GIRL CHILD EDUCATION USING RADIO AND TV - CHAPTER 1-3



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
            In the traditional Nigeria society, there exists the degenerate believe that women are second class citizens (Enyere, 1991). Aoman is considered as a man’s property or pleasure object. She is also considered as a “Machine” meant for producing children. This situation has resulted in unfair treatment of women especially with regards to education. The average rural Nigeria parent would rather invest in the education of son rather than the daughter (Ada, 1992). (Enjere 1991) further avers that gender inequality in Nigeria is promoted by religious and communal customs. Young girls particularly in Northern Nigeria are denied the benefit of education. This has grave consequences for both the individuals and the society at large.

            Education is the process through which individuals are made functional members of the society (Ocho, 2005). According to a (Agbo, 2012) in a radio programme says that education means to be domestic, growth, and contribution. (Offorms, 2009) said education is a process through which the young acquires knowledge and realizes her potentialities and uses them for self-actualization.
            Education has been described as the most important aspect of human development, a key to a successful living, especially girl child education (Michael, 2011). Denying the girl-child access to education implies making her a dysfunctional member of the society. Statistics show that many girls are not enrolled in school. The global figure for our of school children is estimated at 121 million, 65 million are girls living in sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria (UNICEF, 2007), Action  Aid international (AAIN) cited by Kiki (2010) reported that, not until recently, in a school of 150 students in Northern Nigeria, only 2-3 students in Northern Nigeria, only 2-3 students are girls. This trend has minimally improved with the introduction of sharia judicial law system (Islamic Law) in most states in Northern Nigeria. The advert of the law necessitated the creation of separated schools for girls. Even at that, girls in this region do not have the rights to choose education. Kike (2010) cited an example in Jega Local Government Area of Kibbi state in the Northern part of Nigeria where females were not allowed to go to school until recently when the local Government council chairman enacted a bye law, making female education in compulsory.
            In order to improve girls enrolment in schools, government and non government agencies shave initiated various progrmmes. The federal ministry of Education and United nations children Education fund (UNICEF) have been leading the campaign for girl-child education fund (UNICEF) have been leading the campaign for girl-child education in Nigeria with some measure of success. Also, the unity FM a radio station also, the unity FM a radio station also contributes to enrolment of the Girl-child with a programme title “Mum and Mum to be”. According to (Oko 2012) she sited that a girl child should be educated because she equally have her right in the family and once the education is denied from her, she cannot afford to defend her family and challenges in her nation. (Edeh 2012). Commented that without a qualify training, the girl-child will engaged to damage and it will effect the next generation because they are blind and nothing new will be known to hem.
            Obugado (2012) in his commentary in Radio Nigeria Unity fm make it known that a girl-child needs education.
            He went further indicating that if a girl child is deprived from education the girl-child will then engaged Learning and learning of trades, beggars, truck pushing, working in farms with empty stomach.
            However, it is high time libraries and information centres got involved in the campaign for the girl-child education.
            Education is a vital tool for empowerment that allows meaningful contributions to society. According to (UNICEF 2007), girls education dos not only bring the immediate benefit of empowering girls, but is seen as the best investment in a country’s development education helps girls to develop essential life skills including self confidence, the ability to participate effectively in society and protect themselves from HIV/AIDS and other sexual exploitations. UNICEF further asserts that girls education also helps in cutting children and maternal mutability rates, contributing to National wealth and controlling diseases and health status. (Agbo 2012) also said that without the parent giving their girl child a sound education she will main at the lower state. He used Ukamaka Egwu wife of the former governor of Ebonyi state for example in the sense that if not she was trained by her educated mother she wouldn’t have been once a governor’s wife that she would have got married to a palm wine taper

 (Oko, 2012) also commented  that home training of a girl-child by her parent is the best education any family can give to their child. She sited an example of a young lady who got married and put to birth and she does not know how to handle the bay or feed the baby. She said that every woman must be educative in order to know her responsibility at any giving time.
