This chapter presents the specific method used for the study. The research method is presented under the following subheadings: Research design, Area of the study, Population of the study, sample and sampling technique, experimental procedure, control of extraneous variable, instrument for data collection, reliability, validation of the instrument, method of data collection, and method of data analysis.
This study is a quasi-experimental study. The design for the study is the pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group design. Intact classes were used for the study so there was no randomization of subjects. The design is schematically represented thus:
Yb x Ya
Yb ~x Ya
Yb = Pretest
Ya = Posttest
X = Treatment
~x = Control
Area of the Study
The study was carried out in Onueke education zone of Ebonyi State. This zone comprises of four (4) Local Government Areas, which are: Ezza South, Ezza
North, Ikwo and Ishielu. The four local government areas represent the area of study.
Population of the study
There are three hundred and seventeen (317) public basic school in Onueke education zone and one hundred and forty-five thousand, two hundred and thirteen (145, 213) pupils in those public basic schools (SUBEB Ebonyi 2009). All these schools and pupils make up the population of the study.
Sample and sampling technique
Six basic schools were drawn from the three hundred and seventeen (317) public basic schools in Onueke Education Zone through a simple random sampling approach. Out of the six schools, three were assigned to treatment group while the other three were assigned to control group. The assignment of schools to treatment and control group was done through simple balloting. In each school all intact basic six classes was used for the study. In all therefore a total of six intact basic schools (3 for treatment and 3 for control) were used for the study.
Instrument for data collection
The instrument that was used for the study is a basic science achievement test (BSAT). The researcher constructed the basic science achievement test (BSAT), with the assistance of test developers in the test development unit of Ebonyi State Universal Basic Education Board (UBEB). The unit supplied some questions from question bank. The items were drawn from the four clusters in basic science. The new nine (9) year basic science curriculum was used in drawing up the clusters.
The clusters were:
a. You and your environment
b. You and energy
c. You and technology
d. Living and non – living things
Bloom (1971) taxonomy of educational objectives guided the development of a test blueprint or table of specification see appendix 4. The table of specification guided the development of the test items see appendix 6. The items in the BSAT evaluated the lower cognitive process. Emphasis was placed on the lower cognitive process due to the age range of the pupils. The BSAT contains 40 multiple-choice objective questions (see appendix 5). Item analysis was carried out on the BSAT test instrument (see appendix 3). The nine items that did not survive the initial analysis were replaced
There are four options in the objective questions. Three of these options are distractors, while one is the key. The options are labeled A, B, C; D. Distraction Index (DI) of the options were carried out (see appendix 3B) the options which did not distract at all were removed and replaced with other options. Pupils were required to select the key from the options provided. A model answer to the BSAT items was prepared by the researcher and group of classroom teachers
e. Validation of the Instrument
The BSAT instrument for data collection was subjected to face and content validations. The face validation was carried out by four senior classroom teachers who have taught basic six (six grade) for not less than eight years each. They thoroughly considered each question in relation to the framing and vocabulary used in writing each item. They also checked whether the questions actually conveyed the meaning, which the researcher had in mind. Further face validation was carried on the instrument by two test developers in the test development unit, Ebonyi State Universal Basic Education Board (EBSUBEB). They separately scrutinized each test item. The items that survived the face validation were assembled and subjected to content validation. The table of specification was used to develop the items to ensure they are true representative of the content areas. The inputs and suggestions of the different groups helped to raise the quality of the test items.
Reliability of the Instrument
The BSAT instrument was trial tested on a group of pupils in an intact class of twenty (20) pupils, in basic six (sixth grade) outside the study area. The spearman correlation co-efficient reliability computed from data collected from the test and retest carried out within an interval of two weeks yielded an index of 0.774 stability value see appendix 7. The internal consistency of the items was determined using the K. R 20 approach. The test yielded an index of 0.87. (See the attached appendix 8).
At the onset of the experiment pretest was administered to the research subjects in both the treatment and control groups. After the pretest, the experimental group was given the treatment, which is to teach the group with the experiential method of instructional delivery. The control group was treated with the conventional teaching method. Topics to be taught to the two groups were the same. Research Assistants administered the experimental treatment and control treatment. The regular classroom basic six teachers of the six sampled schools were used as research assistants. A teacher training programme was organized for the research assistants. They were exposed to all the essential steps using the experimental teaching approach and the conventional teaching approach as may be applicable to teachers of each group.
