Information and Communication Technology law deals with the use of law to regulate matters arising and flowing from the use of information Technology. In effect, an appraisal of the role of Information and Communication Technology in Nigerian legal profession, deals with the use of Information Technology in the Nigerian courts, law firms, legal departments and institutions of legal learning. It will x-ray the significance of Information and Communication Technology in the Nigerian legal profession, internet crimes and abuses, ICT skills, admissibility of electronically generated documents (evidence) in Nigerian courts, definition of basic concepts of ICT and so on.
Chapter one presents the general introduction, objective, scope, limitations and the coverage of the entire research work. Chapter two handles the review of basic concepts, significance and challenges of ICT in the Nigerian legal profession. Chapter three covers ICT and the law of evidence and the admissibility of electronically generated documents in evidence. Chapter four, x-rays matters arising from the use of ICT like defamation, internet crimes and abuses, trademark, copyright and intellectual property law. Chapter five houses the observations recommendations and conclusion. The significance of ICT in the Nigerian legal profession are enumerated and explained in this project work. The significance include: electronic communication, litigation support service, research on the internet etc. We shall also see lawyers obstacles of access to IT in the Nigerian legal profession. Some of the obstacles are: lack of ICT skills, lack of interest and awareness, lack of infrastructure etc. Also included in the research work are viable suggestions on the improvement of the use of ICT in the Nigerian legal profession.
Table of Cases
Table of Statutes
List of Textbooks
List of Dictionary
Table of Abbreviations
TABLE OF CASES
Adesanya vs Palm Line Ltd  LLR 18.
Anyaebosi vs R.T. Briscoe Nigeria Ltd.  3 N.W.L.R 84 (part 59).
Nuba Commercial Farms Ltd vs Nal Merehant Bank Ltd % anor  16 NWLR 510 (part 740).
Nahman vs Wolowicz (1993) 3 N.W.L.R 443.
Shell International Petroleum Co vs Allen Jones WIPO Cas NoD 2003 – 0821 of 18 December 2003.
Societe General de survelllance SA vs rastico Nigeria Ltd (19920 6 NWLR 93.
Young vs New Haven Advocate & the Hartford Courant 315 F 3d 256 US Cout of Appeal, 4th Circ (2002).
TABLE OF STATUTES
Evidence Act, 2011
Copyrights Act 2004
Criminal Code Act 2004
Computer Misuse Act 1990
Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988.
Data Protection Act 1984
Electronic Transaction Act (Draft Bill) of Nigeria.
TEXT BOOKS LIST
Bambridge D.I ‘Introduction to Computer Law’ 1996, Third Edition
Conly C.H. ‘Organising for Computer Crime Investigation and Prosecution’ July, 1989.
Heathcote P.M., ‘A’ Level I C T.’ 2000, 2nd Edition.
Mabam B.C.E, ‘Fundamentals of Computer & Information Technology’. First Published 2007.
McEwen, J.I., ‘ Dedicated Computer Crime Units’. June 1989.
Molly etal ‘Information and Communication Technology,’ Published 2000. Second Edition.
Red etal. ‘I.T., practitioners.’ First Published 2003.
Oliver and Chapman. ‘Data Processing and Information Technology’, 1996 10th Edition CS French.
The World Book Encyclopedia, 4, 1998 Edition.
Barr F S N Ogazi. ‘I C T and the law’ (Lecture note on I CT and the law, delivered to the students of law faculty, EBSU, 2012).
Hon Justice Akhimie Akhihiero. ‘The Face of Legal Research in the 21st Century’. A Paper, Presented at the Law Seminar held at the Conference Hall of the Edo State Ministry of Justice, on the 27th day of June, 2008 by Hon justice Peter akhimie Akhihiero, Judge of the Edo State Customary Court of Appeal, Benin city.
www.edocustomarycourt ofappeal.org/a.. (visited 24th May, 2013).
Sunday Mauton A.P. ‘Information and Communication Technology in the Nigeria Economy: In Proceedings of he Conference on Human and Economic Resources’. Ideas.repec.org/../200626.html(visited 23rd may, 2013.)
GBENGA Bamodu. ‘Information Communications Technology and E-commerce: Challenges and Opportunities for the Nigerian Legal System and Judiciary’ JILT 2004 (2)-
(JILT).<http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/2004-2/bamodu/. >-(visited 24 may, 2013).
Adekunle Adekoya. ‘ I C T has Made Things Easy in the Legal Profession.’ August 10, 2011. www.allvoices.com/news/9912 384-nige… (visited 25 may, 2013).
Audu Echono. ‘I C T And the Advancement of Legal Studies and Practice in Nigeria’. the lawyers chronicle.com >home>internet law (visited 24th may, 2013).
Jide Awe. ‘Fighting Cybercrime in Nigeria’. www.jidaw.com/../security 7.html (visited 25th may, 2013).
Carol A. Watson. ‘Internet Research Methodology’, digital commons.law.uga.edu>Home>law library>presentations>8 (visited 26th May, 2013).
ARTICLES IN JOURNAL
Current Trends in Law and Practice Journal. Vol. I, 2011.
Transparency, vol. I., No 20 August, 2006.
Onome Sifo W. ‘The Pen as an Endangered Species.’ TEL Nigeria’s Independent Weekly No 17 April, 24, 2006 p 57.
Emmanuel I. Onu. ‘The Relevance of Computer to Industrial Development’. Afikpo Today. Vol. 2 No 6 July – December, 2002 P 75.
Femi Ogunseitan. ‘Economic Power of the Internet’. The Guardian. Wednesday August 24, 2005, vol. 22 P 45.
Muhammed Rudman. ‘The Journey So Far For Nigeria’s Internet Exchange Point.’ The Guardian, Wednesday, July 18. 2007. Vol. 25 p31.
‘NUC Boss Pleads For More ICT Centres in Universities,’ Vanguard Wednesday, October 26, 2005, vol 21 p 30.
Godwin Ijediogor. ‘ Unto US is Born … A Nigerian Keyboard’. The Guardian, Saturday, April 23, 2005. Vol 21 PB 5.
LIST OF DICTIONARIES
Garner, ‘Black’s law Dictionary’, 9th Edition.
‘Chambers 21st Century Dictionary’, Revised Edition.
TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS
ICT: Information an Communication Technology or Technologies.
IT: Information Technology.
