RESEARCH METHODOLODY: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN READING INTEREST AND STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN READING COMPREHENSION

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
This chapter described the design of the study, area of the study, population of the study, the sample and sampling techniques, the instruments used for data collection, validation of the instruments, reliability of the instruments, method of data collection and method of data analysis.
Design of the Study

            The study adopted a correletional survey design. A correlational survey study, according to Nwogu (2003) is the one that seeks to establish the relationship between two or more variables. The study adopted this design because the researcher hoped to determine the relationship between reading interest and reading comprehension achievement of SSS students in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State.



Area of the Study
            The research was carried out in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State. Ebonyi State is located in the South-East geo-politcal Zone of Nigeria. It is bounded in the East by Cross River State, in the West by Enugu State, in the North by Benue State and in the South by Abia State. Ebonyi State is made up of three Education Zones: Abakaliki Education Zone, Onueke Educaton Zone and Afikpo Education Zone. Afikpo Education Zone is located at the northern part of Ebonyi State. Five local governments make up Afikpo Education Zone: Afikpo North, Afikpo South, Ohaozara, Ivo and Onicha Local Government Areas. The Zone is made up of urban and rural areas. The urban areas comprise of people who are professionals in different fields such as lawyers, doctors, engineers, lecturers, business men and women, artisans, etc., while the people that make up the rural areas are mainly farmers and few artisans as well as petty traders. The people of the area are very hospitable. They assisted the researcher in no small measure to locate the schools and Afikpo education zonal office needed for the study.
Population of the Study
            The population of the study comprised all the SS2 students in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State and all the schools in the same zone. Five local governments make up Afikpo Education Zone: Afikpo North L.G.A has 22 schools, Afikpo South L.G.A. has 15 schools, Ohaozara L.G.A has 16 schools, Ivo L.G.A has 09 schools and Onicha L.G.A has 18 schools. According to the 2010/2011 statistical data of the Ebonyi State Secondary Education Board Afikpo Zone, the total number of schools in Afikpo Education Zone was 80 while the total number of SS2 students of all the schools in the zone was 3854 (see Appendix  ).

Ebonyi State SSS 2 School Enrolment 2011/2012
S/NO
Local Government Area
No of Schools
No of SS2 Students
1
Afikpo North LGA
22
1002
2
Afikpo South
15
781
3
Ohaozara L.G.A
16
779
4
Ivo L.G.A
09
497
5
Onicha L.G.A
18
795