All the necessary instructional materials for the study were made available to the research assistants. A model experiential lesson plan was developed (see appendix 5). A model experimental package and conventional teaching package were prepared to guide the research assistants of the two groups see appendices 1 and 2. At the end of treatment BSAT was administered again to the two groups as post-test. Treatments in the two groups were of equal duration. The researcher visited the two groups periodically to observe and supervise the research assistants. The study lasted eight weeks. The research assistants administered all the tests, marked the scripts and scored them. The researcher regularly visited the schools to monitor the instructional delivery but did not impose himself on the teachers to avoid the pupils realizing that they are being used for experimental study:
Control of Extraneous Variables
The following are extraneous variables that were controlled to ensure that their effects do not interfere with the results of the study. Hawthorne effects, History, testing, teacher variables and initial equivalence.
Hawthorne Effects: To ensure that the pupils are not aware that they were being used for experimental study, the class teachers were used as the research assistants. Secondly, intact classes were used. There was no reshuffling or regrouping of subjects into new groups. The research assistants were duly informed of the dangers of informing the pupils that they are being used for experimental study.
History: This was controlled by ensuring that the experiment does not last too long. Moreover, there was no extraordinary event that occurred that affected the study within the period of the subject, either in the schools or at homes of the pupils.
Testing: To check the effect or testing, the items in the instrument (PSAT) were rearranged after the initial pretest. The colour of the paper was also changed.
Teacher variables: The teachers of the experimental group were trained on the use of the experimental package. The teachers of the control group were also trained on the use of the conventional teaching method. Hence the teachers in the two groups were clearly directed on when and how to administer the tests and treatments. The researcher also monitored them closely to ensure uniform approach.
Initial Equivalence: Intact classes were used for the study. ANCOVA was used to control the initial differences of the groups.
Method of Data
At the beginning of the experiment in each group, the pretest was administered to the pupils. The scores of pupils were recorded and kept for use. At the end of the experiment, the posttest was administered to the pupils. The scores were also recorded and kept. The two sets of scores were used to answer the research questions and the hypothesis after they had been analyzed with relevant statistical tools.
Methods of Data Analysis
Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while hypotheses were tested at an alpha level of 0.05 using the Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA).
This chapter presents the results of the study. The results are presented in tables, according to the research questions and hypotheses that guided the study.
Research Question 1
What is the effect of experiential teaching methods on pupils mean achievements in basic science?
To answer this question, reference is made to the data presented on table 3. The data is obtained from the basic science achievement test administered to both the treatment and control groups involved in this study. The summary of the result is shown below.
Table 3: Mean and standard deviation of achievement scores of pupils taught Basic
Science using the experiential teaching approach and those taught with the Conventional method.
Groups Mean Standard deviation Treatment 57.7 14.04 Control 41.46 13.90 The results in table 3 show, that adjusted mean scores for the treatment group is much greater than the adjusted mean achievement scores of the control group. But a critical look into the above scores reveals that pupils taught basic science using the experiential teaching approach had a mean achievement score of 57.7 with a standard deviation of 14.04 while the pupils taught Basic Science using the conventional method had a mean achievement score of 41.46 with a standard deviation of 13.90.
Research Question 2
What is the effect of experiential teaching methods on male and female pupils’ mean achievement scores in Basic science?
_To answer this question, the mean achievement scores of male and female pupils taught Basic science using the experiential teaching method are presented in Table 4 below. The overall mean score is desegregated into male and female. The summary of the result is shown in the table 4.
Table 4: Mean achievement test scores and standard deviation of male and female
Pupils taught Basic science using the experiential teaching approach.
Gender categories Mean Standard deviation Male 56.58 13.68 Females 59.03 14.42
From the result presented in table 4, the mean achievement scores of male pupils taught Basic science with experiential teaching method is 56.58 with standard Deviation of 13, 68 while their female counterpart had a mean achievement score of 59.03 with a standard deviation of 14.42.