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.5 Research Methodology
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
2.1 Meaning of Information and Communication Technology
2.2 Definition of Concepts
2.3 ICT. And the law.
2.4 Significance of ICT in Legal Profession
2.5 Lawyers Obstacles of Access to Information Technology in Nigeria
2.6 Challenges of Information Technology in Nigerian Legal Profession
ICT AND LEGAL PRACTICE
3.2 I C T and the Law of Evidence
3.3 Admissibility of Electronically Generated Documents in Evidence
3.4 Importance of I C T in Nigerian Legal Profession
3.5 Challenges of I C T in Nigerian Legal Profession.
3.6 Suggestions to a more Effective Utilization of I CT in Nigerian Legal Profession
MATTERS ARISING FROM I CT UTILISATION
4.2 Defamation in the Internet
4.3 Trademark, Copyright and Intellectual Property Law
4.4 Computer/Internet Crimes and Abuses
4.5 I C T Skills
4.6 Advertisement of Law Firm in the Internet
4.7 Client Confidentiality.
4.8 Electronic Filing of Cases
1.1 Background of the Study
Technological advancement is known to impact fast rate of economic development in the modern society.
In Nigeria, policy on adoption of information and communication Technology was initiated in 1999, when the civilian came into power of government. Therefore, information technology is comparatively a new development in Nigeria solely because Nigeria is blatantly less advanced in technical know how.
Following the emergence of ICT in Nigeria, its impact are not limited to legal profession, but has influenced other sectors in the Nigerian economy.
Infact, the advent of computer is a monstrous force of catholic dimension and relevance. In terms of impact and reach, it is the god of the industrial society, at once commanding the heart and soul of the home.
Computers have become almost close substitute for the human brain that one may be tempted to think that computers may displace human labour and create unemployment should they continue to undergo refinements.
Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft Corporation and the world’s richest man, summed the significance of ICT in these words: “Any business that hopes to succeed in the future must have internet presence.
It has been stressed that the new possibilities provided by internet technologies present to African countries with an opportunity to leapfrong phases of development and make use of the most recent innovations to establish a strong information society and increase the distribution of wealth among the populace, thereby addressing the poverty that has plagued the continent from time immemorial till date.
Commenting on the significance of ICT, Prof. Manny Aniebonam, opines that with ICT facilities professionally manned by the Afrihub Staff that the Nnamdi Azikiwe University has become a university on the net instead of a university in the bush.
Computer enables tasks to be performed without the expenditure, at least at the time of performing them, of quite so much human effort.
What is more, there is now a keyboard that allows one to write in Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo, Kanuri, Efik etc in the same document alongside English, without having to convert and switch from one key board to another.
As stated earlier, the introduction of ICT has revolutionalised legal profession in Nigeria. In effect, the professional lives of lawyers have been fundamentally and forever altered by the introduction of a new medium-the internet. For many, it is difficult to imagine practicing law for even one day without using the internet in some form.
Indeed, ICT has far reaching effect in the learning and practice of law. They have become useful tools, allowing the use of massive legal information retrieval systems, and are of increasing benefit to lawyers in the context of the preparation of documents, administration, accounting and conveyancing and in terms of decision support.
Law students, lawyers and judges now use internet and its multi media component, the World Wide Web to access materials from all over the world. There are search engines, containing the addresses and details of websites; eg, yahoo, google and Microsoft Network search.
Still in the field of legal research, we have some legal websites which have large data bases of legal materials. A good example of such websites are the websites of most legal journals, eg, African law journal www.nigerianlawyers.org.
A host of legal materials are loaded in legal software mostly in CD-Roms.
ICT have given rise to intranet networking arrangement. Intranet is a network of computers within an organization accessible only by authorized user within the organization
With ICT, global classroom could be created for law students from several institutions to participate in the same course, through bilateral and multilateral arrangements by the use of video conferencing.
ICT makes it possible to assemble cases into different parts of the law like, criminal procedure, torts, land law etc.
Expectedly, if one has case on land, he/she could just look for what will help his/her case through software.
The electronic publication of all primary and subsidiary legislation is possible with the use of ICT. ICT can be used to create a national network. Video conferencing and telecommunications might enable the conduct of certain court hearings and other legally oriented meetings without all the parities assembling in one physical location. A virtual hearing is one where people do not meet face to face but information technology reproduces many of the features of such meetings.
ICT makes electronic transaction possible. Judges and lawyers can access legal information world over. Law students can look up judicial and statutory authorities in the internet with laptops.
Law firms now have desktops, laptop and other technology devices for speedy legal service delivery.
While the computer age with improved telecommunications have resulted in great benefits to society, it has as well created a wide variety of opportunities for illegal activities. Some of the problems posed by ICT include; computer crime and abuses, cyber jurisdiction and conflict of laws issue. There is also a big challenge on the admissibility of computer generated documents in evidence. There is lack of interest and awareness over the significance of ICT and decrease in mental resourcesfulness and manual research among legal practitioners. There is inadequate infrastructure for full utilization of ICT in Nigerian legal profession. There is inadequacy of ICT legislation in Nigeria as well.
Hence, this study aimes at evaluating the meaning of ICT and its significance to legal profession in Nigeria. It will also look into criminal offences associated with computers and the remedies available at law. Similarly, the work will offer solutions to the threats brought about by ICT.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Undoubtedly, a lot of obstacles face the attainment of the maximum goal of ICT in Nigerian legal profession. Some of the problems are:
(1) Decrease in Mental Resourcefulness and Manual Research
The use of computer and internet by judges and lawyers has adverse effects on the mental resourcefulness of Nigerian legal practitioners. They no longer make use of their God given intellect. Laptops have become the principle note taking method for law students, with potential ill effects in thoughtfulness, and also possibly bothering other students.
In effect, lawyers, judges and law students pay less attention to manual (doctrinal) means of sourcing legal information..
(2) Lack of Interest and Awareness.
There is generally a lack of interest in ICT, coupled with the low level of awareness and education ICT. Accordingly however, because most Nigerian lawyers has no ICT skills and ignorance of its relevance they rather develop lack a daisical attitude to the use of ICT in discharge of their professional duties.
(3) Lack of Infrastructures for full Maximization of ICT.
There are the universally acknowledged problems of infrastructures like electricity and telephone facilities. Thus, unsteady power supply coupled with high cost of purchasing generator, adversely affects the use of ICT in Nigerian legal profession.
(4) Conflict of laws Arising from Internet transactions.
In the information and communication age, Nigerians could be involved in activities that have connections to other countries. At some point, disputes are likely to arise out of the activities, the transactional activities, conducted on the Web. Possible examples include: dissatisfaction with the goods bought or services procured over the Web and fraud on the consumer, (e.g, by fraudulent website operators or by hackers who steal financial information). 