            This paper here, examines the various roles parent and radio programmes could play in eradicating or reducing discriminations against the girl child and ultimately improve girl child education in origins.
1.2       Statement of the Problem
            In most part of the country today, Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State in particular women is educationally backward in comprise with their male counterpart. This ugly situation has defiled all government effort since independence to see to the improvement of women’s education.
            In spite of all the various effort towards improving the literacy level among women in Igboeze the result obtain form recent research and survey shows that much have not been achieved. One outstanding reason that accounts for low women participation in education in Igboeze, results from phobia being developed by Igboeze people towards women’s education.
            In spite of all the various effort towards improving the literacy level among women is Igboeze the result obtain from recent research and survey shows that must have not been achieved. One outstanding reasons that accounts for low women participation in education in Igboeze, results from phobia being developed by Igboeze people towards women’s education such can seen in these ways-parents preference for females house help, early marriage and attendant withdrawal of teenage brides form school.
            From studies conducted on issues relating to women’s education, it is obvious that the much-expected economic, social and political emancipation of the nation cannot be achieved without improved women literacy. This research is calmed out to identify the problem and possible ways of creating improved woman literacy level in Igboeze and Ebonyi State.
            Various cultures see formal education of women as unwarranted exposure and therefore antithetical to upholding their cultural values which is apprehensive of creating opportunities for women to rub shoulders with men. Against this backdrop, the problem now is how do parents. Who are products of these cultures, religions and environment perceive the education of their Girl child? In view of the various campaigns encouraging giving both boys and girls equal educational opportunity do parents still have the tenderly to discriminate against their girl children?
            To what extend does poor financial status makes the parents to pay priority attention to their male children over their female counterparts in terms of sponsoring them to obtain formal education: What of the unduly held belief that family sizes determines the extent women who hail form such families with obtain formal or western in education in line with the tendency that the male children would be considered first.
            These and lots of other issues are the problems this research will attempt to solve. Empowering Women for excellence initiative (EWEI) RC 28137A is a CAC registered Non-governmental organization which provides multi-sectoral interventions with a gender sensitive focus and has a vision of enlighten women b giving them access to vital simplified information that will help them achieve their life’s goals, expose them to various opportunities, encourage women of alleges to imbibe the virtue of hard work and account ability, encourage reading culture and professionalism amongst women, encourage IT literacy, encourage women participation in policy formulation and governance encourage and promote girl child education in Nigeria, hold accountable various organizations whose mandate is to address women’s needs, encourage girl child education in Nigeria and work towards the achievement of MDGs 2,3,4 and 5. We design and deliver relevant developmental ineffective sand use creative means to build self-esteem and confidence in girls and women and youth in general.
1.3       Objectives of the Study
            In reference to the stated problems of this, it aims and objectives are
1.         To know if radio programmes enlighten girls and women on the need to improve their education.
2.         To find out if some programmes, some radio stations offer have any effect in the girl child.
3.         To discover if the financial background of parents affect girl-child education.
4.         To know if radio programmes influence the attitude of girl child towards education.
1.4       Significance of the Study
            The study will be significant when completed in the following areas:
1.         Through the use of radio, the finding of the study will prove information that will serves as a guide on how to eliminate problems hindering girls participation in adult literacy programme.
            This study is significant to the extend that it will unravel the extend the various views and speculations against the education of the girl-child would have been addressed. It is on record that a most 50% of the country’s population are women. There is the widely held view that even the last population census in Nigeria which was largely manipulated from every indications, placed the population of women below that of their male counterparts, irrespective of this, global events or globalization and its attendant consequences can no longer exclude women. These is every indication that ht campaign on equal opportunity for the female and male participation in every Endeavour including educational attainment is succeeding, so Nigeria cannot be an exception.
            What about the common slogan in the educational parlance that “if you educate a females, you educate a nation and if you educate a man you educate an individual” this even gives credence to the need to give priority attention to education of the Girl child over her male counterpart.