Research Question 3
What is the interaction effect of teaching method and gender on pupils’ mean achievement in Basic Science.
In a bid to answer the above question, the results on table 5 are consulted. The means for the two levels of gender taught Basic Science and technology using the experiential teaching method and those taught with the conventional method were used to assess the interaction. The summary of the result is shown in table 5.
Table 5: Summary of interaction between gender and teaching method on pupils’
mean achievement in Basic Science and technology.
Gender/group Mean for experiential group Mean for conventional group Male 56.58 41.32 Females 59.03 41.58
The result presented in table 5 reveals that male and female pupils taught basic science with experiential teaching method had mean achievement scores of 56.58 and 59.03 respectively while those taught with conventional method had mean achievement scores 41.32 and 41.58 respectively. The experiential teaching method is therefore superior to the conventional method at the two levels of gender (males and females). This implies that there is no interaction between method and gender on achievement in Basic Science and technology.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of pupils taught Basic science using experiential teaching method and those taught using the conventional method.
HO3: There is no significant interaction between teaching methods and gender on pupils’ mean achievements in basic science.
These two hypotheses were tested using analysis of co-variance. Summary of the analysis for these two null hypotheses is shown in table 4.
Table 6: Analysis of Co-variance for pupils’ overall basic science achievement
scores by teaching methods and gender.)
(Source of variations) Sum of squares DF (Mean square) F.cal F. cv Decision of P<0.05 Covariates (pretest) 55200.459 1 55200.459 906.567 Main effects 29415. 591 2 14707.795 241.557 Teaching methods 29407.440 1 29407.440 482.98 3.84 S Gender 75.015 1 75.015 1.232 2-Way Interaction 61.585 1 61.585 1.011 3.84 NS Teaching methods and gender 61.585 1 61.585 1.011 3.84 NS Explained 84677.635 4 21169.409 347.681 Residual 25633.623 421 60.887 Total 110311.258 425 259.556 Key S = significance, NS = Non-Significant, P = probability level.
For hypothesis 1, analysis of co-variance of the pupils’ overall achievement scores presented in table 6 shows that the F-cal value of 482.98 is greater than the critical F.cv of 3.84 at P>0.05 Alpha. The null hypothesis which stated that there is no significant difference in the mean achievement score of pupils taught basic science using experiential teaching method and those taught using the conventional teaching method is rejected. The significant difference observed between the mean achievement scores of the treatment and the control groups is statistically significant in favour of the experimental group.
For hypothesis 3, the results presented in table 6 shows that the observed difference in the two-way interaction effect is not statistically significant. This is because the calculated F value of 1.011 is less than critical F.cv of 3.84, at P<.05 alpha levels; then the null hypothesis of non significant is retained. It was therefore concluded that there is no significant interaction between gender and teaching method on pupils’ achievement in basic science.
HO2: These is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female pupils’ taught basic science using experiential teaching method.
This hypothesis was tested using Analysis of Co-Variance for overall achievement score by experiential teaching method by gender. The summary is as shown in table 5.
Table 7: Analysis of Co-Variance for overall achievement for experiential
teaching method by gender.
Source of variation Sum of squares DF Mean square F-cal F. cv Decision of P<0.05 Covariates (pretest) 24877.065 1 24877.065 397.29 Main effects 132.850 1 132.850 2.122 Gender 132.850 1 132.850 2.122 3.84 NS Explained 25009.915 2 12504.957 199.707 Residual 11458.822 183 62.617 Total 36468.737 185 197.128 Key: NS = Non- significant at P<.05 alpha, P = probability level.
In table 7, the difference observed in the mean achievement scores of male and female is not statistically significant. This is as a result of the fact that the calculated value of F cal 2.122 is less than the critical F value of 3.84. Hence the null hypothesis of no significant was retained.
Therefore it was concluded that the differences between the mean achievement scores of male and female pupils taught basic science using the experiential teaching method is not significant.
Summary of Findings
Results presented in this chapter reveal the following:
1. Experiential teaching method enhanced higher achievement in basic science and technology than the conventional teaching method.
2. The female pupils had slightly higher mean achievement scores than the male pupils but the difference was not significant.