                  TOTAL
80
3854
Source: Ebonyi State Secondary Education Board, Afikpo Zone School Enrolment 2011/2012.
Sample and Sampling Techniques
            The number of schools selected was 20 drawn from the 80 public schools in the five LGAs that make up Afikpo Education Zone, while the number of students was 769 drawn from the 3854 SS2 students in the Zone used for the study as the sample.
            Both the school and the students were selected by systematic sampling technique. To achieve this, a list of the names of the schools was drawn and in each school selected for the study, thirty eight students were picked using the systematic sampling technique, apart from two schools where fourty five students and fourty students respectively were taken due to their sample size. The students were given numbers and every 3rd number was picked until the 769 students that made up the sample size were drawn. 
Instrument for Data Collection
            In this study, two instruments: a questionnaire tagged “Reading Interest Inventory” (RII) and a Reading Comprehension Achievement Test (RCAT) were used. The instrument was divided into two parts: Part A and B. Part A was meant to elicit information from the Bio-data such as school, class, age, sex and hobbies. Part B was a checklist of 20 items with four point rating scale to elicit data that will be used to measure the students’ reading interest. The second instrument (Part C), comprised 20 items with a four point rating scale (A,B,C,D) making a total of 40 items for the study. Part B was presented in form of reading interest inventory which the researcher used to measure the reading interest of the students. Part C was two Reading Comprehension Achievement Tests with ten multiple choice items to accompany each of the comprehension passages, making up the 20 items in Part C. The researcher used the reading comprehension tests to measure the reading comprehension achievement of the students (see Appendix A and B). The LIKERT Scale was used and the values assigned to it were Strongly Agree 4, Agree 3, Disagree 2 and Strongly Disagree 1.  There was a mixture of both negative and positive items to ensure a proper balance.  
Validation of the Instruments
The draft of the two instruments were submitted to three experts for face validation: two in English Language to assess the relevance and appropriateness of their contents and one from Measurement an Evaluation unit of Science Education Department all of Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The Reading Comprehension Achievement Test (RCAT) had twenty objective derived test items while the Reading Interest Inventory (RII) had twenty nine statement items. After face validation, no item was dropped, only restructuring took place and the restructured items were accordingly effected in the questionnaire (refer to Appendix C).
The two instruments were administered to thirty students who were not part of the main study, in a trial testing. Data collected from the reading interest inventory were used for construct validation in a factor analysis using the Principal Component Matrix. By Varimax Rotated Matrix, nine items were dropped from the twenty nine for bad loading, which left behind twenty items for final use. The items dropped were: 1, 4, 9, 11, 16, 20, 23, 26 and 28 (see appendix D).
Reliability of the Instrument
To test the reliability of the instruments, copies of the questionnaire were first administered to a group of thirty students outside the sample group. The data obtained from the RCAT were used to compute its reliability using Kudar-Richardson–20 (KR-20) which gave a reliability index of 0.96 that was adjudged reliable having high internal consistency (see appendix E). Also, data obtained from the twenty item RII instrument were used to compute its reliability using Cronbach Alpha approach. A reliability coefficient index of 0.71 was obtained showing high internal consistency and hence suitable for the study (See appendix F).
Method of Data collection
            Copies of the instruments were taken to the schools and administered accordingly. The researcher worked with the English Language teachers who served as research assistants to help in the distribution and collection of the instruments. The researcher went to the schools a day before the administration of the instruments and properly briefed the research assistants on the roles they were expected to play during the data collection. They carried out these roles perfectly well. The three parts of the instruments (A,B,C) were distributed at the same time and the students’ responses were collected on the spot to ensure maximum return.
Method of Data Analysis
            The research questions were answered using the Mean and Standard Deviation while the hypotheses were tested using the Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The interpretation was done thus: for research question 1, the mean of 2.5 and above was considered to reflect High Reading Interest while less than 2.5 reflected Low Reading Interest. Then, in research question 2 which dealt with the achievement of the students, the mean less than 3.00 indicated a low achievement While the mean above 3.00 reflected High Achievement. For research question 3, the Grand Mean of 1.0 and above was reagarded as High Reading Interest.  Research question 4 determined the achievement of both the male and female students, thus the mean less than 3.00 indicated Low Achievement. Research question 5 is answered by correlation of the achievement score / the interest score of the students. A 4-point rating scale was used: strongly agreed 4, agreed 3, disagree 2, and strongly disagree 1.

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
The findings were analyzed in relation to the research questions and research hypotheses formulated to guide the study. The results were presented in tables (see  appendix G).
Research Question One
What is the extent of the students’ reading interests?

Table 1: Students’ reading interest

S/N

Items

SA

A

D

SD
_
X

SD     

DECISION
1
I don’t like reading always..
452
46
193
78
3.13
1.10
HRI
2
I often prefer watching TV to reading.

439

53

98

79

3.10

1.0

HRI
3
I detest home assignments because they compel me to read.

463

111

175

20

.i3.32

91

HRI
4
I do not get bored reading beyond half an hour.

481

128

84

68

3.35

98

HRI
5
Reading is boring to me.
450
133
147
39
3.29
.94
HRI
6
My parents compel me to read sometimes.

359

286

08

116

3.15

1.02

HRI
7
I prefer photography to reading.
189
428
0
152
2.85
1.00
HRI
8
I usually find it difficult to read any novel to the end no matter how interesting.
126
201
44
398
2.07
1.19
LRI
9
I do not have a study time table.
514
172
08
75
3.46
.92
HRI
10
I cannot read with understanding in the class when it is noisy.
162
435
170
02
2.98
.66
HRI
11
I always read silently.
419
196
123
31
3.30
.88
HRI
12
I read less after school.
451
37
237
44
3.16
1.04
HRI
13
I enjoy reading in my spare time during holidays.
429
120
220
0
3.27
87


HRI
14
I rarely use the school library because I detest reading.