In the above situation, if the contracting parties could not chose whichever country’s law they wish to govern the transaction, there would be some difficulties in the determination of the application law in the event of conflict.
There have been cases, where the courts have proceeded on an almost automatic assumption that Nigerian Law applies and overlooked that preliminary matter.
In Europe, the European Union Countries have introduced a regime that is intended to protect the consumer in such circumstances. In Europe, the rules that apply in the determination of jurisdiction in civil and commercial cases provides inter alia that a consumer can bring an action against the other party to a contract (who is not also a consumer) in the consumer’s own home State.
It is submitted that Nigerian lawmakers should consider similar provisions with that of European countries with regards to Nigerian consumers.
(5) Admissibility of Electronically Generated Documents in Evidence.
Following the advent of ICT, there has been heated controversy in the Nigerian courts amongst lawyers over the admissibility of computer records in evidence prior to the promulgation of the Evidence Act 2011.
There is as well the problem on the weight to be attached to an electronic document even when it satisfies the tests laid down for its admissibility.
This, in Nuba Commercial Farms Ltd vs. NAL Merchant Bank Ltd & anor, the court of Appeal held that the admission in evidence by the court of first instance of computer print outs as Secondary evidence of entries in a banker’s book was wrong because, section 97 of the Evidence Act, do not contemplate information stored ‘other than in a book’.
Similarly, the debate as to whether computer print outs should be admissible as primary or secondary evidence is still unsettled in the minds of Nigerian legal scholars. In Anyaebosi vs RT Briscoe Nigeria Ltd, the Nigerian Supreme Court held that computer print outs are admissible in evidence as secondary evidence under what is now section 97 of the Evidence Act.
Happily, section 84 of the Evidence Act 2011, now makes provision for the admissibility of statements produced by computers.
(6) Inadequacy of ICT Legislation.
Inadequacy of ICT Legislation in ICT sector generates trouble in Nigerian legal professions. Thus, there is no licensing scheme that regulates providers of some types of internet service in Nigeria such as, certification service providers. The internet service providers have been left to a system of self regulation.
Owing to the absence of legislation to guide the court in ICT matters, lawyers and judges now make use of foreign laws which most of the times does not suit the circumstances of life in Nigeria.
(7) Computer Crime and Abuse.
As information communication technology have spread, so too have computer crime and abuse. The internet for example, is used not only by innocent members of the public but also by fraudulent traders, paedophiles, soft-ware pirates, hackers and terrorists. Their activities include: planting computer viruses, software bootlegging, storing pornographic images and perpetrating all sorts of criminal activities from credit card fraud to the most complete multinational money laundering schemes.
1.3 Research Questions
A cursory look on the background of the study and statement of the problem above highlighted following the appraisal of the role of ICT in Nigerian legal profession, would bring to the open the under listed pertinent questions. It includes:
1. What is information and Communication Technology?
2. What are the Significance of ICT in Nigerian legal profession?
3. What are the basic concepts of ICT?
4. How can legal practitioners effectively use ICT techniques?
5. What are the barriers facing legal profession following the advent of ICT?
6. How can electronically generated documents be admissible in evidence?
7. What are the solutions to the challenges posed by ICT in Nigerian legal profession?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The prime objectives of this study are as follows:
1. To explain the meaning of ICT.
2. To identify the basic concepts of ICT.
3. To identify the significance of ICT in Nigerian legal profession
4. To show how legal practitioners can effectively use ICT techniques to boost legal service delivery in Nigeria.
5. To demonstrate that computer documents are now admissible in evidence.
6. To identify the obstacles posited by ICT in Nigerian legal profession.
7. To offer solutions to the barriers of ICT in Nigerian legal profession.
1.5 Research Methodology
The methodology that would be adopted in this project research is doctrinal research method. Newspapers, books and journals germane to this work will not be spared. There will be much reliance on internet materials.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is our hope that this research work will be of much benefit to lawyers, judges, law students and other law officers. The work will encourage lawyers and judges on the need to imbibe the culture of using technology devices to facilitate the storage, retrieval and dissemination of vital legal information for successful legal service delivery and pursuit of legal research and study.
The work will give a priceless boon to law students. It will motivate law students to have a re-think on the use of ICT mechanism in their academic work.
The Research will provide the most needed inspiration for the Nigeria legislature in the course of making ICT laws.
The work will cause Nigerian Bar Association and Nigerian Council of Legal Education to take steps towards ensuring that lawyers posses the potentials of accessing legal materials in the internet.
The work will also tender solutions to the challenges born by ICT in Nigerian legal profession.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This work centres on the appraisal of the role of ICT in legal profession in Nigeria. The work equally evaluates factors that bedevil the use of ICT in the working of law.
The work cover issues relating to the admissibility of electronically generated documents in evidence and other illegal activities birthed by the advent of ICT in Nigerian legal profession.
The research will evaluate cyber jurisdiction and conflict of laws in the internet.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Researchers always encounter difficulties along the line. Accordingly, in the course of appraising the role of ICT in Nigerian legal profession, the following limitations would be manifest.
1. Inadequacy of fund to source materials in the internet and/or buy necessary books needed in the research work.
2. Epileptic/unsteady power supply.
3. Limited time. This research work is expected to be completed within short period of time. So, there may not be enough opportunity to get to the details needed in the work.
4. Unavailability of research books on the topic. This owe to the fact that the topic chosen is relatively new.
Indeed, computer technology is having an ever-growing impact upon society and the way that society conducts its affairs. Computers have permeated almost every professional, commercial and industrial activity and many organizations would find it difficult, if not impossible, to function without relying heavily on computers.
In effect the work of legal practitioners involves a high level of documentation and information processing, storage and retrieval. The information intensiveness of a lawyer’s responsibility is such that tools and technologies that would speed up the documentation, management and information handling are not only important but professionally necessary. The value of accuracy, correctness, completeness, relevance and timeliness are characteristics of information which ICT systems do generate to meet lawyer’s information needs.
These technologies and platforms have created a “global village,” in which people can communicate with others across the world as if they were living next door.
Hence this chapter will give a vivid view of scholars on the meaning of ICT, its significance in legal profession and concepts associated with ICT. It will also evaluate the factors that hinder lawyers from using ICT techniques in the discharge of their duties and the challenges of IT in Nigerian legal profession.
2.2 Meaning of ICT
Information Communication Technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of information.
