PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THE ETHANOL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF IPECAC (IKPETA) ROOT AND ITS SECONDARY METABOLITE



 ABSTRACT
The phytochemical screening and antimicrobial properties of Ikpeta root (Ipecacuanha) used in treatment of various diseases, were studied. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Alkalids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, triterpeniods, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, triterpeniods, athraquinones  and polyphenols in the ethanol extract of ipecac root. Antimicrobial acidic metabolite and neutral metabolite activities indicates the presence of microorganism such as E. coli, pseudomonas spp. streptococcus spp., and coliform bacilli while basic metabolites test indicate only the presence of E-coli and coliform in the ikpeta root extract. The proximate analysis of Ikpeta root extract were also evaluated the antimicrobial activities of extracts were compared with standard antibiotics.



 

A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Botanical Description of Ipecac Root
1.2       Botanical Profile (Taxonomy) of Ipecac Root
Scientific Classification
1.3       (Geographical and distribution
1.3.1   Ipecac Root Production 

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Antimicrobial Activities of Ipecac Root Extract
2.2       Structure of Emetine
2.3       The uses of Ipecac Root
2.3.1   Customary uses
2.3.2   Adverse reactions of emetine
2.3.3   Abuse
2.4       Properties of Ipecac Root

CHAPTER THREE 
MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1       Sample collection and preparation of materials
3.2       Apparatus and Reagents
3.3       Extraction of the Ipecac Root
3.4       Phytochemical analysis of Ipecac Root Extracts
3.5       Separation of the metabolites
3.5.1   Basic metabolites
3.5.2   Neutral metabolites
3.5.3   Acidic metabolites
3.5.4   Test for tannins
3.5.5   Test for alkaloids
3.5.6   Test for Triterpenoicts
3.5.7   Test for Flavonoids
3.5.8   Test for Glycosides
3.5.9   Test for saponins
3.5.10  Frothing test
3.5.11  Test for Anthraquionones
3.5.12  Test for Polyphenols
3.5.13  Test for ester formation
3.6       Antimicrobial analysis of extract of Ipecac Roots (Ipecacuanha)
3.6.1   Preparation of Media
3.6.2   Preparation of the Media
3.6.3   Preparation of suspension of test organism
3.6.4   Extraction of oil
3.6.5   Dilution of oil

CHAPTER FOUR
PHOTOCHEMICAL RESULT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS
4.1       Results
4.1.1   Phytochemicals
4.2       Result of proximate analysis
4.3       Discussion
4.4       Conclusion
References 


CONCLUSION
            From the study and analysis carried out it has been confirmed that presence of the indentified phytochemicals makes Ikpeta root (Ipecacuanha) extract pharmacologically active. Their antimicrobial activity may be responsible for their usefulness in the management and treatment of various disease. Since it has been reported by world Health Organization (WHO). That about 80% of the worlds populations depend mainly the use of plant extracts. (WHO, 1993), therefore I recommended that further studying of other possible mechanisms action of these Ikpeta root extract should be carried out.
           
REFERENCES
1.         Stanbury P. F and Whitaker, A (1984) Major group of Commercial Important Fermentation, Vol. 19, Principles of Fermentation Technology, pp 1-79.

2.         Duke J.D, (1983), ‘’the structure and Action of Ipecac, A cytotoxic N-glycosidase, seminar in cell Biology Vol. 2, pp. 23-30

3.         Read T, (1976) Vol. 71 the Organic Constituents of Higher plants, their Chemistry and Interrelationships. Burgess Publishing Co, Minneapolis, Minn pp. 313-371.

4.         Achaya K. T. and Cray. KL (1964) vol 32,/pecac Oil and it derivatives in surface coating. J. American Oil Chem. Soc, pp 302.

5.         Sealbert, A. (1991) Antimicrobial properties of tannins
phytochemistry. Vol 30, pp. 3875-3883.

6.         Ejele, A. E. and Njoku, P.C. (2008), Antimicrobial potential of Ipecac root extract. Journal of Science of food and Agriculture, vol 88, pp. 1482-1485.

7.         Elvin Lewis M.P.F. (1977). Medical Botuny: Plat Affecting Man’s Health. John Wiley and Sons, New York p. 84.

8.         Manoguara, Krenze Lokm Mcguigan, M. Lheureux (2004) Vol, 42, Acct/Eapcct position paper, Ipecac syrup clinical toxicology pp 43-133.

9.         Cushny, A.R (1918). A Textbook of Pharmacology and therapeutics Lea and Febiger, New York pp. 438-442.

10.       Martyn B, (1999), Ipecac poisoning, A familiar Epidermy Toxicol Vol. 41 Supplementary pp. 951-961.

11.       Silber T. J (2005) ‘’Ipecac syrup abuse Morbidity and Mortality of Adolescent Health Vol. 37, pp 236-260.

12.       Pakkall F. Averback, S. Averback, D. and Idaomar, M (2008),
Biological effects of essential oils. A review. Food and Chemical Toxicology Vol. 46, pp 446-475.

13.       Trease, G. E. and Evans W. C, (2002) Drugs of Biological Origin- acids, alcohols and esters. Phamacognosy. Bailliere Tindall Alden press, Oxford, pp. 311-333.

14.       Code of Federal Regulations (1985) Vol. 21, food and Drug. Pp.170-177.

15.       Shannon M (November 2003). Vol 112, the demise of Ipecac’’
pediatrics pp 1180-1.

16.       Schmidt R Kaven Carpenter’s tragic story/ the guardian October
(2010) Vol. 24, pp 93-172.

17.       Alexander N. M (1959) Saponin Journal of Biological Chemistry Vol. 234, pp 1330.

18.       Wain, (1981) The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals. Drugs  and Biological Merck & Co. Inc, Rathway, New Jersey. pp 132-154.

19.       Harbone R. B (1773) Vol. 43, Saponins & Saponigenin in
phytochemical methods capital & Hall, pp. 166-117.

20.       Ejele, A. E and J. I Alinner (2010). Anti Sickling Potentials of Aloe Vera Extract IV. Effects of Acidic, Basic and Neutral Metabolites on the Gelling and Sickling of human HbSS erythrocytes’’. International Journal of Natural and Applied Science: 6 (2), 155-160.

21.       Ejele A. E, (2010) Vol. 4, effect of some plants extracts on the
microbial spoilage of cajanus cajan, International Journal of Tropic Agriculture and food system, (1) pp. 46-49.

22.       Garred, L. P. and O-Graddy, F. (1983). Antibiotic and Chemotherapy. 4th edition. Churchill Livingstone Publishers, London. p. 189. 
 
 

THIS IS A SAMPLE | WE ARE PROFESSIONALS IN WRITING



Click on the related links below and read more.
We can keep you updated on this information, please Subscribe for Free by entering your email address in the space provided.

Do you like this article? Share this article
Follows us on Google Plus Facebook & Twitter

Share on Google Plus

Declaimer - MARTINS LIBRARY

NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin