PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL IN NIGERIA:A CASE STUDY OF ABAKALIKI METROPOLITAN CITY, EBONYI STATE

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT
OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LAW, IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LAWS (LL.M) IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LAW

ABSTRACT
A recognition of the importance of planning and development control in any physical planning and development has propelled the researcher to carry out a study of planning and development control in Nigeria with particular emphasis on Abakaliki Metropolitan City, Ebonyi State.
The state of the physical environment particularly the urban centres today is major source of global concern. The concern is greater in respect of developing nations like Nigeria. This is evident from the fact that the urban environment is greatly of man’s making. The safeguarding of the urban areas from human injurious physical, social, economic and political activities should be man’s paramount responsibility. To do justice to this curious topic, the researcher investigated the factors that give rise to planning and development control, methods of achieving planning and development control, problems that militate against planning and development control, and the agencies or authorities responsible for planning and development control in the Abakaliki metropolitan city vis-à-vis the laws and regulations that they employ. To investigate these problems, relevant literatures were consulted and other secondary data such as journals, periodicals, magazines and internet materials were made use of.  Official publications and internal memos of relevant planning authorities were consulted, reviewed and incorporated into the study where necessary. The results from the analysis revealed that some of the existing planning and development control laws are obsolete and needed review. Poor funding was also identified as a major hindrance to effective planning control as well as administrative lapses on the part of relevant planning and development control authorities and agencies. From the in-depth and analytical appraisal, certain findings were made and based on the findings, recommendations were proffered. Finally, we drew conclusions which were all intended to possibly ameliorate the situation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Approval
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgements
Table of Contents
Table of Cases
Table of Statutes
Table of Abbreviations
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Limitations of the Study
1.8       Research Methodology

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Legal Framework
2.0.1   What Town and Country (Urban and Regional) Planning
Entails
2.0.2   Whether Urban and Regional Planning and Regulation of Physical Development are Legislative or Administrative Matters
2.0.3   On Nature of Urban and Regional Planning or Development Control  and Where Resides Power to Legislate Thereon
2.0.4   On Ambits of Legislative Powers of National and State Assemblies
and Where Resides Power to Legislate on Urban and Regional
Planning
2.0.5   On Where Resides Power to Legislate on Physical Planning and Development Control of Land in a State
2.0.6   On Where Resides Power to Legislate on Physical Planning and Exercise of Development Control Over Land Vested in Federal Government or it Agencies in the Territory of a State
2.0.7   On Supremacy of the Constitution
2.1       Conceptual Frame Work
2.1.1   Development
2.1.2   Planning
2.1.3   Control

CHAPTER THREE
SOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANNING LAW AND LAND USE CONTROL IN NIGERIA
3.1       Sources of Planning Law and Land Use Control in Nigeria
3.1.1   Customary Law
3.1.1.1The Theory of Corporate Ownership
3.1.1.2The Doctrine of Eminent Domain
3.1.1.3Other Cultural Practices
3.1.2   Received English Law
3.1.2.1The Common Law Rules
3.1.2.1.(i)The Tort of Nuisance
3.1.2.1.(II)The Rule of Rylands v. Fletcher
3.1.2.1.(III)Easement
3.1.2.1.(iv)     Doctrine of Wastes
3.1.2.1.(v)Covenants in Leases
3.1.2.2Equity
3.1.2.2(i)Doctrine of Restrictive Covenants
3.1.2.2(ii)Building Scheme
3.1.3   Statutes as a Source of Planning Law and Land Use Control
in Nigeria
3.1.4   Case Laws as a Source of Planning Law
3.2       The Development of Planning Laws in Nigeria: A Survey
3.2.1   The Period Before 1946
3.2.2   The Nigerian Town  and Country Planning Act 1946
3.2.3   The Nigeria Urban & Regional Planning Law , 1992
3.2.4   The Land Use Act, 1978

CHAPTER FOUR
PLANNING CONTROL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
4.1       Factors That Gave Rise to Planning Control
4.1.1   Population Factor
4.1.2   Unplanned Development
4.1.4   Cultural Influence in Planning Control
4.2       Methods of Achieving Planning Control
4.2.1   Development Control
4.2.2   Statutory Provision/Action
4.2.3   Demolition Exercise
4.2.4   Penalty and Contravention Notice
4.3       The Effects of Planning Control on Environmental
            Protection
4.3.1   Nigerian Case Law and Environmental Liability

4.4       Problems That Militate Against Planning Control
4.4.1   Low Public Participation
4.4.2   Enforcement Problems
4.4.3   Haphazardness and Inflexibility of Physical Devices

CHAPTER FIVE
PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL IN ABAKALIKI METROPOLITAN CITY, EBONYI STATE
5.1  The Emergence of Abakaliki as a State Capital
5.2  The Role of Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency
       (EBSEPA)
5.3       The Role of Ministry of Lands and Survey
5.4       The Role of Abakaliki Capital Territory Development Board
5.5       The Role of Ebonyi State Housing Development Corporation
5.6       Abakaliki and the New Ocho-udo City
5.6.1   Background to the Project
5.6.2   Goals and Objectives of the New Ocho-udo City
5.6.3   The Subject Areas of the New Ocho-udo City Master Plan
5.6.4   Vision of the New Ocho-udo City Master Plan
5.6.5   Land Use Budget for Ocho-udo City
5.6.6.  Capacity Building in the New Ocho-Udo City