ICT refers to Technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form. For example, this includes personal computers, digital television and robots. On a broader level, this also includes the internet, intranet, email, wireless networks, cell phones and other communication mediums.
More so, ICT has been defined as “a broad based technology (including its methods, management and application) that supports the creation, storage, manipulation and communication of information” (French, 1996). According to Hang and Keen in Nworgu (2007), information technology means a set of tools that helps you work with information and perform tasks related to information processing.
Actually, the term originated as Information Technology until recently when it was thought that the communication component ought to be highlighted because of its significance. It was then that the concept transformed to Information and Communication Technology (Olusanya and Oleyede, 2003).
ICT may also be defined as the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer based information system especially software application and computer hardware. It entails the use of computers and information based electronic system to input, process, store, output, transmit and receive data information-including texts, graphic, sounds and video as well as the ability to control machines of all kinds-electronically.
ICT also comprise computers, networks, satellites communication, orbits, video texts, cable television, e-mail system, automated equipment.
K. Mary Reid, Opines that the terms Information Technology and Information and Communication Technology are widely used and mean much the same. Both refer to the use of modern electronic (digital) technologies to store and Communicate Information. They cover all the hardware and software that make up computer systems, and include a wide range of computer networks, including the internet.
2.3 Significance of ICT in Nigerian Legal Profession
In this head, we intend to discuss the significance of ICT in the Nigerian legal profession in the light of legal practice and legal education pari passu.
Commenting on the significance of ICT within the context of legal studies and practice, Audu Echono, identified ten objectives of ICT in legal profession. They include:
i. Facilitate the storage, retrieval and dissemination of vital legal information for the successful pursuit of legal research and study.
ii. Facilitate the performance of routine processes like the amendment of law, indexing and abstracting services.
iii. Serve as a link among the various legal education institutions; as well as foster necessary co-operation and working relationship among them. This would also facilitate intellectual resource garnering and sharing.
iv. Assist in the formulation of legal studies syllabus that would have universal acceptability and applicability.
v. Support learning and teaching in specialized areas of video conferencing, teleconferencing, group discussion, questions and answers sessions and moot court trials.
vi. Assist in the publication of research findings, law books, law reports, law journals and other valuable technical reports.
vii. Generally allow or permit instant access to current information on an extensive scale.
viii. Stimulate effective networking of various legal training institutions for the purpose of cross-fertilizing knowledge in various legal disciplines.
ix. Enable large number of students and researchers to have ready access to case law and other legal materials more efficiently than having them queue up for access to a limited number of books in the library.
x. Facilitate effective communication between teachers and students particularly in distance learning and continuing education programs.
Dr. A.U. Nwabueze, opines that the globalization driven by ICT is having a phenomenal impact on acquisition of legal, and other relevant learning, teaching and research materials in law libraries across the country. Through ICT, lawyers and students can have access to current court proceedings/cases and law reports anywhere, any time and in any form in the country.
In the words of Adekunle Adekoya, IT has also helped in the sense that a lot of lawyers or some firm today have been able to work out a system whereby they assemble a lot of cases and they are assembled in a way that they can actually have access to it. They are assembled in a way that it has been divided into the different parts of the law like criminal law, criminal procedure, torts, land law, etc.
Omekwu, indicated that, the use of digital technology has led to migration of lawyer’s instrument of trade to electronic formats. Judicial decisions and all other sources of information germane to the work of lawyers are now available in electronic format. Many of these materials can be accessed on line.
Eke, (2004) stressed that due to the importance of ICT in the development of Nigerian legal system, there is a paradigm shift from acquisition of print information resources to electronic resources in law libraries. For instance, availability of the internet or related computer network (such as Local Area Network) can provide quick access to relevant legal information in electronic format in law libraries than is manually possible. Hence, effective adoption and use of ICT in law libraries will be immensely beneficial for sustainable development in Nigeria by ensuring that relevant and current information is made available for legal practice for enhanced productivity.
Azinge, identified five key areas of IT relevance to lawyers. It includes the following:
1. Internet access to judicial decision: With IT facilities like a personal computer, a dial-up or wireless connectivity, a lawyer can now access judicial decisions of the supreme court of Nigeria, and all the House of Lord Judgments. Online legal databases like Lexis/Nexis and Westlaw are already a practical experience of legal professionals in developed countries.
2. Electronic Communication: Digital technology provides the platform for lawyers to:
(a) Transmit and receive message from clients, colleagues and the court system.
(b) Gain access to the internal know-how of the institutional memory of a law firm and
(c) Provide access to information on specific subject matters.
3. Litigation support service: Information technology is relevant to the lawyers’ management and control of the diverse documents which they have to master in order to advance and prepare their clients’ case.
4. IT system allows a lawyer to work on many documents simultaneously while at the same time down loading materials from the internet. He can copy and paste one document to another or from one section of document to another.
5. ICT is also relevant in the area of basic text retrieval, use of CD-ROM systems and quicker and more qualitative service to clients and co-operation between counsel, clients, courts and law investigation and enforcement institutions.
Jide Owoeye, opines that the work of a legal practitioner involves a high level of documentation and information processing, storage and retrieval. The information intensiveness of a lawyer’s responsibility is such that tools and technologies that would speed up the documentation, management and information handling are not only important but professionally necessary. The value of accuracy, correctness, completeness, relevance and timeliness are characteristics of information which ICT systems do generate to meet lawyer’s information needs.
In the words of Abe Krash, technology has changed legal practice in the following ways:
i. It has relieved associates of some tasks that were once laborious and time consuming. It is now possible to say with considerable certainty that a search for all the relevant precedents or statutes in all the states on a particular point of law is comprehensive, or that all the thousands of documents with respect to some issue have been reviewed.
ii. It has improved a firm’s ability to manage transactions and those situations where documents are standardized and need only be adapted to the particular matter.
iii. In a large case involving many lawyers within the firm, it is now possible to communicate rapidly with colleagues.
iv. It has facilitated deposition and trial practice. For instance, a lawyer taking or defending a deposition can instantly gain access to relevant documents.
v. New technology has improved communications with clients. For instance, in the past a client might call outside counsel to consult about a suit instituted against the client. It was frequently a time consuming-task for counsel to assemble information concerning the proceeding, but with current technology, such data can be downloaded in a few minutes.
Similarly, bringing the divide between Information and Communications Technology and the legal profession, the Nigerian Bar Association has launched the Digital Bar Initiative aimed at bringing together men of the profession. The digital Bar Initiative will make use of a portal with the use of an automated card like the popular ATM, that will portray the identity of every registered member of the law profession.
