PROJECT TOPIC: TEACHING APPROACH ON PUPILS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
This study evaluated the effects of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology in selected primary schools in Onueke Education Zone of Ebonyi State. The study adopted a pretest posttest, quasi experimental research design. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. A total of 426 pupils from 6 intact classes were used for the study. Three intact classes were assigned to treatment group while the other three intact classes were assigned to the control group. The treatment group was taught Basic Science and Technology (BST) using the experiential teaching method while control group was taught using the conventional teaching method.

 A basic Science and Technology Achievement Test (BSAT) developed by the researcher with spearman reliability co-efficient of 0.77 and internal consistency of 0.87 determined using the KR20 approach was used for data collection. and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) to test the hypotheses. The research questions were answered using adjusted mean and standard deviations. The result  revealed that there was a significant different  between pupils taught basic science and technology using experiential teaching approach and those taught basic science and technology using the traditional (Conventional) teaching approach with experiential teaching approach being more facilitative. Again, there was no significant difference between male and female pupils taught basic science and technology using experiential teaching approach. Finally, it was found that there were no interaction effects between gender and methods on achievement in basic science and technology. It was therefore recommended among others that teachers of primary schools should adopt experiential teaching approach in teaching basic science and technology in the study area to ensure hands-on-activities and thereby contributing to enhanced achievement.
 


EFFECT OF EXPERIENTIAL TEACHING APPROACH ON PUPILS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND COMPUTER EDUCATION FACULTY OF EDUCATION


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -                       ii
Approval       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -                       iii
Certification  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -                       iv
Dedication-   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -                       v
Acknowledgment-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -                       vi
Table of content       -           -           -           -           -           -           -                       vii
List of Tables            -           -           -           -           -           -           -                      
Abstract -       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -                       x


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study---------------------------------------------------------- 1
Statement of the problem---------------------------------------------------------- 14
Purpose of the study---------------------------------------------------------------- 15
Significance of the study----------------------------------------------------------- 16
Scope of the study-------------------------------------------------------------------18
Research questions------------------------------------------------------------------19
Hypotheses----------------------------------------------------------------------------19
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual framework--------------------------------------------------------------20
Experiential Learning----------------------------------------------------------------20
Criteria for selecting level of experience----------------------------------------24
Principles of analogy or association----------------------------------------------25
Principle of mental set--------------------------------------------------------------- 25
Retention of learning _---------------------------------------------------------------26
Strategies for facilitating retention------------------------------------------------27
Meaningfulness and organization of subject matter--------------------------27
Association------------------------------------------------------------------------------28
Learning by practice------------------------------------------------------------------28
Use of Mnemonic Device-----------------------------------------------------------29
Imagery(Audio-visual Aids)-------------------------------------------------------  29
Self Recitation-----------------------------------------------------------------------   30
Transfer of learning-----------------------------------------------------------------  30
Life Skill------------------------------------------------------------------------------    32
Gender Sensitivity-------------------------------------------------------------------  35
Pupils’ participation-----------------------------------------------------------------          36
Experiential learning model------------------------------------------------------   41
Davis model of experiential learning-------------------------------------------   41
Diamonds model of experiential learning-------------------------------------   42
Theoretical Frame Work-----------------------------------------------------------            49
Experiential learning theory-------------------------------------------------------            49
John Dewey’s Theory of Experience-------------------------------------------   50
Interaction----------------------------------------------------------------------------   53
Piagetian Theory of Cognitive Development---------------------------------     53
Brunerian theory--------------------------------------------------------------------            58
Kurt Lewin Cognitive Field Theory and Motivation--------------------------  62
Theory of Transfer------------------------------------------------------------------   65
Generalization-----------------------------------------------------------------------   65
Theory of Identical Elements----------------------------------------------------- 65
Formal Disciplines-----------------------------------------------------------------    66
Theory of transposition-----------------------------------------------------------  67
Theory of learning to learn------------------------------------------------------    68
Review of Empirical Studies----------------------------------------------------    68
Summary of Reviewed Related Literature-------------------------------------  88

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design----------------------------------------------------------------------90
Area of the Study--------------------------------------------------------------------           90
Population of the Study------------------------------------------------------------            91
Sample and Sampling Techniques----------------------------------------------    91
Instrument for Data Collection----------------------------------------------------            91
Validation of the Instrument-------------------------------------------------------            92
Reliability of the Instrument-------------------------------------------------------            93
Experimental Procedure----------------------------------------------------------- 93
Control of extraneous variable--------------------------------------------------- 94
Method of Data Collection---------------------------------------------------------           95
Method of Data Analysis-----------------------------------------------------------           95
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Research Question 1--------------------------------------------------------------- 96
Research Question 2 --------------------------------------------------------------  96
Research Question 3 --------------------------------------------------------------  97
Hypotheses---------------------------------------------------------------------------           98
Summary of Findings--------------------------------------------------------------100
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION
The effect of experiential teaching approach on
pupils’ mean achievement in basic science----------------------------           101
The effect of experiential teaching approaches on male and
female pupil’s-----------------------------------------------------------------    104
The interaction effects of method and gender on pupils’
achievement in basic science---------------------------------------------        105
CHAPTER SIX:  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of the Study-------------------------------------------------------                107
Conclusion----------------------------------------------------------------------108
Recommendations------------------------------------------------------------   109
Educational Implications-----------------------------------------------------   110
Limitations of the study-------------------------------------------------------   112
Suggestions for further research-------------------------------------------   112
REFERENCES-----------------------------------------------------------------    113
APPENDICES
APPENDICES
Appendix I:   Experimental instructional package (for treatment)--------- 119
Appendix II:  Conventional instructional package (for control Group)---- 125
Appendix III: Item Analysis of Basic Science and Technology
 Achievement Test------------------------------------------------129

Appendix IIIB:          Distraction Index (DI)------------------------------------ 130
Appendix IV:            Table of specification for BSAT------------------------        134
Appendix V:             Model Experiential lesson Note------------------------135
Appendix VI:            Basic Science and Technology Achievement
Test (BSAT)------------------------------------------------ 138
Appendix VII:  Reliability Test of the Instrument (Stability)--------------- 142
Appendix VIII:  Reliability test of the BSAT instrument using
     the KR20 Approach--------------------------------------------143

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:          Table of content…………………………………….………….i
Table 2:          Learning styles……………………………………………….46
Table 3:          Mean and Standard deviation of achievement scores
of pupils taught using experiential  and conventional
teaching methods…………………….………………………96

Table 4:          Mean achievement scores and standard
deviation of male and female pupils taught
Basic Science and technology using the
experiential teaching approach.    ……………………….…97

Table 5:          Summary of interaction effect between
gender and teaching method on pupils’ mean
achievement in basic science and Technology……………97

Table 6:          Analysis of co-variance for pupils’ overall
Basic Science and technology
achievement scores by teaching methods
and gender…………………………………………….………..98

Table 7:          Analysis of Co-variance for overall achievement for
experiential teaching method by gender………………….…99


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