THE ROLE OF ABIA STATE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND FOOD SECURITY



A DOCTORAL THESIS IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Ph.D)
IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

CERTIFICATION PAGE
               This work has been certified by the Department of Public Administration and Local Government (PALG) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) in Public Administration of the University of Nigeria.

APPROVAL PAGE
               This work on “The Role of Abia State Agricultural Development Programme in Poverty Alleviation and Food Security” has been approved by the Department of Public Administration and Local Government (PALG) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Doctor of  Philosophy (Ph.D).






ABSTRACT
The study has as its objectives, to examine the twin issue of Poverty Alleviation and Food Security in Nigeria. In addition, to deepen our understanding of how Poverty Alleviation Programmes had been implemented overtime and the effect of those strategies and programmes on food security in Abia State. The study applied the chi-square (X2) technique to test the hypotheses on Abia ADP Programmes on Food Security vis: the impact of Abia ADP Programme on Food Security, food sufficiency level in the state as well as the implementation policy of the programme. The result of the three hypotheses using the chi-square (X2) test at 0.05 significance level showed that Abia ADP service delivery guidelines has significant relationship with increased food production by Abia farmers per annum. The second hypothesis revealed that Abia ADP programme orientation geared towards poverty reduction and provision of farm implements to Abia farmers improved the attainment of food production in the State per annum and the third hypothesis revealed that modern technologies provided by Abia ADP to Abia farmers improved food production and creation of employment in the State. The available literature reveals the problems and challenges faced by Abia ADP in the state to the application of orthodox capitalist strategies marred with corruption and low revenue base. In addition, non-continuity of existing programmes and policies by new governments grossly affects the role of Abia ADP in implementing its food production and food sufficiency agenda in the state. The discussion of findings showed that in hypothesis one, Abia ADP has a positive impact on farmers’ potentials for increased output and productivity and on their income sustainability. In hypothesis two, Abia ADP has consolidated their farmers through internal and external loan assistance. In the third hypothesis, Abia farmers have benefited from the government through the provision of modern technologies that enhanced farmers’ surplus. The study recommends that Government should ensure the availability of improved and adaptable technologies to help include all kinds of crops for increased output. There should as well be effective loan utilization and repayment and mobilization of savings that will help reduce poverty and increase food production in the State. The issue of corruption and mismanagement of resources should be properly looked into and addressed because this has constituted a heavy drain on the expected results of the organization.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title  Page…………………………………………………………        i
Certifications ………………………………………………………      ii
Approval  Page…………………………………………………….       iii
Dedication………………………………………………………….      iv
Acknowledgements …………………………………………………    v
Abstract ……………………………………………………………      vi
Table of Contents………………………………………………….       vii
List of tables………………………………………………………..      x
List of Figures………………………………………………………     xii

CHAPTER  ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study……………………………………     1
1.2       Statement of  the Problem………………………………….      7
1.3       Objectives of the Study…………………………………….      9
1.4       Significance of the Study…………………………………..      10
1.5       Scope and Limitations of the Study………………………..      12

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Introduction (Critical or Relevant Literature)……….………  14
2.1.1   The Concept of Poverty…………………………………….     15
2.1.2   Economic Development……………………………………..    16
2.1.3   Rural Development…………………………………………..    17
2.1.4   Food Security in Nigeria……………………………………..   19
2.2.5   Food Security and Poverty……………………………………  21
2.1.6   Poverty Alleviation…………………………………………… 22
2.1.7   Approaches to Poverty Alleviation…………………………... 24
2.1.8   Problems and Challenges…………………………………….   26
2.2       Synthesis of the Literature Review…………………………..   29
2.3       Gap in Literature……………………………………………..    29
2.4       Hypotheses………………………………………………….      30
2.5       Operationalisation of Key Concepts……………………….     31

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design…………………………………………….     32
3.2       Method of Data Collection…………………………………      32
3.2.1   Primary Source of Data…………………………………….      32
3.2.2   Secondary Source of Data………………………………….      33
3.3       Population of the study……………………………………..     33
3.4       Sample size…………………………………………………      34
3.4.1   Sampling Technique……………………………………….       34
3.5       Validity and Reliability…………………………………….      36
3.6       Method of Data Analysis…………………………………..       37
3.7       Method of Data Presentation………………………………..    38
3.8       The Theoretical Framework…………………………………    39
3.8.1   The Structural Functionalist Theory…………………………  39
3.8.2.  Application of the Theoretical Framework …………………  42
3.9       The Study Area……………………………………………….   43
3.9.1   Funding Arrangements and Staff Profile……………………..  45
3.9.2   Abia ADP Main Objectives………………………………….    45
3.9.3   Strategies for Achieving the Objectives…………………….    46
3.9.4   Abia ADP Funded Projects………………………………….     46
3.9.5 Strategies of NPFS……………………………………………     46
3.9.6 Funding Arrangements…………………………………………  47
3.9.7   Roots and Tubers Expansion Programme (RTEP)…………..   47
3.9.8   Strategies of RTEP…………………………………………..     54
3.9.9  Funding Arrangements………………………………………     54
3.10    Cassava Implementation Assessment ……………………….   54
3.11    Factors Affecting Projects Implementation…………………...66
3.12    Abia ADP Beneficiaries and Achievements…………………..66