3.4 Definition of Concepts
Myriad concepts are congruent to appreciable understanding of Information and Communication Technology. Some of these concepts are:
World Wide Web
Electronic Mail (E-Mail)
We would try to explain the meaning of most of these concepts.
Software is the term used (in contrast to hardware) to describe all programs that are used in a particular computer installation. The term is often used to mean not only the programs themselves but their associated documentation.. Software has also been explained as consisting instructions to be carried out by a computer.
A search engine is a software that allows you to types a word or phrase into a box and then view all the results that it finds. Search engines are huge databases containing addresses and details of hundreds of thousands, if not millions of websites.
This is a world wide computer network to which tens of millions of computers are linked. Internet consists of millions of computers around the world that are connected to one another-through communication lines. Each computer on the internet offer information which can be accessed by anybody with the right equipments.
World Wide Web:
This is a part of the internet that includes text, graphics, video, animations and sound
This is a disc, much like an audio compact disc, that stores computer programs and files.
This is a large body of information that can be searched in several ways.
Electronic Mail (E-mail):
This is a manual system involving physical movement of information. Electronic mail is one of the most used features available on the internet and through on-line services.
One of the best known and most powerful search engines is Google
Computer assisted crime includes e-mail scams, hacking, distribution of hostile software (viruses and worms) denial of service attacks, theft of data, extortion, fraud and impersonation.
Computer is an electronic device or machine that is capable of accepting inputs or data through input devices, processes the inputs and generates appropriate results which are displayed through output devices.
It also means an electronic device which processes data at great speed according to a program stored within the device.
2.5 ICT and the Law
Under this head, we will examine how ICT can help lawyers, law students and other legal personal in the legal professional for effective legal service delivery.
Following the advent of ICT, law firms now use document assembly. Document assembly tools prompt the lawyer to enter information about the facts and issues involved in a matter.
Andrew Stranieri and John Zeleznikow have emphasized that computer can predict outcomes of suits in court.
For justice workers generally, ICT can be use to create a national legal network. With ICT, we could develop facility in which legions of users can secure confidential, reliable, private networks (virtual) linking together everyone working in the justice system. The network could be a telecommunication infrastructure conveying not just conventional message and documents but also carrying video conferencing, databases, bundles of documents, images, video recordings and voice messaging as well.
ICT is useful for lawyers and judges in that within a law firm the use of group ware and intranet technologies will enhance the dissemination of information and know-how. Such could be used simultaneously by many practitioners and relevant materials shared amongst them for effective co-ordination is providing legal services. Thus, persons within a firm can search a combination of institutional files and external virtual legal libraries.
For law students, it may be used in schools for making notes, text books and supplementary reading lists available to the students. These could be in form of:
(a) Access to digital library including texts of public lectures, articles, law reports and public documents.
(b) Making available a library of sounds and video materials, audio and television sounds/materials.
(c) Students may have access to a wide range of commercial data base such as lexisnexis, west law, lawtel, context etc or even to free sites like www.findlaw.com for law reports. One may access Nigeria law reports for free at Nigeria internet law reports available at www.nigerianlaw.org//law. Other Nigerian law report websites include: www.gaulonline.com; www.tomalegalretrieve.org, www.lawpavillion.com etc.
Digital technology has become important in trials in recent decades because it permits simultaneous or re-creations of events involved in law suits to an extent not previously possible.
In law offices, word processing is crucial to courts. But electronic filing is probably the major development computers have had on court operation.
2.6 Lawyers Obstacles of Access to IT in Nigeria
Here, we will identify the factor that hinders Nigerian lawyers from the use of IT gadgets in discharge of their professional obligations. Some of the factors include:
1. Lack of interest and Awareness:
There is generally a lack of interest in ICT, coupled with the low level of awareness and education ICT. Accordingly, most Nigerian lawyers are not interested in the employment of IT techniques in the discharge of their official duties. Similarly however, they have not really envisaged the booming benefits that IT holds in legal profession. This reason has kept most lawyers very far form IT related issues making them to be adamant towards the use of IT devices.
2. Lack of ICT Skills
Most Nigerian lawyers are not computer literate. This owe to the fact that ICT is relatively new in Nigeria. In effect, some lawyers were not taught computer in their university and secondary school days. Currently, most lawyers can hardly access legal information using ICT channels.
The cost of acquiring technology devices like, laptops, desktops, generator etc are very high. Following the cost associated with the purchase of IT techniques some lawyers now go to commercial café to source for legal materials that will assist his case or matter.
4. Lack of Infrastructure
There are universally acknowledged problems of infrastructure like electricity and telephone facilities. Thus, the constant epileptic power supply in Nigeria has really affected Nigerian lawyers adversely.
5. Lack of Priority
Nigerian policy makers give priority to other sectors they consider to be more commercial and profit-yielding ventures over educational and other public-oriented social programs. This has ill effects on Nigerian legal profession as attention is not paid to ICT issues.
2.7 Challenges of IT in Nigerian Legal Profession
Despite growing pressure to find new ways to manage information, advocates of more widespread adoption of sophisticated IT in law face a number of potential barriers. Some of the challenges associated with IT include; the admissibility of computer records in evidence and conflict of laws in respect of the rights and obligations of parties over transactions conducted in the internet.
Similarly, there is inadequate legislation to regulate the use of IT in Nigeria.
This has made Nigerian courts and lawyers to import foreign laws when conflict arises from the use of IT. These foreign laws do not satisfy the yearnings of disputants most of the times. Equally problematic are matters relating to copyright and conflict arising from trade mark registration as it concerns the internet.
Indeed, this research work has exposed the researcher to many ideas and information.
Accordingly, the researcher observed that though the significance of the advent of information and communication Technology in Nigerian legal profession cannot be over-emphasized, it has undoubtedly created new opportunities for computer crimes and abuses. For instance, the internet is used not only by innocent members of the public but also by fraudulent traders, pedophiles, software privates, hackers and terrorists.
The researcher also observed that prior to the promulgation of the Nigerian Evidence Act 2011, the position of the law as to whether or not electronically generated evidence would be admissible in court as primary or secondary evidence, was unsettled. For example, in Nuba Commercial Farms Ltd vs Nal Merchant Bank Ltd & Anor, the Court of Appeal held that the admission of computer print outs as secondary evidence of entries in a banker’s book was wrong, whereas in Anyaebosi vs R. T. Briscoe Nigeria ltd, it was held among other things, that computer print outs are admissible as secondary evidence.