            Similarly, if the role of education as a medium that will help to develop the whole man, physically, politically, mentally, socially, morally and technological, to enable him function effectively in any environment is any thing to go by, it means that parental attitude towards the education of their children should not discriminate against any sex. There is obvious indication that in the last few decades, move parents may have changed form the earlier disclaim o the educating of he girl child, hence the likely increment in the enrolment of the female children in educational institutions. This research work is significant form the point of view of the fact that its findings would definitely be useful in support of the continuous campaign for parents to change their over-all attitude towards the discrimination against the education of the girl child.
            Over all, the research work serve as a reference material for other researcher who will like to carryout their research on related fields.
1.5       Research Questions
1.         How does radio prgrammes enlighten girls and women on the need to improve their education.
2.         How does the programmes aired in some radio station effect the girl child.
3.         Does the financial background of parents affect girl-child education.
4.         Does radio programmes influence the attached of girl-child towards education.
1.6       Research Hypothesis
H0        Radio programmes do not enlighten girl and women on the need to improve their education.
H1        Radio programmes enlighten girl and women on the need to improve their education.
H0        Some programmes offered by some radio stations does not have any effect on the girl-child.
H2        Some programmes offered by some radio stations have any effect on the girl-child.
H0        The financial background of parent, does not affect girl-child education.
H3        The financial background of parent, affect girl-child education.
H0          Radio programmes does not influence the attitude of the girl-child towards education.
H4          Radio programmes influence the attitude of the girl-child towards education.
1.7       Definition of Terms
            Radio-The transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency especially those carrying out sound messages.
Parent – (from lain: Parent = parent) is a caretaker of the offspring in
their own species.
            According to the oxford dictionary a parent is a person’s father or mother. But they must have two biological parent. Biological parents consists of the male who sined the child and the female who gave birth to the child.
Girl     -  A girl is any female human from birth though childhood, adolescence to attainment of adulthood.
Education: In its broadest, general sense. Is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives in from one generation to the next. It is also the formal process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated.
            According to Dewey (1916) Education is life it involves the transmission of rues knowledge and skills required for living (Life skill).
            According to the oxford advanced dictionary defines education as systematic training and instruction (especially the young in the schools).
            Girls’ education can be seen as various ways of transferring communicating of these rules, knowledge and skill acquired for effective living in the society to girls.
            This study the term “girls education” is applied in its. Communicative sense in learning. Messages are transfused from one person to another. There is the questions to who transfers knowledge to the other, the educator’s transfers to the girls.

1.8       Assumption
            The study is based on the following assumption.
1.         The response given by the respondent are after due cross examination of their opinion.
2.         The six villages that is in Onicha are rural but with basic amenities like electricity, water, schools-primary and post primary and a health center.
3.         That the respondent can read, hear and understand the data collected instruments and responds to its questions.
4.         The lack of defined processes and the priority constraints is not satisfactory.
5.         The blue print provided by the federal ministry of education will since as adequate provisions upon which reasonable comparison regarding girl child education can be made.
6.         But the current state of girl education in Onicha local Government Consequent upon the various social cultural religious and economic constraints would be acceptable by the Onicha Local Government Educational authorities for implementation.
1.9       Scope and limitation of the study:
            Scope of the study: the study will only be limited to Onicha local government Area in Ebonyi State. The blue print on girl-child education will serve as a reference frame work that has to do with the targeted population.
            Specifically there should be randomly selected female student institutions and radio programmes that is also needful in Onicha local Government like “every woman” “mum and mum’s to be” which as well “Comprises illiterate girls as well as girls’ adult education programme will be incorporate in the study other individuals who are indirectly involved in girls’ educational programmes for rural girls’ and model educational centers.
Limitations of the Study
            Certain constraints will definitely affect the standard of this research work firstly, absence of standard library and means of getting information materials on the topic.
            The is also the problem of limited time frame. A research of this nature in view of the research questions presented above requires a reasonable time, to enable the researcher carryout exhaustive work.
            Finance of course is an obvious constraints, collection of the necessary data and reading out forthright respondents, as well as sourcing the required materials will required materials will require some money vis-à-vis my very limited funds.