3. There is no interaction between teaching method and gender on pupils’
Achievement in basic science and technology
This chapter presents the discussion on the findings of the study based on the hypotheses and research questions that guided the study. Results are discussed in line with the purpose of the study.
Effects of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ mean achievement in Basic Science.
It was found in table 3 that the pupils taught basic science with experiential teaching approach obtained higher mean score (57.7 S.D 14.04) than pupils taught with conventional teaching method (41.46 S.D 13.90). Table 6 confirmed that the difference is statistically significant at 95% probability level (F-cal = 482.98 and f-critical = 3.84)
_This present study supports and sustains earlier findings of similar experimental studies in the use of experiential teaching approaches (Leavers: 2002; Mabie and Baker, 1996; Richardson, 1994; Olaoye and Omotayo, 2008; Ajiboye and Ajitoni, 2008), where the experiential teaching proved better than the conventional teaching method. The significant effect observed between the experiment and control groups in this study could be attributed to learners being practically and actively involved in the meaningful activities presented by the teacher, who only acted as facilitator of learning. The pupils found the activities interesting, revealing, involving, and full of fun, practical, homely, meaningfully organized and not haphazard and above all product oriented. The children were fully involved. Involvement is important if children must learn effectively. An involved person narrows his attention to one limited activity at a particular time. Based on the above and in order, to promote learning, the educational context must be constructed in a way that brings children to the highest level of involvement. This is where deep level learning takes place (Laevers 2002). The satisfaction that goes along with involvement (participation), stems from one source: the exploratory drive. This is the urge by learners to get better grip on reality; the intrinsic interest in how things and people are; the urge to experience and figure out. This in turn leads to curiosity. Curiosity on the other hand is seen as exploratory attitude, defined by openness for and alertness for the wide variety of stimuli that form our surrounding makes a person accessible, lowers the threshold to getting into the state of arousal that brings a person into the most intense form of concentration and involvement (Laevers, 2002). But real involvement (participation) can only take place when the activities on offer match the capacity of the learners. Indeed, participation is highly rewarding in classroom interaction. Teachers should encourage mutual participation among the pupils, setting up the materials and play a guided role in the course of learning among the pupils (Olaoye and Akinsola; 2007). This is because whatever pupils derive by themselves last longer in memory than what they are told. The finding of this study further justifies the claim by Ibe (2008) that the uses of guided and other innovative teaching methods that are based on hand-method, in school, help learners. It stimulates pupils thereby enhancing learning, since pupils tend to learn better when more of the senses are involved. The method is rewarding and is in contrast with the traditional conventional method of teaching which Friere (1993) described as “banking approach” to education. In the banking approach the teacher often seeks to deposit large amount of information into the pupils with the support of text books while the learners remain passive. The traditional/conventional teaching approach which is completely opposed to experiential teaching approach leads to what Laevers (2002; 10) described as “Superficial learning”. This is learning that does not affect the basic competencies of the child and which has little transfer to real life. The finding is also in line with the findings of Grisoni (2002) who agreed that experiential teaching method promotes active learners and encourages self actualizing learners. This no doubt leads to increased performance by pupils. Furthermore, behavioral psychologist such as Skinner has emphasized the importance of learners’ active participation in the learning activity. This helps learners to understand the concept properly and could lead to his transfer of what was learnt to situation outside the immediate learning environment. This finding of the study confirms the claim by Shien and Bennis (1965) that in experiential teaching approach, the outcome includes; cognitive elements resulting in an increased awareness, emotional elements producing changed attitudes or feelings, behaviourial elements which involves changed interpersonal competencies. To Laevers (2002) the educational outcomes of experiential teaching approach are: Emotional health, expression and communicative skills, curiosity and exploratory drive, imagination and creativity, the competence of self organization and understanding of the world of objects and people. These give rise to the development of learners who are self confident and mentally healthy, curious, and exploratory, expressive and communicative, imaginative and creative, full of initiative, well-organized, with articulated intuitions about the social and physical world, full of initiative and well organized and feeling-world and with a feeling of being connected to the universe and all its creatures. Although experiential teaching approach enhances achievement in basic science and other subjects, it is important to observe that teachers have continued to hesitate in its adoption as teaching approach in the classroom. This is due to the perceived fear about teachers’ competence and resource constraints (Grisoni 2002). According to him, the major factors limiting the implementation of experiential teaching approach in school are the teachers’ lack of understanding of the strategy, the rigid duration of lesson periods and the pupils’ resistance in taking responsibility of their own learning. It is important to note that even though the conventional teaching method is easy to use and takes less time it has not produced the desired result, hence the need to replace it with innovative and result oriented teaching method such as experiential teaching approach. This is the only way to achieve the objectives of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in Nigeria.
