THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE DISTRIBUTION ON SALES VOLUME



DEPT:                                   MARKETING
FACULTY:                           MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
COURSE TITLE:                PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION
COURSE CODE:                MKT 363

ABSTRACT
It starts with the definitions of Public Relation tools and also the types of public relations tools and there examples. Then the book states the popularity of Public Relation tools in Nigeria marketing scene.


CONTENTS
·        Dedication……………………………………….i
·        Abstract………………………………………….ii
·        Content………………………………………….iii
·        Definition of Public Relation……………….      1
·        Types of Public Relation ……………………      5
·        Why Do We Say Public Relation is Popular In Nigeria Marketing Seem……15

DEFINITION OF PUBLIC RELATION
            Public relation is the practice of managing the flow of information between an organization and its public.
            Public relation provides an organization or individual exposure to their audience using public interest and news, items that do not require direct payment. The aim is often to persuade the public, investors, partners, employees and other stakeholders to maintain a certain point of view about the company. It’s leadership, products or political decisions. Common activities include speaking at conferences, winning industry awards, working with the press and employee communication.
            The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) founded by Richard Rotman, defined public relations in 1982 as “Public Relations helps an organization and its public adapt mutually to each other.
            According to the PRSA, the essential functions of public relations include Research, Planning, Communication, dialogue and evaluation.          In 2011/2012 the society developed a crowd sourced definition which PRSA consider more accurate and descriptive. “Public Relation is a strategic communication process that build mutual beneficial relationship between organization and their public.
            It was announced on March 1 2012 after a vote by relations professionals. The defeated definitions were “Public Relations is the management function  of researching, engaging, communicating and collaborating with stakeholders in an ethical manner to build mutually beneficial relationships and achieve results” and “Public Relations is the engagement between organizations and individuals to achieve mutual understanding and realize strategic goals.
            Edwards Louis Bernays, who is considered the founding father of modern Public Relations along with Ivy Lee in early 1990’s defined Public Relation attitudes; defines the policies, procedures and interest of an organization followed by executing a program of action to earn Public understanding and acceptance”.
            Building and managing relationship with those who influence an organization or individuals important audiences has a central role in doing public relations.
            An earlier definition of public relations by the first world Assembly of Public Relations Associations, held in Mexico City in August 1978, was “The Art and Social Science of analyzing trends, predicting, their consequences, counseling organizational leaders and implementing planned programs of action which will serve both the organization and the public interest.
            Others define it simply as the practice of managing communication between an organization and it’s public. The European view of public relations notes that besides a relational form of interacting. There is also a reflective paradigm that is concerned with polities and the public sphere, not only with relational which can also with public consequences of organizational behavior. A much broader view of interactive communication using the internet, as outlined by Philips Young in online Public Relations second edition (2009) describe the form and nature of internet –mediated public relations.

TYPES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS TOOLS 
                        As we noted in the public relations tutorial. The challenges faced in doing public relations will lead many marketers to hire professionals to handle these activities.
Whether marketer do their own PR or seek outside help, it is important they be familiar with the tools available to carryout the public relations function include:
1.      Media relation
2.      Media tours
3.      News letters
4.      Special events
5.      Speaking engagement
6.      Sponsorships
7.      Employee relation
8.      Community relations & philanthropy

(1)       MEDIA RELATIONS
            Historically the care of PRs, media relations, includes all efforts to publicize products or the company to members of the press TV and Radio, newspaper, magazine news letter and internet.
In gaining media coverage PR professionals work with the media to place stones about products, companies and company spokespeople. This is done by developing interesting and relevant story angles that are pitched to the media. It is important to remember that media placements come with good stories and no payment is made for placements, in fact, in order to maintain, the highest level of credibility, many news originations bar reports from accepting even the smallest gifts (e.g. free pencils with products logo) from companies
Key tools used in media relations include:

(1)              Press kits- include written information such as a news release organization background, key spokesperson biographies and other supporting materials that provides information useful to reporters
(2)              Audio or video news release: these are prerecorded features distributed to news media that may be included within media programming for instance, a local news report about amusement parks may include portions of a video news release from a national amusement park community.
(3)              Website press room- while hard copies of materials are used and preferred by some media, marketers are well served by an online press room that caters to media needs and provides company contacts information.
            As PR people know many story ideas for newspapers magazines and television news often start with a suggestion from a PR person. It things workout, a reporter or editor will at best write a positive story with the company as key feature or, of minimum, include the company’s home somewhere within an industry- focused article.

(2)       MEDIA TOUR        
Some new products can be successfully publicized when launched with a mediator, on a media tour a company spokes-person travels to key cities to introduce a new products by being booked on Tv and radio talk shows and conducting interviews with print and internet reporters or influencers (eg bloggers). The spokesperson can be a company employee or someone hired by the company, perhaps a credibility with the target audience. One common use of the media tour is the book tour, where an author travels the country to promote a newly released book. A media tour may include other kinds of personal appearances, speaking engagement or autograph signing opportunities.

(3)       NEWS LETTERS
Marketers who have captured names and addresses of customers and potential customers can use a newsletter for regular content with their targeted audience. Newsletters can be directed at trade customers, final consumers or business buyers and can be distributed either by regular mail or electronic means (i.e e-newsletters strive to provides content of interest to customers as well as information on products and promotions. A bookstore many include reviews of new books. Information on online book chats and information  on in-store or online promotions. A food manufacturer may include seasonal recipes, information on new products and coupons. Online news letters offer the opportunity to link to stores carrying the markets products effective newsletters are sought out by and well received by interested audiences.

(4)       SPECIAL EVENTS
            These run the gamut from receptions to elegant dinners to stunts. Special events can be designed to reach a specific narrow target audience, such as individuals interested in college savings plans to major events like a strawberry festival designed to promote tourism and regional agriculture. Stunts, such as building the world’s largest ice cream sundae during national ice cream month captures the attention of an audience in the immediate area, but also attracts the attention of mass media such as TV news and major newspapers, which provides broad reach, the Oscar Mayer Weiner mobile is a classic example providing a recognizable icon that travels the country gamering attention whenever it visits. As with all PR programs special event planners must work hard to ensure the program planned conveys the correct message and image to the target audiences.

(5)       SPEAKING ENGAGEMENT
Speaking before industry converters, trade association meeting, and other groups provides an opportunity for company experts to demonstrate their expertise to potential clients/customers. Generally these opportunities are not explicitly for company or product promotions & rather they are a chance to talk on a topic of interest to potential a customers and serve to highlight the speakers expertise in a field. Often the only mention of the company or its products is in the speakers biography. Nevertheless, the right speaking engagement puts the company in front of a good target audience and offers networking opportunities for generation customers leads.

(6)              SPONSORSHIP
Companies and brand use sponsorship to help build good will and brand recognition by associating with an event or group marketers can examine sponsorship opportunities to find those that reach target groups, fit with in a specified budget and provide sponsorship benefits that suit the marketer’s objectives. There are numerous local, regional, national and international sponsorship opportunities ranging from a local art center or theatre to the Olympics. Most Organization seeking company sponsors provides information on the variety of data on events audience, exposure opportunities, which can include signage shirts, public announcements and numerous other opportunities, repetition much more. Marketers can use this information to help match sponsorship opportunities with the company’s objectives.

(7)       EMPLOYEE RELATION (COMMUNICATIONS)
Or many companies communicating regular with employee is important in keeping employees inform of cooperate problems, sales incentives, personnel issues, as well as keeping them updated on new products and programs. Companies use a variety of means to communicate with employees, including internet, email, online and print newsletter. In larger firms and in house PR department often works in conjunction with the human resources department to develop employee communication.


(8)       COMMUNITY RELATIONS AND PHILANTHROPY. 
For many companies fostering good relations with key audience includes building strong relationship with their regional community. Companies implement progrmmes supportive of the community ranging from supporting local organizations and institutions (eg arts organizations community activities, parks) to conducting educational workshops (e.g For teachers, parents) to donating product for community events and charitable fundraisers the goal is generally to develop a positive relationships with members of the community (i.e be crown as a good neighbor). Effective community relations can help a company whether bad publicity or a arises situation that can unexpectedly arise due to a problem with a product, unethical behaviours by management, or even by false rumors. Some companies also make on effort to contribute to charitable organizations often organizations that have some relationship to the company’s mission or to a key principal of the company.

WHY DO WE SAY PUBLIC RELATING IS POPULAR IN NIGERIA MARKETING SEEM
Starting from the definition to the end of this book, we can see that the study of Public Relation is our day to day marketing activities, organizations used Public relation tools to maintain and make there organization more effective, in the area of production of goods and services.

REFERENCES
·        Marketing Basics 2nd Edition offers in-depth courage of marketing and is ideal for the marketing novice, the marketing educator. The marketing professional and anyone else who needs to know about marketing.
·        Introductory test on marketing communication.
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