            Lastly, exigencies of duty that is my official assignment as teacher will make it somehow difficult to pay full or adequate attention to this research work. All these envisaged constraints and limitations are no doubts source of worry to the researcher. 

CHAPTER TWO-LITERATURE REVIEW
INTRODUCTION
            “Even the shadow of a man is preferable to no man at all” that is how the international ideas news (December 2002 edition), captured an Arabic commons saying. It is a statement of fact that the Nigerian state, Africa and indeed the world over habe been chaperoned by the concept of patriarchy. In simple terms, patriarchy emerges from a combination of latin and Greek terms. In latin, the word “Parter” means father, while “Arche” means rule in Greek. Patriarchy thus connotes “male rule” Drawing from this connection therefore, social anthropology notes that patriarchy depicts a concept which the family  and the entire socials system is centred around the man, who has absolute authority over women, children, dependents and property.
            It belabours the obvious to point out that arising from the above assertion that families in most parts of the world that have no male children feel unfulfilled. Most marriages in Africa that are not able to produce male children face the danger of instability. This prelude explains the position of the girl child in our society. It is definitely clear to state that no society has achieved socio-economic, educational or political equality between the girl child and the male. There remains pockets of discriminatory policies that give the male child advantage his sister.
            However there are relative differences between countries, with the gap between men and women generally greater in the least developed states than in the economically development countries. It is high time Radio programmes and parents got to involved in the campaign for the girl-child education and the various roles radio and parent could play in eradicating or reducing discriminations against the girl-child and ultimately improve girl child education in Nigeria.
2.2       CONCEPT OF THE GIRL-CHILD EDUCATION
            Within the contest of the Nigeria environment, several definitions of the child exist. The National child Welfare policy 91989) as cited by (Ada 2007) defines the girl-child as person below 14 years of age. (Offorma 2009) defines the girl child as a biological female offspring form birth to eighteen (18) years of age. This period is made up of infancy, child hood, early and late adolescence stages of development. The girl-child is seen as a young female person, who would eventually grow into woman and marry. She is conditioned to look after the young ones, the home and the kitchen. She is taught to be obedient and to internalize the notion that she is someone’s property and responsibility at childhood and her husband in adulthood. The gender apartheid places the girl-child in  disadvantaged position. Her potentials are suppressed and self actualization is not achieved Education is the process of providing information to a person to help him or her develop mentally, socially, emotionally, spiritually, politically and economically (Offorma, 2009). Education is one of the fundamental rights of individuals Article 2b of the Universal declaration of human rights, which was adopted by the united Nations General Assembly as cited by (Nwangwu 1976) stipulated that:
i.          Everyone has the right to education – this shall be made free in the elementary and primary stages.
ii.         Elementary Education shall be made compulsory while technical and professional educational shall be made generally available.
iii.       Higher education shall be equally accessible on the basis of merit.
iv.        Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of Education that shall be given to their children.
            Education is a vital tool for empowerment that allows meaningful contributions to society. According to (UNICEF 2007), girls’ education does not only bring the immediate benefit of empowering girls, but is seen as the best investment in a country’s development. Education helps girls to develop entails life skills including self confidence, the ability to participate effectively in society and protect themselves from HIV/AIDS and other sexual exploitations. UNICEF further asserts that girls’ education also helps in cutting children and material mortality rates, constituting to National wealth and controlling diseases and health status. Children of educated women are likely to go to school consequently, this has exponential positive effects one education and poverty education for generations to come. One very important aim of every family is to raise healthy and productions individuals who will contribute meaning full to society. This can be achieved through the education of the girl-child who is the mother of tomorrow.