Notwithstanding, legal scholars like, Osibanjo,doubted whether electronically generated evidence will be admissible in court in the absence of an amendment to the old Evidence Act, 2004. On the other hand, Sebastian, is however, of the firm belief that even prior to the enactment of the 2011 Evidence Act, electronically generated evidence is admissible in courts.
Be that as it may, the researcher as well, observed that the emergence of the new Nigerian Evidence Act, makes provision for the admission of computer records in evidence in section 84. More so, the effects of sections 84 and 89 (h) of the new Evidence Act, made it crystal clear that computer print outs are admissible in courts as secondary evidence.
Similarly, the researcher, observed that the incessant cases of internet defamation, abounds because internet service providers are not being made liable as the publisher of libelous remarks, originated by another person, but published by them in the internet.
Nonetheless, the researcher observed also, that there is the problem of conflict of laws arising from internet/ e-ecommerce transactions. Thus, in the information and electronic age, more and more Nigerians will be involved in activities that have connections to countries other than Nigeria. In effect, at some point or other, dispute are likely to arise out of activities, the transactional activities, conducted on the web. The dispute take the form of what country’s law amongst the contracting parties should apply? Or, do the court of one of the parties have competence to adjudicate over the matter?
The researcher, also observed that law students, judges and lawyers does not fully utilize ICT techniques in legal service delivery.
More so, the researcher observed that there is no Nigerian law specifically meant to regulate the use of ICT.
The researcher as well observed that over reliance on the use of IT gadgets for legal service delivery, will lead to retardation of mental resource- fulness and thoughtfulness amongst lawyers, judges and law students. In effect, manual method of drafting legal documents may be forgotten as lawyers, judges and law students will imbibe the culture of downloading already made legal materials from the internet. It will also lead to the sight of doctrinal research mechanism as an antiquated means of undertaking legal research.
On the issues of trademark and intellectual property, the researcher observed still that the principal area of dispute is where some one knows a particular trademark to belong to another person but registers it as his own domain name. Or, where a domain name is registered by some one who knows it is the same as a trademark belonging to some one else, or very similar to such a trade mark but intends to use it to deceive the public as seen in the case of Shell International Petroleum Co vs Allen Jones, earlier discussed.
However, concerning matters relating to copyright, the researcher observed that works eligible and subsisting as copyright within the contemplation and dictates of the copyright Act, enjoy protection from infringement and the doing of any act prohibited under the Act in relation to the work by some one who is not the author would amount to infringement of copyright and attendant to which are both civil and criminal liabilities.
Having seen the pitfalls which came to the fore at the wake of information and communication technology in Nigerian legal profession, the researcher therefore recommends the following:
1. The Nigerian legislature should expedite action on the enactment of the abandoned electronic transactions bill and other legislations that will facilitate the growth of electronic commercial transaction in the Nigerian economy. Such other law should address the issues of when contract is said to have been validly made in e-commerce, and the law that would render computer proprietors liable where for instance, one computer make a contract with another computer without human input, which obtains in other countries like, United States of America.
2. The Nigerian Bar Association, should adopt a yard stick on the usefulness of ICT gadgets in the Nigerian legal profession. This owe to the fact that heavy reliance on the use of IT mechanisms in the teaching and practice of law will surely retard mental resourcefulness and thoughtfulness amongst law students judges and lawyers. If steps are not taken toward curtailing the use of IT in Nigerian legal profession, it will in the long run discourage drastically the drafting of legal documents manually and put into extinction the doctrinal method of conducting legal research.
3. On the issue of defamation on the internet, Nigerian legislature should make law which would make internet service providers liable as the publisher of libelous remarks, originated by another person, but published by them in the internet. Surely, this will compel the I.S.P. to scrutinize very well any article that comes to them before publishing same for the public in the internet.
4. Concerning the conflict of law arising from internet transactions, the United Nations should make treaties/conventions on ICT that will be binding and enforceable amongst the state.
5. Law students should not only be taught computer appreciation in the universities, but should be given opportunity to practice what they have been taught under necessary supervision. This will go a long way assisting them on the use of IT techniques with ease after their call to the bar.
6. Judging computer related crimes need players with adequate computer knowledge on the technical side. So judges that have little or no computer education should make due with technology experts when faced with matters on information technology.
7. Workshops, conferences and seminars should be organized frequently by the Nigerian Bar Association for lawyers and judges on the use of IT in the discharge of their professional obligations.
8. There should be a separate court for trails regarding computer related crimes and judges that are conversant with bits and bytes, like the juvenile court system in which lots of proceedings in the normal court system doesn’t apply there.
9. Nigerian legislature should enact a law specifically regulating internet/computer crimes like, cyber pornography, hacking, planting of computer viruses, etc as does other countries like UK, USA, India and so on.
10. On the issues relating to trademark, copyright and intellectual property theft, the Nigerian courts should make haste to protect owners of intellectual property and mete out the due punishment on any infringer accordingly. This will no doubt encourage Nigerians to come up with innovations on the hope that those who delight reaping where they have not sown (intellectual property infringer) will be punished under the law.
Despite the alarming importance of information and Communication technology in Nigerian legal profession, it has equally become a forum for the perpetration of various kinds of frauds and criminal activities. However, it is because of the impact of IT in Nigerian legal profession that the author of this work made the above recommendations to ensure that the use of IT is completely regulated in Nigeria.
Accordingly however, it is the hope of the author of this work that the Nigerian legislature should put into action the recommendations herein enumerated.
The author of this work, hopes that legal practitioners should take bold steps toward learning and embracing the culture of discharging their duties with the help of IT gadgets.
The author hopes that the Nigerian Bar Association should welcome and put into action the recommendations made in this work.
It is also the expectation of the author of this work that the United Nations should make treaties/conventions that will have binding effects on member states, signatory to same, to help tackle the problems of conflict of law is the internet.
The author of this work expects that defamation in the internet will be minimized, if not completely eradicated, if internet service providers are made liable for the unscrutinized materials they publish for public use which turn out to be defamatory.
 Heathcote P.M; ‘A Level ICT,’ Second Edition, 2000, p 44.
  16 N.W.L.R 510 (Part 740).
  3 N.W.L.R 84 (Pat 59)
 Yemi Osibanjo, ‘Electronically Generated Evidence’, in Afe Babalola Law & Practice of Evidence in Nigeria, 2011 at pp 243-273... Current Tends in Law & Practice Journal vol. 1 2011, p 38.