CHAPTER  FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1       Presentation of Data…………………………………………..  69

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
5.1       Summary of Findings………………………………………..     103
5.1.1   Hypothesis 1…………………………………………………    103
5.1.2   Hypothesis 2…………………………………………………    104
5.1.3   Hypothesis 3…………………………………………………    104
5.2       Discussion……………………………………………………    105
5.2.1   Hypothesis one:………………………………………………   106
5.2.2   Hypothesis Two:……………………………………………..    107
5.2.3   Hypothesis Three:……………………………………………   109

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS  AND CONCLUSION
6.1       Summary…………………………………………………….     112
6.2       Recommendations……………………………………………   113
6.3       Conclusion…………………………………………………..     115
Bibliography………………………………………………………..      117
Appendix I…………………………………………………………..     125
Appendix II………………………………………………………….     127
Appendix III…………………………………………………………    130

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1a:        Showing the population of members of the All Farmers Association of Nigeria (AFAN) in the 17 local government Areas of Abia State……….………………...……………………….….35
Table 2a:        Showing the population of members of All Farmers Association of Nigeria (AFAN) in the six (6) selected local governments in Abia state ……………………………..………………………………36

Table 4.1        Age of Distribution of Respondents…………………………68
Table  4.2       Gender / Sex distribution ……………………………………69
Table  4.3       Occupation of the Respondents …………………..        ……69
Table 4.4        Educational Qualifications of Respondents …………………70
Table 4.5        Residence of respondents…………………………        ……70
Table 4.6        Abia ADP Improved Food Security…………………………71
Table 4.7        Improvement on the standard of living of Abia farmers……72
Table 4.8        Registered farmers………………………………..…………73
Table 4.9        Abia ADP impact on the output productivity of Abia
farmers.....................................................................................73
Table 4.10     Impact of Abia ADP  on inequality and household
disparity………………………………………………………74
Table 4.11     Effect of  Abia ADP benefits to Abians..………………........75
Table 4.12     Impact on Social and Economic Standard ………… …            …..75
Table 4.13     Abia ADP Effect on GDP………………………………  …76
Table 4.14     Abia ADP impact on social structure and communal
Effect……………………………………………………  …77
Table 4.15     Abia ADP impact on Human Development…………………78
Table 4.16     Abia ADP impact on Low Income Earners……………   …79
Table 4.17     Effects of  Abia ADP credit facilities on GDP .......................80
Table 4.18     Impact of Abia ADP Programme Rural Dwellers……. …….81
Table 4.19     Abia ADP and  Rural Urban Inequality……………… ……82
Table 4.20     Abia ADP and Employment Creation ……………………83
Table 4.21     Impact on the Standard  of living Rural
Dwellers Living……………………………………..............84
Table 4.22     Abia ADP and Agricultural Implementation..………..     85
Table 4.23     Have you benefited from Abia ADP?……………..….   86
Table 4.24     Local Farmers and Abia ADP assistance……………..  87
Table 4.25     Conditions for receiving Aid………………………..     88
Table 4.26     Abia ADP Relief  to Rural Dwellers……………….       89    
Table 4.27     Lack of Staff commitment and its impact on productivity.. 89
Table 4.28     Lack of Continuity of programmes by successive          90
Table 4.29     Lack of Continuity assisting programmes
by successive administrations………….……..…….     91
Table 4.30     Lack of cooperation between Abia ADP Staff
                        Abia farmers affects Food Security…….………….       92       
Table 4.31  Effect Poor Implementations PAP affects standard of Living of Abians……………………….                 93
Table 4.32     Capital Intensive Production Affects Food Security..    94
Table 4.33     Abia ADP Improved Food Security……………………95
Table 4.34     Have Abia ADP  Improved the standard of Living
of farmers?....................................................................        95

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3.1      Structures of Abia ADP………………………………..  44
Figure 3.2      Overview of Roots and Tuber Expansion programme
(RTEP) Implementation 2001-2009……………………48
Figure 3.3      Established of Spats            ………………………………55
Figure 3.4      Area under cassava……………………………………..56
Figure 3.5      Cassava Production…………………………………….57
Figure 3.6      Distribution of cassava cultivars ………………………58

THE ROLE OF ABIA STATE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND FOOD SECURITY

A DOCTORAL THESIS IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Ph.D)
IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT



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