227

134

405

03

2.76

.88

HRI
15
I read a newspaper when it is available only.
350
194
120
105
3.0
1.07

HRI
16
I read to pass exams only.
165
484
32
88
2.94
.84

HRI
17
I prefer the computer to reading.
502
226
04
37
3.55
.74

HRI
18
I always prefer someone to tell me the story in a novel than reading it.
251
367
149
02
3.12
71


HRI
19
I prefer reading alone.
412
27
109
221
2.81
1.34
HRI
20
Reading is my hobby.
386
246
128
09
3.31
.78
HRI

Grand mean




3.09


(HRI means High Reading Interest, while LRI means Low Reading Interest)
Table 1 indicates that the grand mean score is 3.09 which is above the decision rule of 2.5. This shows that the respondents have high interest in reading which is contrary to the research findings of Okon & Ansa (2005) that the students have low reading interests. It is also contrary to the views of Fatimayin (2012) that student’s have low reading interests which affect their achievement. This shows that many other factors like text content and text readability may be part of the reasons for the students’ poor achievement in comprehension passage.
Research Question Two
What is the extent of the students’ achievement in reading comprehension passages?
Table 2: Achievement of the students in reading comprehension.
Students Reading Comprehension Test Achievement Scores


Students Sccores

F
_
X

SD


5
60


10
44


15
35


20
69


25
127


30
88



35
166



40
88



45
60



50
18



55
10



60
04


Grand Mean


28.84
12.26








From table 2 above, the decision rule is 28.84.  This indicates that respondents’ have low achievement in reading comprehension. This result is in line with the Chief Examiners’ Reports (2011) that the students’ results in reading comprehension are poor on yearly basis. When students have interest in reading and perform poorly in reading tests, a lot of reasons may be acountable to it. It may be as a result of unavailability of reading materials, unconduceive reading environment, lack of qualified teaching personel, poor teaching methodology, no alloted time for reading in the school timetable, etc.

Research Question Three
To what extent would the students’ reading interest relate by gender?


Table 3: The reading interest of male and female students 

S/n

ITEMS

Male

SA

A

D

SD
_
X

SD

Interpretation

Fe-male

SA

A

D

SD
_
X

SD

Decision
1
I don’t like reading always.
M
226
24

93

38

3.15

1.0

Accepted


F

226

22

100

40

3.11

1.11

Accepted
2
I often prefer watching TV to reading.
M

219

26

97

39

3.11

1.0

Accepted

F

220

27

101

40

3.10

1.11

Accepted
3
I detest home assignments because they compel me to read.
M

228

57

87

09

3.32

.90

Accepted


F

235

54

88

11

3.32

.91

Accepted
4
I do not get bored reading beyond half an hour.
M

247

63

37

34

3.32
.99
Accepted


F

242

65

47

34

3.32

.99

Accepted
5
Reading is boring to me.
M

225

67

70

19

3.30

93

Accepted


F

225

66

77

20

3.27

95

Accepted
6
My parents compel me to read sometimes.
M

176

142

04

59
3.14

1.03

Accepted


F

183

144

04

57

3.16

1.02

Accepted
7
I prefer photography to reading.
M

97

211

0

73

2.87

1.00

Accepted


F

92

217

0

79

2.83

1.01

Accepted
8
I usually find it difficult to read any novel to  the end no matter how interesting
M