2.3       CRUCIAL ISSUES IN GIRL-CHILD EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
Access to education: Access implies the right to education. It has to do ith the opportunity provided for the girl-child to be educated. It is observed that many state and local governments do not take cognizance of the peculiarities of the girl-child in the provisions for education for the citizenry (Ada, 2007). Consequently, many girls do not have access to education. Girls’ access to basic education especially in Ebonyi states has remained low. Only 20 percent of women in Onicha Local government are literate and have attended school (UNICEF, 2007). Okeke, Nzewi and Njoku, (2008) identified child labour, poverty and lack of sponsorship, quest for wealth, bereavement, truancy, broken home and engagement of children as house helps, as factors inhibiting children especially girls’ access to education in Nigeria. One of the most prevalent impediments to the girl-child education is child labour. Many families often send their daughters out to work at a young age to get additional income needed to exist beyond subsistence level and finance the education of male child.
            British Broadcasting corporation (BBC) news (2006) reported that African societal view point favours boys over girls because boys maintain the family lineage. That their mothers were not educated is another reasons that makes them feel that their daughters do not need education. Some families justify the denial of girls of their right to educating to prevent them form bringing shame to the family through early pregnancy. Others believe that women who are not same level of education as the men may not find marriage partners among their countrymen and may end p marring foreigners. For such families, early marriage is best way to prevent this and at the same time preserve traditions (Offorma, 2009).
2.4       School Retention and Dropout
            In Onicha local government, the number of girls out of the school each year has risen form 20,000 in 1990 to 24,000 in 2002 (Offorma, 2009). There exist wide variations across the local government presenting the worst sceneries. The tables below paint a correct picture of the situation.
2.5       Efforts of government, non governmental/agencies and radio at encouraging girl-child education
            The Federal Governmental through the Universal Basic Education (UBE), programme, is making effort at accelerating girl-child education. The programme has made some progressing increasing school enrolment for girls in Onicha (Ndeokwelu, 2010). In November, 2009, the UBE commission unfurled (POWA) on child education and children with special needs (Compass, 2009). The united Nations children Education fund (UNICEF) has also initiated several programmes to accelerate girl-child education in the country. The “strategy for acceleration of girls’ Education in Nigeria” (SAGAN) was launched by UNICEF and the federal Ministry of educating in July, 2003. SAGEN gave rise to girl child to the Grils’ Education project (GEP) launched is December, 2004 and currently under implementation. An evaluation of GEP is March, 2006 showed that Girls’ school enrolment is up by 15% and in GEP schools, actual girls attendance is up by 25% (with 12000 more girls regularly attending school than before) and gender gaps are about half of their previous level. To data, 900 schools is Nigeria are getting direct support from UNICEF (UNICEF, 2007).
2.6       Girl-Child Education and Radio-What Role?
            Radio are derivative agencies. They rise from particular needs within society and their types and functions reflects the diversity within that society. The principal types are public, special, academic and school studies.
            Radio are agents of social communication. They are vehicle which help to bridge the awareness gap among members of the society. Barriers to girls’ education in Nigeria have been identified as poverty, early marriage and teenage pregnancy, cultural and religious misconceptions lack of models as well as teenage pregnancy and early marriage.
2.7       The Role of Radio
            Public radio are established to provide and create access to information to all members of  its community and beyond irrespective of age, sex, religions, ethnicity etc. Kargbo (2002) out lines the functions of the public radio to include:
*          To support and re-enforcing programmes of adult and fundamental education.
*          To provide effective service for children and young people including requisite services for schools.
 *         To provide much needed information and reference serves.
*          To promote and stimulate reading for pleasure and recreation.
*          To provide, here needed, adequate services for special groups, the is women, language groups, the disadvantaged etc.
            Radio programmes, help to reduce or eliminate barriers to girls-child education through public awareness campaigns. Rural dwellers, rational and religious bigots need to be educated on the ills of not sending their girls to school.
            This can be done through the following services:
1.         Radio programmes could organize public rallies in various communities, speaking to the indigenes in their local dialects on the need to send their children to school. This may also involve inviting important personalities and role models to address both parents and children in the community on the importance of education.
2.         Awareness campaigns to schools, addressing girls on the need to shun easily marriage and teenage pregnancy in order to remain in school.
