INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEM (ICTS)



The revolution in information and communication technologies has added and facilitated the process of globalization. Information and communication technologies can be broadly defined to include, the supply of computer hard ware, and software, telecom equipment and electronic based industries as well as the demand and user side informatics, application in all economic sectors, information service industries, electronic publishing, broad casting and management of information system.3 Also it is the invention and evolution of paper making, printing press, basic writing instruments such as pens, pencils, cameras, typewriters, tape recorders, postal system, bicycles, cars, trains, air planes etc.4 ICTS are regarded as an essential tool for economic development and material being, but it is however unevenly distribution within counties of the world.

            Information and communication technology provides infrastructures vital network interaction in the internet. The internet connection whether in local area, metropolitan or wide area through modern or wireless means, enables the sharing and circulation of money, information, images goods and services, and people in a vast and broad less bazaar.5
            However, the origin and development of information and communication technology passed through fours stages. These stages are brilliantly illustrated by cues from stage one to four. First, was the longest which started from ancient time until 1838- Samuel Morse first telegraphic transmission invented. The second stage was characterized by the invention of electricity, electro power machine that allow the growth of telephone, radio and television. The invention of electronic computer, transistors, semi conductor characterized the third stage. These inventions started the integration of telecommunications and computing technologies. The 1970s and 1980s saw the making of electronics component exploration of new conducting materials and new techniques. The last stage saw a further and rapid reduction of constraints. The earlier analog modes of information handling were replaced by more powerful, reliable and feasible digital system.6
            The ICTS were designed to capture information such as keyboards, voice recognition system, image scanner etc. To store information e.g. floppy disk, hard disk, ram disk, optic disk etc. To process information e.g. soft ware, to communicate information e.g. modern digital cellular networks, fax internet. To display information such as TV, printers, CD Rom drives. However, it is important to note some of the key impacts of ICTS in Nigeria economy, although they occupies a back sit in the information highways such includes; communication, employment, education, health, Agriculture, and industrial development, trade and commerce etc.7

1.         COMMUNICATION: Communication is the act or an instance of exchanging information, ideals or feelings. It is also the way in which human being communicates, relates by speech, gesture, telecommunication systems, publishing etc. A connecting route passage or link through which facilities, forces, supplies etc are moved up to or within an area of operation.8 In Nigeria communication sectors are monopolized by the government. The ability to communicate is both a fundamental and axiomatic element in a meaningful life. It is universal human right, with the availability of telephone one can relate with another in a different area. Telecommunication technologies are extremely important component for the transformation of global economy. The telecom sectors offer an excellent case as to which there can explore positive effects of changing economic technology and globalize in the area of mass production. It is an ideal to examine changing relationship between public authorities and the private sector. Also, with the use of internet, information is passed rapidly. Internet revolution frustrates the efforts of information hoarders, as useful information are being uploaded by radical western scientists who believed in a global free flow of information.9
 
2.         EMPLOYMENT: The revolution in information and communication technological system helps in the provision of job opportunity for the unemployed able bodied men and women of Nigeria. It provides employment as these people help to train people in internet as they deal on those technologies, recruited as operators etc.10 In Nigeria, there were number of skilled and unskilled workers employed in communication technology system for instance in city communication Owerri, prime gate cyber cafĂ© Abakaliki and also hawkers of recharge cards, GSM Packs etc.

3.         EDUCATION: ICTS offers an interesting reference material and valuable resources which enable one to down local books, journals and periodicals, thereby providing wealthy knowledge at ones finger tips. There are lost of student that can now be able to get information through internet. Students can now get certifications from foreign universities by completing an online program. This enables scientist, academicians and scholars to consult databases outside their localities and acquire vast knowledge lack of relevant books and inability to buy them due to high cost makes the internet a compelling necessity. It is logical to argue that if institutions of learning in Nigeria are provided with internet facility, it will immensely enhance the education sector. These innovations have brought a marked difference to the way education is impacted and has led to an improvement in the quality of education11.

4.         HEALTH: Information is said to be a good medicine because it help to prevent future occurrence of illness in the mind, soul and body. Net work provides accurate information on long distance training, consultation and improvement in the health sector and provides up date on current medical research, information on personal hygiene, unsafe water etc.
            Health net was fund in 1992 by satellite, an NGO for physicians providing medical information for the third world countries. Therefore, if internet facilities are available to the hospitals, better health care delivery can be assured. Health workers in remote areas use radio to consult about treatment and drugs. ICTS are also effective in monitoring epidemic and spreading medical treatment quickly.13

5.         AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT: ICTS provides for the rural areas access to valuable information about the market prices, trends, government regulations and agricultural research and improved farm practices. It also help in the transmission of indigenous information, and reveals locally produced knowledge on the environments resource constraints, farming methods etc. if farmers have accurate information as well as the consumers, it will increase their income and productivity. It helps farmers to have access to things needed like fertilizers, grants, improved seedlings and real high ways and feeder roads to sell it own product to its own population.
            ICTS can also assist in the process of industrialization, for instance, in textiles and clothing, developed counties have used sophisticated computer based technology such as computer numerically, which is controlled machine (CNC) to allow for guide pattern changes, fast and accurate cutting, less waste of materials and energy and ultimately greater efficiency along with high quality. Manufacturing industries are among the earliest and most well established fields of application of information technology. The office automation helped in the management stocks, finance, personnel etc. as part of management information system. It has also provided tools for production, planning, products, design and industrial research. And just as importantly, computers have assumed an increasingly pervasive role in the control of production processes and manufacturing equipment in other wards, in industrial automation14. Industries must need information for management decision for planning strategic detrains for the future, for improving business performance and for developing or sustaining a completive advantage in the market place. They needed to develop and maintain information system and application that help workers more productive and contribute to achieving the business goals. 

6.         TRADE AND COMMERCE:
Internet access provides cheap and quick connections, fee on the internet are far less expensive than charges for telephone use. Trade is promoted on internet were one can look for or buy any goods he or she desired in the internet at any given time. The internet revolution especially in Nigeria offer small firm operation in different are as to offer their and services to the international market, linked by the internet, Nigeria producers can also access buyers throughout the world at law cost by providing their data in the website. States in Nigeria can also use the internet to boast their export modes by directly accessing buyers of their products. Internet also makes it possible for them to have access to top secrets protected under dubious parent by the giant compares.15  
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