Effects of experiential teaching approach on male and female pupil’s achievement in basic Science.
The summary of the result as presented in table 4 showed that the female pupils with mean of 59.03 and SD 14.42 performed slightly better than the males with a mean of 56.68 and S.D of 13.68, when experiential teaching method was used as a teaching method. This finding of this study is similar to UNICEF/UNESCO/FME (1997), findings which showed that girls scored slightly more than boys in basic science with a mean of 32.96 and S.D 18.29 against 32.73 and S.D 18.10 score of boys. This is against the general held notion that science is more suitable for males. This is no surprising as Science Teachers Association of Nigeria STAN. (1992) has stated that females possess as much intellect and creative abilities as to participate in science and technology. However, the difference in the mean scores was not significant as was shown in table 6 (F cal = 1. 011 and F critical = 3.89). This finding is in agreement with the findings of Olaoye and Omotayo (2008) that there is no significant difference between male and female in participatory (Affective science teaching methods). This is because experiential teaching approach is a gender inclusive teaching approach, as the constitution of group members in each group in the classroom ensures equal representation of males and females. It is also important to note that presentation of group work in the classroom equally ensures that both male and female are given the chance to present through rotation of roles. Furthermore, the findings are in agreement with that of Shapiro, Kramer and Hunerberg (1981) who indicated that differences in males and females in science and technology may not manifest sharply with males at higher status in primary schools when appropriate teaching method is used.
These findings of the study are clear indications that the use of experiential teaching method focuses on ensuring higher achievement for both males and females. The issue of particular gender having undue advantage over the other is eliminated. All factors that will enhance both males and females learning effectively are provided. The result of this study attests to this fact. Therefore experiential teaching strategy is not gender biased. It accommodates the interest of both male and female pupils as the teaching is skewed towards them Both males and females are allowed to see, manipulate concrete object themselves, ask each other questions and seek alternative solutions collaboratively, instead of being remote controlled by the teacher. Pupils learn faster when they are taught by their peers using their peer group language.
Interaction effects of teaching method and gender on pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology.
The summary of the result presented in table 7 shows that there is no interaction between gender and teaching method on pupils’ achievement in basic science (f cal = 2 .112 and f crit. = 3.84). Although table 5 showed that male taught with experiential teaching method scored higher than males taught using the conventional method and females taught with experiential method also scored higher than those females taught with the conventional method; but interaction between male and female pupils taught with experiential method is not significant. This shows that experiential teaching method has relative effect on achievement of males and females and does not depend on their gender and as such, it remains an authentic teaching strategy. This finding is in line with the study carried out by Fox (1976) which showed that gender has no significant interaction effect on performances of pupils when manipulative is used in teaching. The above findings was also confirmed by Kurumeh and Achor (2008) when they stated that there is no interaction effect between gender and teaching method on pupils’ achievement in decimal fraction using the Cuisenaire Rods Approach (a participatory/interactive teaching approach). It however contradicts the findings of Bloke and Imoko (2007) that there exists interaction effect of gender and teaching subject, when students are taught mathematics using Ethno- mathematics approach (a participatory/interactive teaching approach). The interaction effect observed could be due to the levels of subjects and the social cultural setting of the subject and study area rather than the teaching method.