CHAPTER SIX
CONCLUSIONS    
6.1       Findings
6.2      Recommendations
6.3      Conclusion
Bibliography

TABLE OF CASES
Abiola v. Ijeoma (1970 Vol.11 All NWLR 268
Adebutu v. Lagos City Council (1966) 2 All N.L.R. 295
Adediran and Anor v. Interland Transport Ltd (1992) 9NWLR          
(pt.214) 155
Ademola v. Rutili and Ors Suit No L.D/784?84 01-21/9/85 (unreported)
AG Abia State v. AG Federation [2002] 2 NWLR (pt 763)
AG Federation v. AG Abia State(2001)11NWLR (pt.725) 689
AG Lagos State v. AG Federation and 35 ors [2003] 12 NWLR (pt833)1SC
AG Ogun State & ors  v. AG Fed (1982) 3 NCLR 166
AG Ondo State v. AG Federation [2002] 9 NWLR (pt 772) 222
Amodu Tijani v. Secretary of Southern Nigeria (1991) AC 399
and Another (1974) All N.L.R. (pt 11) 385
Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co. 259 US 20 (1922)
Bajulaiye. v. Akapo (1938) 14 NLR 10
Balewa v. Doherty  (1963) 2 SCNLR 155
Bassey .v. Conbham (1924) 5. N.L.R. 90
Byrant v. Le ferre (1879) 4 cps. 170
Chika Ibeneme v. Governor of Anambra State High Court of
Onitsha (Unreported)
Dalton v. Angus (1881) 6C. 740
De facto Bakeries and Catering Services Limited .v. Ajilori
Ellston v..Reacher (1908) Vol. 2 Ch 374
Ikpadiola and Ibadan Metropolitan Authority v. Abiodun [1987]
3 NWLR (pt.59) 18
Ilugun Native Court 85/1956 unreported
Iyamba v. Holmes (1924) 5 NLR 83
Lewis v. Bankole (1909) 1 NLR 83
London and South Western Railway v. Gomm (1882) 3 CH.D 562
LTC v. Nouroundin Sule & Chief Aromire (1939) 15 NLR 105
Moore v. Nwado & Anor (1974) Unife LR (Pt. 4) 521
Oladehim v. Continental Textile Mills Ltd (1978) 2 SC 23
Rylands v. Fletcher (1974) Unife LR. (Pt4) 521
Saberu the Balogun of Alake v. Kasumu, Native Court 38/1950
Sanusi Fabiyo v. Akinkoye, Onikalu of Owuaka “A” Native Court 70/1950
Savage and Another .v. Akinirnade (1964) All N.L.R. 238
Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd v. Chief Otoko and others  (1990) 6NWLR (pt.159) 693
Tebite v. Nigeria Marine Trading Co Ltd (1975) UILR( pt.4) 432
Tulk v. Moxhay (1848) 2 PH 774

TABLE OF STATUTES
Civil Aviation Act Cap. 51 LFN 2004
Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency Edict 1999
Environmental Sanitation Edict, 1985 of Lagos State
Federal Highway Act, Cap. 323 LFN 2004
Law No. 005 of 2007 of Ebonyi State of Nigeria
National Inland Waterways Authority Act (Decree No 13 of 1997)
Nigeria Railway Corporation Act Cap. 323 LFN 2004
Nigeria Urban & Regional Planning Act (Decree No 88)
of 1992 Cap. 135 LFN 2004
Ordinance No 4 of 1946
The Hygiene Act of 1873
The 1999 Constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended)
The Cantonment Proclamation, 1904
The Land Use Act, 1978
The Nigerian Town and Country Planning Act, 1946
The Swamp Improvement Act, 1877
The Town Improvement Act, 1863
Town & Country Planning Laws Caps. 123 &130, 1959
Town and Country Planning (Building Plans) Regulations 1986
Town and Country Planning Law Of Western Nigeria, 1959

LIST OF ABBREVATIONS
AG                  -           Attorney – General
All. N. L.R     -           All Nigerian Law Report    
Cap                 -           Chapter
Ch.D               -           Chancery Division
EBSEPA         -           Ebonyi State Environmental Sanitation Protection
Agency
EBSN              -           Ebonyi State of Nigeria
EBSU              -           Ebonyi State. University
Enforcement Agency
HOD               -           Head of Department
JSC                 -           Justice of Supreme Court
LEDB             -           Lagos Executive Development Board
LFN                -           Laws of the Federation of Nigeria
N.W.L.R         -           Nigerian Weekly Law Report
NESREA        -           National Environmental Sanitation Regulatory and
NURP             -           Nigeria Urban and Regional Planning
OP. CIT          -           Opaere Citato
PP                    -           Pages
S.                     -           Section
S.C.                 -           Supreme Court
UNEC             -           University of Nigeria Enugu Campus
V.                    -           Versus
VOL.               -           Volume   


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