Background to the Study
Knowledge in basic science and technology is central and indispensable to the development of every Nigerian child. This is due to its crucial roles in the child’s survival, adjustment and adaptation to his/her immediate and wider environments dominated by scientific activities. Any child that lacks the basic knowledge in science and technology can not participate meaningfully in some social activities. For instance, for a child to utilize effectively the global system for mobile communication (GSM), such child must know how to manipulate numbers, since the operation of a mobile phone depends on the manipulation of numbers.The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) being aware of these roles of science and technology in the live of every Nigerian youngster made the study of science compulsory at all levels of basic education. This is to ensure that every Nigerian child is science literate. It is also aimed at laying solid foundation for children’s further study of science. For instance, one of the objectives of the basic Education according to government is “laying sold foundation for scientific and reflective thinking” (FRN 2004). To accomplish the above objective, government stated that “there will be entrenchment of science teaching in the primary school curriculum” (FRN; 1986).
_ But despite the lofty government’s objectives and drives to inculcate science culture in every Nigerian child, records available indicated abysmal achievement in science by Nigerian basic school pupils. For example, the 1997 UNICEF/UNESCO/FME study on Monitoring of Learning Achievement (MLA) reported pupils’ national average score of 32% in science with males’ mean score of 32.73 and S.D 18.10 and female with mean score of 32.96 and S.D 18.29. The study also showed that basic science was the least preferred subject studied in basic schools. In 2003 another MLA study conducted by the universal basic Education commission (UBEC) reported the national mean score in basic science as 40.33 with S.D. of 17.93 while the score for Ebonyi state in the test was 37.93 with S.D of 16.58. This is made up of mean score of male of 36.13 and S.D of 16.43 and female mean score of 39.43 and S.D of 16.63 (UBEC 2007). In 2006, the MLA study reported a national mean score of 40.78 and S.D of 15.43 (UBEC. 2009). As corroboration to the above, Salami (2007:1) reported that “research in Nigeria indicated low attainment of secondary school students in science subjects”. This poor performance by the secondary school students in science and mathematics was reported by Azuka (2011:1) and attributed it to “their (students) poor background at the primary school level”. He enumerated some of the contributing factors to this poor state at the primary school level to include among others:
- poor methods of teaching
- lack of use of teaching aids
- poor quality of teachers.
- Inadequate training of teachers (Azuka 2011).
Odunusi (1997) reported similar poor achievement in basic schools. This could be as a result of basic science teachers’ inability to stimulate pupils’ interest in study of science. UBEC (2007:145) attributed the pupils’ poor achievement in b asic science to “teachers not teaching the subject well which leads to pupils’ dislike of the subject”. This leads to the laying of weak foundation at basic level, which invariably affects the study of science at other levels of education. According to Harlem (1992;3) science encompasses the first hand use of physical and mental skills to generate and test reliable knowledge and generations. In learning science, these skills (process skills) are involved in using and testing existing ideas. It is through processes such as observation and testing existing ideas, observation and questions raising and hypothesizing that ideas are used in trying to explain new evidences. It is through processes such as prediction, planning, experimenting and interpreting that conclusions are drawn as to whether the ideas fit the evidence. Science involves using the knowledge that has been generated through process skills to create and continually refine testable models of nature that helps us to describe, explain, predict, and to conceptualize observable phenomenon of nature (Harlen 1992). In this model building of science, the approach is first hand enquiry built around experience and experimentation and the focus is the phenomenon themselves. Children, like scientist, must be ready to reject ideas when the evidence requires this. In this way, learner collects the evidence and does the reasoning, makes the ideas his/her own. This is what we may call learning with understanding. Learning with understanding makes children to feel at ease with science; to know its strength and weaknesses to realize how ideas emerge form human activity, which is important in their education even if they are not destined to practice science. The aim of the approach is for pupils to learn with understanding, through development of their own ideas, which are taken seriously and not ignored in favour of the right answer. This type of learning is more likely to appeal to all pupils (Harlen 1992). This type of learning will produce real learning. In learners Real learning according to Laevers (2002) affects the deeper structures on which competencies (science) and disposition are based. According to him, educational context must be constructed to bring children to the highest level of involvement. This is where deep-level children learning takes place, (Laevers, (2002). But contrary to those stated procedure, teaching of science and other subjects in basic schools is through rote memorization and didactic method (Teacher centred method of instruction where children are not given opportunity to participate in instructional delivering in the classroom). Nworgu and Nwazojie (2003), Ling and Boo (2007) have independently pointed out that the current method of teaching science in basic schools is often didactic and does not engage pupils’ knowledge effectively. In line with the above, Nworgu and Nwazojie (2003:120) have lamented that “The didactic method which teachers currently employ in teaching primary science emphasizes rote memorization and regurgitation of facts. Pupils’ activities are given less emphasis”. For science teaching to be effective, emphasis should be placed on taking the learners initial ideas as a starting point also the participation of the learners in modifying, expanding the ideas and view in the light of experience of the learner.