The fact that experiential teaching approach proved to be better teaching method as the group taught with the approach scored higher mean achievement could be due to the fact that pupils found the method more interesting and were motivated. This is in line with Ibe (2006) findings that male and female students taught sciences using guided and participatory teaching method have a higher mean score than those taught using conventional approach. The pupils in the treatment group might have worked collaboratively in their group. The teacher might also have told them that the performance of the entire group depends on the success of each group member. Therefore individualism was de-emphasized; while collaboration was emphasized. This led to group members ensuring that every member learnt irrespective of the sex of the member. This therefore eliminated gender bias which would have led to interaction of gender and the teaching method. Experiential teaching approach de-emphasizes individualism and promotes collaboration in Teaching/learning Process.
_SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of the study
The abysmal performance of pupils in basic science and technology which leads to poor academic achievement (FME/UNESCO/UNICEF 1997; Odunusi 1997, Salami, 2007; UNICEF, 2001) prompted the researcher to develop interest into searching for ways of enhancing pupils’ academic achievement in basic science and technology. The need for the search is obvious as basic science and technology is the foundation of further studies of science at all levels. Therefore, this study sought to find the effect of experiential teachings approach on pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology. The study explored the influence of gender, and interaction due to teaching methods and gender on achievement of pupils in basic science and technology.
The quasi-experimental, pretest, post test, non-equivalent group design was adopted for the study. A total of 426 basic six pupils drawn from six schools selected through simple random sampling from Onueke Education Zone were involved in the study. In each school, all the basic six classes were selected and assigned to either treatment or control group. The teaching was done during the regular periods for basic science and technology in each school. The regular teachers who served as facilitators or research assistants taught in each group (treatment and control) Efforts were made to control those extraneous variables which pose threats to the validity of the study. Both treatment and control groups were taught with the same lesson plan but the treatment group was taught with experiential teaching approach while the control group was taught with the conventional teaching method.
_ The instrument used for the study was the Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT). It was developed by the researcher and validated (Face and content) by experts in Basic Science and Lecturers in Measurement and Evaluation in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The instrument was used for pretest but reshuffled and used for post test. BSAT had reliability estimate of 0.774 and internal consistency of 0.87.
Three research questions and three hypotheses were used in the study. The research questions were answered using the mean and standard deviation. The hypothesis was tested using the analysis of co-variance at alpha probability level of 95%.
The results revealed that experiential teaching approach was more effective than the conventional teaching method in enhancing pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology. It was also revealed that there was no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female pupils taught basic science and technology using the experiential teaching approach. In addition, there was no interaction between gender and teaching methods on pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology.
The findings of the study have reaching implications for teachers, ministry of education, research institutes and higher institutions that train teachers. Based on the implications, certain recommendations were made. Limitations of the study were indicated while some suggestions for further researches were made.
From the result obtained in the investigation into the effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology, it is stated that; experiential teaching approach involves hands-on, participatory approach and pupils are involved in meaningful activities in the classroom which lead to their understanding the concept better and higher academic achievement in basis science and technology therefore it is more facilitative than the traditional conventional teaching approach. It was also noted that the adoption and use of experiential teaching method in teaching of basic science and technology will help learners to transfer knowledge acquired in the classroom to homes. This will help them utilize the knowledge acquired to solve their problems at home. Moreover, the teaching method is suitable for both male and female learners; it does not discriminate between genders. Teachers are advised to adopt and use this method in a bid to ensure higher achievement for both male and female pupils in our schools.
Recommendations from the Study
Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations were made:
1. Since experiential teaching approach has been proved to enhance pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology, teachers should be encouraged to employ it more in the teaching of basic science and technology.
2. Teachers’ training tertiary institutions should train their teachers in the use of this pedagogical approach in teaching not only basic science and technology but all other subjects taught in schools.
3. Teacher preparations should be overhauled as it is glaring that most teachers lack the competence for using experiential teaching approach. Efforts should be made to equip them with the skills. Therefore, series of teaching seminars, workshops and short in-service training should be organized for practicing teachers by the local Government, Ministry of Education, SUBEB, UBEC or other parastatal, research institutes and development partners such as UNICEF DFID, USAID etc. Indeed the State Colleges of Education that currently conduct the millennium deveiopment goal (MDG) capacity development trainings for teacher should incorporate experiential teaching in their training plan.
4. Teachers should encourage mutual participation among pupils, setting up materials and play guided role in the course of learning among the pupils. They should encourage pupils to work in groups, which the teachers carefully constitute in the classroom.