 Sebastain Hon, ‘Law of Evidence in Nigeria: Substantive and Procedural’ 2006 pp 754-767. Current Trends in Law & Practice Journal. Vol 1. 2011. P 39.
 Evidence Act 2011.
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 Dr. Epiphany Azinge, ‘Information Technology Law’. Information Technology & Legal Practice. A journal of the Nigerian Bar Assoicaiton. P. 88.
 Gbenga Bamodu, ‘Information Communication Technology and E-Commerce: Challenges and Opportunities for the Nigerian Legal System and Judiciary’. (JILT) http://www.2.2warwick.ack.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/2004-2/bamodu/.(visisted 24th May, 2013).
 Wipo Case No D 2003-0821 of 18 December 2003, text available online as of 29/04/04 at: http://www.arbiter.wipo.int/domains/decisions/html/2003/d2003-0821.html (Visited 24th May, 2013.)
 Mr. Kanyinsola Ajayi, ‘Information Technology and legal practice.’ Continuing legal Education Workshop series 2003/2004 p. 12.
 Gbenga Bamodu, ‘Information Communication Technology and E-Commerce: Challenges and Opportunities for the Nigeria legal system and Judiciary’ (JILT) < http://www.l.warwick.ac.uk/fac/law/elj/jilt/2004-2bamodu/>. (Visited 24th May, 2013).
 For instance, sections 102 and 107 of the United states Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act 1999, makes any person that uses an electronic agent he/she has selected for making an authentication, performance, or agreement including manifestations of assent, bound by the operations of the electronic agent even if no individual was aware of or reviewed the agent’s operations or the results of the operations. ,
 Dr. Epiphany Azinge, ‘Information Technology Law.’ Information Technology & Legal Practice. A Journal of the Nigerian Bar Association . p 88.
 The Abbreviation of Internet service provider
 Gbenga Bamodu, ‘Information Communication Technology and E-Commerce: Challenges and Opportunities for the Nigerian Legal system and Judiciary.’ (JILT) http://www.2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jict/2004-2/bamodu/. (visited 24th May, 2013).
 Ahmed Aliju Ahmed, ‘The law and the use of Computers in Nigeria’. http://techtrendsng.com/the-law-and-the-use-of-computers-in-nigeria/ (visited 1st June, 2013).
Op. cit. Ahmed Aliju Ahmed.
 Sunday Mauton. A.posu:’ Information and Communication Technology in the Nigerian Economy’: In proceedings of the Conference on Human and Economic Resources.’ Ideas repec.org/../200626.ntml (visited 23rd May, 2013).
 An acronym for Information and Communication Technology or Technologies. According to Audu Echno ‘ ICT And the Advancement of Legal Studies and Practice in Nigeria’. Thelawyerschronicle.com>home>InternetLaw (visited 24th May, 2013).
 Onome Osifo Whiskey, ‘The Pen as an Endangered Species.’ TEL Nigeria’s Independent weekly No 17 April, 2006 p 57.
 Emmanuel I. Onu. ‘The Relevance of Computer to Industrial Development’. Afikpo Today. Vol 2 NO 6 July-December 2002 p 75.
 Femi Ogunseitan. ‘Economic power of the Internet.’ The Guardian, Wednesday, August 24, 2005. Ovl 22 p 45.
 Muhammed Rudman. ‘The Journey so Far for Nigeria’s Internet Exchange Point.’ The Guardian, Wednesday, July 18, 2007. Vol 25 p 31.
 ‘NUC boss Pleads for More ICT Centres in Universities’, Vanguard, Wednesday October 26, 2005, vol 21 p 30.
 Colin Taper: ‘Computer Law’ 1982 third 2nd Edition.
 Godwin Ijediogor .’Unto Us is Born… A Nigerian Keyboard’. The Guardian Saturday April, 2005, vol 21 p B5.
 Marcus L. Richard. ‘The Impact of Computers on The legal profession’, Northwestern University Law Review vol 102.Nbr.4, No .4, October 2008. http://law-JOurnal-books (visited 24th May, 2013).
 David I. Bainbridge. ‘Introduction To Computer Law’ 1996, Third Edition.
 Hon justice Peter Akhimie Akhihiero. ‘The Face of Legal Research in the 21st Century.’ :Being a Paper Presented at the Law Seminar held at the Conference Hall of the Edo State Ministry of Justice, on 27th day of June, 2008. www.edocustomarycourtofappeal.org/a... (visited 24th May, 2013).
 Ibid. Hon Justic Akhihiero P.A.
 Ibid. Hon Justice Akihiero P.A.
 Audu Echono, ‘ICT and the Advancement of Legal Studies and Practice in Nigeria’,
thelawyerschroniclecom>Home>Internet law (visited 24th May, 2013).
 ‘ ICT And the Law’, Lecture note on ICT And the law delivered by Barr. F S N Ogazi, Lecturer, Faculty of Law EBSU, 2012.
 McEwen J.T., ‘Dedicated Computer Crime Units’ June, 1989.
 Audu Echono. ‘ICT And the Advancement of Legal Studies and Practice in Nigeria.’
thelawyersschroniclecom>Home>Internet law (visited 24th may, 2013).
 Marcus L.R. ‘The Impact of Computers on the legal profession: Evolution or Revolution’ Northwestern university law review vol 102 Nbr. 4, October 2008. http://law-journals-books. (visited 24th May, 2013).
 Ibid. Marcus L.R.
 Audu Echonon ‘ ICT And The Advancement of Legal Studies And Practice in Nigeria’. thelawyerschronicle.com>Home>InternetLaw (visited 24 May, 2013).
 Ibid Echonon .A.
 Gbenga Bamodu. ‘Information Communciations Technology and E – commerce. Challenges and opportunities for the Nigerian legal system and Judiciary’. Jilt 2004. (Jilt). http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/2004-2/bamodu/. (visited on 24th May, 2013).
 E.g., Societe Generale de Surveillance SA VS Rastico Nigeria Ltd (1992) 6 N W L R 93; Nahman Vs Wolowicz (1993) 6 N W L R 443 and Adesanya Vs Palm Line Ltd (1967) L L R 18.
 Ibid Gbenga Bamodu
 Council Regulation 44/2001, ‘The Brussels 1 Regulation’, especially Articles 15 and 16
 Ibid Gbenga Bamodu.
 (2001) 16 N.W.L.R. 510 (part 740).
 (1987) 3 N.W.L.R 84 (part 59).