2.8.      The Role of the School Radio
            Some of the reasons given for girls’ dropout of school include, teenage pregnancy and lack of role models. The school radio can play a role in dealing with these challenges. School radio programmes services involve both availability and accessibility of Library facilities and services to students and the willingness and ability of the students to use the facilities and services.
            The school radio programmes should carryout the following function to encourage girl-child education.
1.         It should provide specialized and individualized services to girls. This implies providing motivation aloud counseling services as for girls’, so as to awaken and sustain their interest in education.
2.         Inviting authors and subject specialists for lecturers and talks on topics of interest to girls.
3.         Organizing educative and entertaining film shows and documentaries on the ills of illiteracy and lack of education, as well as the benefits of having a good education.
4.         Inviting female celebrities who may serve as role models to talk to the girls.
5.         Work with public radios, community workers and other relvant agencies sin executing programmes geared towards encouraging girl-child education.
            However, for Radio to effectively carryout these functions, there is the need for adequate funding and willingness of libraries to be committed to the cause of the girl-child education. Public and school radio do not function in isolation, they depend on their parent organizations/institutions for financial is experiencing economic melt down. This has led to budget cuts especially in the education sector (Mordi, 2008). Consequently, radio would need to seek for funds from external source sin order to execute planned programmes and ensure effective and efficient service delivery. Such external sources of funds include international and other non governmental agencies.
2.9       Issues in Girl-Child Education in Nigeria- Implication for Library and Information
SUPPORT:
            Girl-child education has become a matter of concern to stakeholder sin Nigeria. This study examines the concept of and crucial issues in girl-child education. It identifies social-cultural patterns, religious misconceptions. Poverty, teenage pregnancy and early marriage amongst others as factors militating against the girl child education. The paper advocates that public and school libraries must begin to play relevant roles and contribute to the eradication of discriminations against women. It outlines the roles public and school libraries must play in order to improve girl child enrollment in school as well as reduce school drop-out. In order to effectively play their role, the study suggests that libraries should source for funds form external agencies rather that depend only on their parent.
2.10    Nigeria’s Strategy for Girls
            Building on existing child friendly school initiative which is supported by UNICEF, Nigeria has developed the strategy for the Acceleration of Girls’ Education, which evolved. Into SAGENT and now being reinforced by the new Girls Education Project (GEP). This is a substantial Joint undertaking by the Federal Government of Nigeria. DFID and UNICEF to boost girls’ schooling in Northern Nigeria and accelerate progress towards the MDGS, especially with respect to gender equity.
2.11    Recent Achievements and Impact
            As a result of increasing government commitment, greater awareness has been created nationwide on girls’ education with the launch and dissemination of the SAGEN in JULY 2003 and a pledge by my ministry to mainstream girls education in the EFA plan.
            Some part in Onicha in Ebonyi State have already promulgated eduts to support the promotion of girls’ education for example in Eziga in Onicha Local government Area promulgated an edict against the withdrawal of girls from schools, while Oshiri and Isu have removed financial disincentives affecting girls’ enrolment in secondary schools. Those who have dropped out as result of early marriages and/or teenage pregnancy are encourage to return to school, as is the case with the women Day College in Onicha in Onicha Local Government Area.
            The effort of state government and UNICEF in promoting the girl-child education initiative (AGENT) (2002-2004) which was found by the Norwegian government, recorded remarkable progress in terms of enrolment and retention. The AGEI Evaluation Retention (GER) and 80% decrease in dropout rate for Girls’ in the (6) six plot primary schools supported by the programme. The gender gap in states that benefited from the AGEI reduced appreciately, for example Ukwawuu the gender gap fell form 41% to 38%, which AGEI ensured that more communities assumed ownership of schools, through increased vibrancy of schools mothers clubs, the tracking of school age children not enrolled in schools, advocacy for HIV/AIDs protective behaviour, and the abolition of harmful traditional practices.
2.13         Area of the Study
            The Onicha area is considered to be one of the areas of Ebonyi State with high capacity to produce much of the food needed in the state because of the fertility of the soil.
            Onicha Local Government Area support the state Government of the state policy of free and compulsory primary school education down to Junior secondary school in Ebonyi State. Nursery/primary schools were established at the headquarters and some other remote parts of council area. Though the state still ranks high in the list of educational backward state, progress had been made in addressing it. The Local Government Area engaged their workers in service training exercise and approved study leave with pay for the staff who gained admission into institution of higher learning. Adult education certers were established in the rural area. The government of the Onicha Local government Area also distributed instructional materials, recruited teachers who are  paid as when due.
2.13         Theoretical Frame Work
            Agenda setting theory is the theory that mass media have large influences an audiences by their choice of what story to consider news worthy. It tells us what to think about and then, the publics get interested from that and begin to have their own options. Mass media can control the interest of their publics this theory involves two concepts media agenda and public agenda. Media agenda are issues that are discussed in media such as television, newspaper, and radio. Public agenda are issues what are discussed and personally relevant to the public. This research has focused on three sets of contingent conditions: Characteristics of audience, the issues, and the media. This agenda setting only happens to certain people under certain condition to make the public feel that this is a significant issue in programme, for example in a unity woman commented on the importance of girl child education. She emphasized the empowerment of the girl child through education in our country because of her importance in the family, states and nations in general.
            So those who listen to that particular programmes will se the impotence of girl-child education.
2.13         Summary of Literatures
            This review of literature has among other things succeeded in supporting the view that there are various levels of marginalization of the girl child across cultures, religion et c world over. Certain parent remain apprehensive on the types of education and exposure the girls child ought to receive.
            Evaluation of this girl further reveals that women who acquired western education and  has the privilege of occupying positions of authority and trusts which were hitherto regards as purgatives of men, performed creditably. The review further reveals that the education of the girl child has however not be given pride of place in the scheme of things despite various campaigns by various women groups and organizations in support of proper gender mainstreaming, aimed at achieving equality or equality of opportunity between the female and her male counter part.
            Lastly, it is the expectation of this study to unravel the extent radio programmes and parental attitudes supports the education of the girl child, using Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi state as a study.

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Research Methodology
            The relevance of this aspect of the research work cannot be over stated, as the success of the study rests so much on it. This chapter of the research work aims at describing the pattern of procedure and techniques which is used in caring out this study on the impact of Radio programmes and parental in Onicha local government area, Ebonyi State.
3.1       Research Design: 
            Research Design this is the plan of activities which the researcher intend to adopt in the research for the subject of this nature they include all instruments used a achieve the objective of the study. The set of information or data gathered was analyzed and interpreted along certain line of thought.
            The research by its nature is investigation and as such as instruments were geared toward findings out the problems militating against women education and ways of solving the problems.
3.2       Population of the Study
            Onicha is a local government area in Ebonyi State, Nigeria and situated in Ebonyi South senatorial zone. Onicha L.G.A is made up of six (6) component towns which includes Oshiri, Abaomege, Onicha Igboeze, Ukawu, Ugwulangwu and Isu being the headquarters of the Local Government area. It has an area of 476kg 2 and a population of 236,826 at the 2006 census.
3.2       Source of Data/Instrumental
            Two methods were used in collecting data for this. They are primary and secondary sources of data.
3.3.1 PRIMARY SOURCES
         To arrive at the relevant information as to the topic: The impact of Radio programmes and parental attitudes on the girl child education in Onichs L.G.A of Ebonyi state.  Data was mainly collected through the questionnaire and interview.  The questions in the questionnaire were structured for easy understanding by the respondents to enable them respond correctly.
          The mode of distribution was by hand and administered in the six towns in onichs.
         The respondent were required to choose from a number of options that corresponds to their response.  Hence some questions were close ended while others are open ended- interviews were conducted by the researcher to get more information which could not be available through the questionnaire.  The researcher interview a random selected educated and non- educated sons and daughters of Onichs
3.3.2 SECONDARY SOURCE
          Data was also collected from journals, unpublished works, newspaper, madarine, text books and other document that dealt extensively on the research topic.  The research visited many libraries including that of UNIBEN to collect data for this work.