5. Basic science teachers should pay greater attention to the issue of gender differences in classrooms. They should as much as possible eliminates contents, techniques and materials that will bring gender differences in their classroom. They should treat both male and female pupils as equal intellect by engaging them in same task of science based practical activities in and out of the classroom.
6. The conventional teaching method should be de-emphasized in our school system. This study has revealed its inadequacy in enhancing high pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology.
The findings of this study have obvious Educational implications for pupils, basic science teachers, ministry of education, research institutes, faculty of Education of universities and colleges of Education and development partners in Education.
The findings of this study have shown that the method helps pupils to achieve higher academic results, therefore efforts must be made to ensure that teachers adopts this method in teaching to enable the reversal of the current poor academic achievement being recorded by pupils in schools especially in basic science and technology
Since the findings of this study have shown that experiential teaching method is good and a viable alternative to the traditional method of teaching, there is the urgent need for efforts to be concentrated on training teachers in this approach and ensuring that they adopt it as a teaching approach particularly in the teaching of basic science and technology and other subjects in basic schools. From the findings of the study, the method led to higher achievement of pupils and does not encourage gender bias in instructional delivery.
The findings of this study have shown that this teaching approach is highly effective, therefore the ministry of education and other parastatals under the ministry in Nigeria especially in Ebonyi state should concentrate efforts to build capacities of teachers and other support staff on the use of this method. This should be done by organizing workshops, seminars and conferences for teachers on use of experiential teaching approach in teaching basic science and even other subjects. As the study revealed, male and female pupils achieved high scores when taught with the method. It means that experiential teaching method can be adopted by the ministry of Education and other relevant parastals for the purpose of promoting gender equity in the classroom. The ministry should liaise with instructional material developers and text book writers to supply instructional materials and write text books that are compliant with experiential teaching method. The ministry should also train teachers on how to improvise teaching aids from local sources. Improvised teaching materials are cheap and are familiar to learners and make more meaning to learners. The ministry should also adjust the time in the school time table in order to enable the teachers apply this method effectively.
Although experiential teaching method is an old teaching method in advanced countries, such as South Africa and United States of America (USA), but it is relatively new and an innovation in teaching in Nigeria. The findings of this study showed that experiential teaching approach is more facilitative in teaching basic science than the traditional teaching method currently dominant in our schools, as such research institutes should carry more research works on the use of this method in all the subjects taught in Nigerian basic and secondary schools. The findings of such research study should be published so that Nigerian Educationist, Teacher training institutions and professionals can make use of the findings.
Since the faculty of educations of universities and the colleges of Educations train the teachers that teach in basic and secondary schools, they should incorporate the experiential teaching approach in their curriculum, because the findings of this study have shown that the experiential teaching method is more effective in facilitating higher academic achievement than the traditional teaching method, which they currently train their students on. This will enable the faculties and colleges train teachers who can effectively use this method in teaching when they graduate and are employed to teach.
The results of the findings have shown that experiential teaching approach promotes gender equality and guarantees higher achievement for pupils in basic science; therefore development partners such as UNICEF, USAID, DFID, UNESCO and other stakeholders such as NTI, UBEC. NERDC and other philanthropic organizations can organize or sponsor capacity building and workshop for teachers on the use of the method in instructional delivery in schools. Currently teachers do not know how to use the method. In order to improve teaching and learning in schools which will give rise to higher achievement for all pupils, teachers must acquire the skill in the use of the method to enable them adopt and use the method in teaching.
Limitations of the Study
The generalizations drawn from this study are subjected to the following limitations.
1. It was only basic six pupils that were used and the content of the study does not cover all the topics in basic science curriculum taught in basic schools.
2. The pupils’ socio economic background and location of the schools were not considered.
3. The use of different research assistants or facilitators for the study will invariably introduce extraneous variables. However, measures were adopted to control it.
Suggestion for Further Research
The findings of this study have generated some areas for further research which are;
1. Effects of location on pupils achievement in basic science and technology with the use of experiential teaching method.
2. Effects of location on pupils’ achievement in integrated science with the use of experiential teaching method.
3. The awareness of serving teachers on experiential teaching methods.