 Evidence Act 2011.
 Gbenga Bamodu. ‘Information Communication Technology and E-Commerce: Challeges and Opportunities for the Nigerian legal system and Judiciary’-Jilt 2004 (2)-(Jilt). <http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/2004-2/bamodu/>. (visited 24th May, 2013).
 Heathcote P.M. ‘’A’ level ICT’. 2000, 2nd Edition. P 44
 Ibid Health cote P.M.
 Bambridge D.I. ‘Introduction to Computer ‘1996, Third Edition.
 Jide Owoeye, ‘Information Communication Technology (ICT) Use as a Predictor of Lawyers’ Productivity; http://unccib.unb.edu/Lpp/
 Ibid Jide Owoeye.
 Audu Echono, ‘ICT and The Advancement of Legal Studies and Practice in Nigeria’.
Thelawyerschronicle.com>some>internetlaw (visited 24th May, 2013).
 An acronym For Information and Communication Technology or Technologies; Audu Echono, ‘ICT And The Advancement of Legal Studies and Practice in Nigeria’
thelawyers chronnle.com>home>Internetlaw (visited 24th May, 2013).
 Jide Owoeye, ‘Information Communication Technology (ICT) Use as a Predictor of Lawyers’ Productivity; http://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/
 Ibid Audu Echono.
 Ibid Audu Echono.
 Dr. A.U. Nwabueze, ‘Information and communication Technology for sustainable Development in Nigeria’
http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/mbolin/nwabueze-ozioko.htm (visited 1st June, 2013).
 Ibid Dr A.U. Nwabueze.
 Ibid Dr. A.U. Nwabueze
 Barr. FSN Ogazi, ‘ICT and The Law’, Lecture note delivered to Law Students, Faculty of law, EBSU, Abakalik, 2012.
 Ibid Barr. F.S.N. Ogazi.
 Reid et al, ‘I.T Practitioners’ First Published, 2003. P 68.
 Ibid Reid et al. p 68.
 Audu Echnon, ‘ICT and The Advancement of Legal Studies and Practice in Nigeria.’
thelawyerschronicele.com>home>Internetlaw (visited 24th May, 2013).
 Dr. A.U. Nwabueze, ‘Information and Communication Technology for sustainable Development in Nigeria.’
http://www.webpages.uidah.edu/-I/mbolin/nwabueze-Ozioko.htm (visited 1st June, 2013).
 Adekunle, Adekoya, ‘ICT has Made Things Easy in the Legal Profession’ August 10, 2011.
www.allvoices.com/news/9912384-nige... (visisted 25 May, 2013).
 Omekwu C.O. ‘Information Technology Fundamentals for Lawyers.’ Paper Presented at Staff Seminar of NIALS. October, 2004, 1-28
 Jide Owoeye, ‘Information Communication Technology, (ICT) Use as a Predictor of Lawyers’ Productivity;
 ibid Jide Owoeye.
 Azinge E. ‘Information Communication Technology (ICT)’ (2002) Digital Commons. Paper Presented to the Practice and Procedure Course of the Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of Lagos campus Akoka. Digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcont…
 Jide Owoeye, ‘Information Communication Technology, (ICT) Use as a Predictor of Lawyers’ Productivity; http://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/
 Abe Krash, ‘The Changing Legal Profession.’
http://www.dchar.org/for-lawyers/resources/publications/washington-lawyer/January-2008/changes.CFM (Visited 1st June, 2013).
 ‘ICT as an Ennabler for the Legal Profession’ Chams News-Desk, Published 31/08/2009.
http:/www.chamsplc.com/web/blogs/34/ICT-as-an-enabler-for-the-legal-professin.html (visited 1st June, 2013).
 An acronyon For Automated or Automatic Teller Machine. Chambers 21st Century Dictionary, Revised Edition.
 Ibid Chams News-Desk.
 Oliver and chapman, ‘Data Processing and Information Technology’ C S French, 10th Edition, 1996 p. 237.
 ‘World Book Encyclopedia 4, 1998 Edition. P 913.
 P.M Heathcote, & R.S.U Heathcote‘D 201; Using ICT’ First Publish 2005, p 216.
 Hon Justice Akhimie P.A; ‘The Face of Legal Research in the 21st Century.’ www.edocustomarycourtofappeal.org/a... (visited 24 may, 2013.)
 Ibid World Book Encyclopedia.
 Mbam B.C. E. ‘Fundamentals of Computer & Information Technology’ First Published 2007, p 84.
 ‘World Book Encyclopedia’ 4, 1998 Edition. P 913
 Abbreviation for Compact Disc, Read-Only Memory; World Book Encyclopedia; p 913
 Ibid ‘World Book Encyclopedia’ p 913.
 Ibid Mbam B.C.E. p 83.
 Ibid World Book Encyclopedia’ p 919.
 P.M. Heathcote & R.S.U. Heathcote, ‘D 2 01; Using ICT’ First Published, 2005, p 216.
 Jide Awe, ‘Fighting Cybercrime in Nigeria’.
www.jidaw.com/../security7.html (visited 25 may, 2013).
 Ibid Mbam B.C.E. p2
 ‘Chambers 21st Century Dictionary’ revised Edition.
 Johnathan Jenkins, ‘What can Information Technology do for Law’ Jolt.law.harvard.edu/articles/pdf/v21/21harvjlTech589.pdf p 596 (visited 30th May, 2013)
 Ibid Johnathan Jenkims at p 601.
 Bar FSN Ogazi, ‘ICT And The Law’ : Lecture Note Delivered to Law Faculty, EBSU Abakaliki 2012.
 A network of computers within an organization accessible only to authorized users within the organization. Hon. Justice Akhimie A.P; ‘the Face of Legal Research in the 21st century’. P 13. www.edocustomarycourtofappeal.org/a... (visited 24 may, 213).
 Ibid Barr. FSN Ogazi.
 Ibid Barr. FSN Ogazi.
 Marcus L. Richard, ‘The Impact of Computers on the Legal Profession: Evolution or Revolution? P 1841.
 Ibid Marcus L. R. P 1835
 Audu Echono, ‘ICT and The Advancement of Legal Studies and Practice in Nigeria’
 Ibid Audu Echono.
 Ibid Audu Echono
 Ibid Audu Echono
 Johnathan Jenkins, ‘what can Information Technology do for Law?’ Jolt.law.harvard.edu/aricles/pdf/v21/21harv/ltech589.pdf p 604. (visisted 30th may, 2013).
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