      The instrument used in coring out this study is the questionnaire along with interview Alaezi (1991) had it that it is market by a high degree of personal contacts between the researcher and the subject such contacts may be made on face to face basis or by telephone.  The questionnaire specifically meant to deal with the research questions would be design and pilot tested.
       The questionNnaires was divided into two sections A and B section A are the respondents personal data.  Sections B has to do with statement to answerer the research questions.  The questions to answer the research covered areas including Negative attitude of girls to education and its effects on their academic performance in educational institutions, ordering of priority of onichs girls education, religious of traditional belief effects.  The effect of structure of girl child education in onichs parents economic status as it affects the girl-child.  Respondents were required
CHAPTER THREE
3.0                                         RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
                Their relevance of this aspect of the research work cannot be over stated, as the success of the study rests so much on it.  This chapter of the research work aims at describing the pattern of procedure and techniques which is used in caning out mines and parental attitudes on the girl child education in Onichs local government Area, Ebonyi state.

3.1       RESEARCH DESIGN:  Research Design
This is the plan of activities which the researcher intend to adopt in the research for the subject of this nature they include all instruments used to achieve the objective of the study.  The set of information or data gathered was analyzed and interpreted along certain line of thought.
         The researches by its nature is investigation and as such all instruments were feared toward finding out the problems militating against women education and ways of solving the problems.

3.2             Population of the study
Onichs is a local government area in Ebonyi state, Nigeria and situated in Ebonyi south senatorial zone. Onicha L.G.A is made up of six (6) component towns which includes Oshiri, Aba Omeye, Onicha Igboez, Ukawu, Ugwulangwu and Isu being the head quarters of the local government area.  It has an area of 476km2 and a population of 236,828 at the 2006 census.
       The Onicha area is considered to be one of the areas of Ebonyi state with high capacity to produce much of the food needed in the state because of the fertility of the soil.
         Onicha local government Area supported the state government on the state policy of free and compulsory primary school education down to junior secondary school in Ebonyi state.  Nursery/primary schools and were established at the head quarters and some other remote parts of the council area.  Though the state still ranks high in the list of educational backward state, progress had been made in addressing it.  The L.G.A engaged their workers in service training exercise and approved study leave with pay for the staff who gained admission into institution centers were established in the rural area.  The government of the Onicha L.G.A also distributed instructional materials, Necnicted teachers who are paid as when due.  To recommend what should be done so as to encourage girl child education to give their opinion as to whether girl –child education end in kitchen.  When you educate a girl-child you educate a nation, girl-child can have access to polities through acquiring education.  Girls subordinate to men inspite of their level of education and why Onicha parents prefer educating their male children rather then the female children.
      Interview was conducted both on the respondents and other people versed in the area of this research.  Important galts gathered were written down and this enriched the recommendation of the researched work.

3.3 SAMPLE SIZE   
           The sample size for this research work is 210 persons the items in the sample consisted of 20 women and 10 men selected randornly from the (6) six communities that made up the Onicha L.G.A and as well as 30 others representing scholars and other individuals who are verse in the field of study under consideration.  The number of women in the study out numbered that of men because it is mostly a study on women and men’s opinion is mainly to guard against errors that might occur in the information and facts.
3.4                                     SAMPLE TECHNIQUE
         In this study, stratified proportimate Raidom sampling technique would be used in the selection of male and female respondents.  Denga and ALI (1973:79), stratified random sampling refers to the selection procedure whereby all the cases in the defined population have subgwups and have equal probability of chances of being selected and the selection of each case from the pool of cases is independent of other cases.

3.6             DATA ANALYSIS        
       In the analysis objectively was maintained in order to achieve the objectives of this research.  To this effect simple percentage were used in analyzing data collected.  All responses to items in the questionnaire were converted to percentages so as to compare the direction of the answers.  The research it from the questionnaires were treated in line with how they relate to the research questions and were presented in chapter four of this work.
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