66

97

22

196
2.08

1.20

Rejected


F

60

104

22

202

2.05

1.18

Rejected
9
I do not have a study time table.
M

253

88

04

36

3.46

.91

Accepted


F

261

84

04

39

3.46

.93

Accepted
10
I cannot read with understanding in the class when it is noisy.
M

81

218

81

01

2.99

.66

Accepted



F

81

217

89

01

2.97

.67

Accepted
11
I always read silently.
M

202

99

65

15

3.28

.88

Accepted


F

217

97

58

16

3.32

.87

Accepted
12
I read less after school.
M

226

18

116

21

3.17

1.04

Accepted


F

225

19

121

23

3.14

1.05

Accepted
13
I enjoy reading in my spare time during holidays.
M

210

58

113

0
3.25

88

Accepted


F

219

62

107

0

2.28

87

Accepted
14
I rarely use the school library because I detest reading.
M

113

69

197

02

2.76

.88

Accepted


F

114


65

208

01

2.75

.88

Accepted
15
I read a newspaper when it is available only.
M

170

101

58

52

3.02

1.07

Accepted


F

180

93

62

53

3.03

1.08

Accepted
16
I read to pass exams only.
M

79

240

17

45

2.92

.84

Accepted


F

86

244

15

43

2.96

.83

Accepted
17
I prefer the computer to reading.
M

247

117

01

16

3.5

.7

Accepted


F

255

109

03

21

3.54

.76

Accepted
18
I prefer someone to tell me the story in a novel than reading it.
M

126

178

76

01

3.12

.72

Accepted


F

125

189

73

01

3.12

.71

Accepted
19
I prefer reading alone.
M

203

14

56

108

2.81

1.33

Accepted


F

209

13

53

113

2.82

1.34

Accepted
20
Reading is my hobby.
M

188

123

65

05

3.29

.79

Accepted


F

198

123

63

04

3.32

.78

Accepted

Grand mean





1.39

0.94






1.39


Accepted
Table 3 indicates that the Grand Mean of 1.39 is obtained for the male respondents while the Grand Mean score of the females is also 1.39. This is an indication that the male and female students have High Reading Interests and both reading interests of the male and female students are Highly Related.
Research Question Four
To what extent would the students’ achievement in reading comprehension differ by gender?

Table 4: The achievement of male and female students in reading comprehension


Gender

 No of Stds
    _  
    X

    SD



Male

Female

    381

    388

28.70

28.98
  
   12.04

  12.49

Table 4 shows that the mean obtained for the male respondents is 28.70 while that of the females is 28.98. This shows that there is a significant difference between the achievements of the male and female students in reading comprehension.
Research Question Five
What is the relationship between the students’ reading interest and their reading comprehension achievement?

Table 5: Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient between the students’ reading interest and achievement 
                     

Achievement score
Interest total
Achievement score
1.0000
-.1031

(769)
(769)



Interest total
-.1031
1.0000

(769)
(769)




Table 5 indicates that the achievement score of the students is 1.0000 while their reading interest total score is -.1031. The finding indicates that there is no significant relationship between the students’ reading interest and their reading comprehension achievement.
Hypothesis 1
Ho1:    There is no significant relationship between the mean student’s reading interest and the mean achievement in reading comprehension.
Table 6:          The Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient of the mean students’ reading interest and the mean students’ reading comprehension achievement
                                       


_
X

SD

N

DF

r-Cal

r-Crit

Interpretation

Reading Interest
Scores

3.09

0.96

769

767

36.11

1.960

Ho Accepted

Achvt
Scores

28.84

12.26





             
Table 6 above indicates that the r-cal is 36.11 while the r-crit is 1.960. The results show that r-cal is greater than r-crit. It therefore follows that the null Hypothesis 1 is accepted, implying that there is no significant relationship between mean students' reading interest and the mean students' reading comprehension achievement.
Hypothesis Two
Ho2:    There is no significant difference between the reading interest rates of male and female students.
Table 7:          Summary of the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient of the mean reading interest of male and female students.


GENDER
_
X

SD

N

DF

r-Cal

r-Crit

Interpretation

Male

1.39

0.94

381

767

-16.45

1.960

Ho Accepted

Female

1.39

0.95

388






            It is observed in table 7 that the mean of the reading interest of male students is 1.39, while the mean of the female reading interest is 1.39. The implication is that there is no significant difference between the mean reading interest of male and female students, thus Ho2 is accepted.
Hypothesis Three
Ho3:     There is no significant difference between the achievement of male and female students in reading comprehension tests.
Table 8:          Summary of the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient of the mean reading comprehension achievement of male and female students


GENDER
_
X

SD

N

DF

r-Cal

r-Crit

Interpretation

Male

28.70

12.04

381

767

42.57

1.960

Ho Rejected

Female

28.98

12.49

388




Table 8 above indicates that the mean of the achievement of the male students in reading comprehension is 28.70 and that of the female is 28.98. Based on this,  Ho is therefore rejected. This therefore implies that there is a significant difference between the mean score of male and female students.
Summary of Findings
The data analyzed reveal that the students have interest in reading. This is contrary to the views of researchers in the literatures reviewed in this study where it was noted that the students have no reading interest. A typical example is the findings of Okon & Ansa (2005) that the students have low reading interests. It is also contrary to the views of Fatimayin (2012) that student’s have low reading interests which affect their achievement. This shows that many other factors like text content and text readability may be part of the reasons for the students’ poor achievement in comprehension passage not necessarily lack of interest.
It was also found that the reading comprehension achievements of the students are poor. This result is in line with the Chief Examiners’ Reports (2011) that the students’ results in reading comprehension are poor on yearly basis. When students have interest in reading and perform poorly in reading tests, a lot of reasons may be acountable to it. It may be as a result of unavailability of reading materials, unconduceive reading environment, lack of qualified teaching personel, poor teaching methodology, no alloted time for reading in the school timetable, etc. 
This study equally found that the reading interests of the male and female students are the same. This is opposed to the finding of the literature reviewed where Oyebola (2004) noted that the reading interest of the male and female students differ.
In this study, it was found that there is a significant difference between the reading comprehension achievements of the male and female students. This agrees with the findings of the literatures reviewed where McNamara (2007) found that boys perform better in science subjects than girls. in the same vein, Bugel and Buunk (2006) also found that boys performances differ from that of girls.
Finally, the study also found that there is no significant relationship between the students’ reading interest and their reading comprehension achievement. This does not agree with the literatures reviewed where researchers like Greany (2007) found that reading interest results in better reading comprehension achievement.
CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
            This chapter discusses the findings of the study “Relationship between Reading Interest and Reading Comprehension Achievement of Senior Secondary School Students in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State”.
            The findings are hereby discussed under the following headings, in line with the findings:
                  students' interest in reading,
                  achievement of the students in reading comprehension,
                  reading interest of the male and female student,
                  degree of difference in the achievement of the male and female students in reading comprehension,
                  relationship between the students’ reading interest and their achievement in reading comprehension.
Students' Interest in Reading
Research Question 1 sought to determine the reading interest of the students. The result of data analysis of Table 1 shows that the respondents have high interest in reading. This research finding is contrary to the findings of Okon and Ansa (2005) where they noted that the students do not have reading interest. This result equally is a surprising turn-around of popular results got by Oyebola (2004). This researcher found that students have low interest in reading because they copy the society that has lost reading interest in the quest for materialism. This result is an indication that students may have interest in reading but many other factors like time, environment, availability of reading materials, social media like internet browsing, the use of facebook etc, may hinder them from actually carrying out the reading process. For instance, a student have interest in reading because he/she knows that that is the major means of passing his examinations but may prefer to chat with friends in the facebook. Equally, a child may have interest in reading but there may be no books to read or he/she may have to assist the parents in the farm or market early in the morning before going to school or after school, with little or no time to read.
Reading Comprehension Achievement of Students
           Research Question 2 was formulated to investigate the mean achievement of the students in reading comprehension. Based on the evidence from the data in Table 2 of Chapter Four, the result indicated that the reading comprehension achievement of the students was poor. This is in line with the Chief Examiners' Reports on WASSCE (2011) that the students’ reading comprehension achievement is poor on yearly basis. This is also in agreement with Aliyu (1995) assertion that the failure rate of students in English language, of which reading comprehension is part of, is placed between 70-75% annually.
That the reading interest of the male and female students are the same
           Research Question 3 was formulated to determine the students reading interest based on gender. From the data analysis of table 3, it is established that there is a significant  relationship between the reading interest of the male and female students high reading interest. This finding is contrary to the research findings of Oyebola (2004) that the reading interest of male and female students differ. This current study has establishing that gender does not affect the reading interests of students. In the same vein, Smith (2002) whose research findings proved that males have contrary reading interest to the females was also opposed by this current study. In Smiths (2002) study, both boys and girls reading interest varied according to their gender but this present study found that there is no gender difference in the student’s reading interest.
Achievement of the Male and Female Students in Reading Comprehension
      Research Question 4 sought to find out if there is any gender difference in the achievements of students in reading comprehension. The result obtained from the data analyzed in Table 4 indicates that there is a gender difference between the male and female students in reading comprehension achievement. This, to an extent, is contrary to Oyebola’s (2004) findings that the achievement of the male and female students in reading comprehension is not the same.
Relationship between the Students’ Reading Interest and their Achievement in Reading Comprehension
      Research Question 5 was formulated to investigate the relationship between the students’ reading interest and their reading comprehension achievement. The finding indicates that there is no significant relationship between the students’ reading interest and their achievement in reading comprehension. This finding disagrees with the literatures reviewed in this study where Krashen (2005) noted that reading interest results in better reading comprehension achievement. Krashen's findings is related with Stanvich and Cunningham's (2003) that students reading interest positively affects their reading comprehension achievement. This means that interest in reading does not necessarily determine better achievement in reading comprehension as other factors have roles to play.


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