identity anyone who has been implicated for the violations.
1. The school managers should be made to face the specific tasks that they are expected to perform because of the positions they hold in he school. For the managers to do this, they need to possess conceptual skills, human skills and technical skills.
(a) They need to have creative problem solving skills
(b) Conflict, managing skills.
(c) Team, managing skills
(d) Motivation skills
(e) Influencing skills
(f) Teaching and learning skills
(g) Budgeting and accounting skills.
2. There should be a team of supervisors to be supervising each and every school periodically to make sure that every governments directive is carried out. Stiff penalties should be applied to the defaulters of legislations made and the government directives. There should be regular financial auditing of boards and organization involved in carrying out the educational legislations and directives. Any defaulter should be punished accordingly.
5.14 Fallen standard of Education
The sliding trend in the quality of education provided in our schools can be blamed on heo ld pedagogical system of education which started form the colonial days of the 19th century. Pedagogical educative system made Nigerian citizens o act thoughtlessly hence the rush to get rich quick attitude amongst Nigerian citizens, a life or deceit known as “419 like the selling and buying certificates and many other vices you can thin of.
We of the (AICCACOL) African institute for critical, creative and caring community of inquiry share the views of Peter Senge, Fred Hoffman, Mathew Lipman, Ann Margaret sharp and Fr. Stan Anih that we should change from pedagogical educational system to an Andragagical educative process. There is urgent need for shifting form the fragmented, completive and reactive learning of pedagogy to the systematic, synergic, co-operative, critical, creative and caring thinking of Andragogical educational system.
This is what Rev. Fr. (Prof.) Stand Anih describes as the examples of Galilean’s shift. This means that “the teacher has to move form impacting, transmitting and teaching to process of sharing, facilitating, collaborating, dialoguing, co-inquiring and of thinking with he class instead of leading students to cramming, rote learning and memorizing”. This would mean that our teachers would no longer act as the almighty baby nurse who knows all and does all for the baby but must now act as the midwife who is a friendly helper, a facilitator, a motivator and one whose encourages the children to give birth to their academic pregnancy contained in the natural gift given to each and everybody by God.
This can only be achieved through the process of educative dialogue, educative ecumenism, educational cooperation, collaboration and intellectual con-celebration in the classroom, community of inquiry (COI). This method of teaching and learning involves the use of critical thinking, creative thanking, caring thinking, Higher order thinking lateral thinking, systems thinking, synergic thinking etc in order to arrive at authentic truth. All there and more are the riches of the community of inquiry (COI) teaching approach of an Andragogical educative process which would:-
(a) Raise our fallen standard of Education to an authentic sunergic Education.
(b) Turn learners to become job creators and not job seekers.
(c) Move our education form teacher centered to learner-centered Education.
(d) Turn our chalk-talk method of teaching to a community of inquiry (COI) teaching approach.
(e) Turn our educative pedagogy to educational Andragogy.
(f) Turn our unreasonable education to reasonableness.
Therefore, we recommend the community of inquiry approach to teaching which we call the Andragogical educative model.
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