This traditional teacher centered (lecture) method of teaching science at various levels of education has been widely criticized as being responsible for pupils’ poor achievement in science. Ajiboye (2007:42) reported that “lecture method is still popular in Nigeria despite its obvious limitations”. In line with the above, Omotayo and Olaleye (2008:1) noted that “serious aberrations on the quality of science in Nigeria is the over-emphasis on mastery of subject matter content, theory and excessive examination consciousness against practical orientation toward science based disciplines”. They further noted that in the present teaching method “there is total lack or insufficient participation of students in the learning process”. This is what causes low pupils’ academic achievement in basic science and technology.
By the use of the above teacher-centred teaching method which is purely didactic, Science according to Ling and Boo (2007:3) is viewed by pupils as “pieces of information and do not see the big picture of a unit of learning”. Omotayo and Olaleye (2008:2) maintained that through didactic teaching method, “science is thus made alien rather than being a tool for industry”. Against this back drop UBEC (2009:409) lamented that “this causes for a great concern because low percentage of pupils having adequate knowledge and understanding of basic science is unacceptable if the country is to attain scientific and technological advancement” The present method of science teaching leads to what Laevers (2002:10) described as “superficial learning. This learning that does not affect the basic competencies of the child and has little transfer to real life satiation”.
The attention of many science educators/researchers has continued to be directed at searching for appropriate methods of science instruction. They have focused on several dynamic and pragmatic pedagogical methods and strategies that enable learners to be active participants in the learning process, while teachers serve as facilitators. Here, the teachers’ roles are to stimulate learners’ interest to actively engage in creating understanding, testing, experimenting, modifying ideas and making conclusions.
To achieve this, Harlem (1992:6) stated that “the experience provided will enable pupils actively to seek evidence through their own senses to test their ideas, to take account of others’ ideas through discussion and using sources of information”. He further stated that teachers should consciously make the class room organization to facilitate interaction of pupils with materials and pupils with pupils. The teachers’ role will be to help children to express and test their ideas, to help them reflect upon evidence; the pupils’ role include some responsibility for learning and taking part in generating ideas; the materials have a central role in providing evidence as well as arousing curiosity in the world around (Harlen 1992). In line with this, Omotayo and Olaleye (2008:2) stated that “what is expected of the teachers is to guide the student learners to appreciate the worth of the learning materials”. Some of the suggested methods include;
(i) Cuisenaire Rod Approach (Kurume and Achor 2008); this is a unique system that helps learners to grasp abstract concepts. This was invented by George Cuisenaire.
(ii) Affective Science Teaching Method (Omotayo and Olaleye 2008:); this is a learner centered model of teaching that actively engage the learner in subject matter that are relevant to the personal interest, experiences and needs of the learner.
(iii) Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) (Salami 2007); this is the selection of responses, alteration of a contingency between the response and a reinforce.
(iv) Concept Mapping Method (Ling and Boo 2007); this is a two-dimensional hierarchical diagram which illustrates the relationship between and among individual concepts. However, none has researched on the use of experiential teaching approach in teaching basic science and technology
. The experiential teaching approach is the teaching method that enables learners (pupils) to be engaged in concrete activities which enable them to find out facts and meaning about concepts by themselves with the guidance of a teacher. The experiential teaching approach makes learners to be active in the classroom, self explorative, gain insight into situation, acquire problem solving skills and have self understanding of environment. It embodies co-operative learning, personalized system of instruction as well as affective science teaching. Learners work in small groups with concrete objects to discover facts about them. This enables learners to transfer knowledge to situations outside the learning environment ((Luckner and Nadler, 1997); Mabie and Baker (1996); Richardson, (1994 :); Grisoni, (2002:), Fenwick, (2000). The model was designed by Kolb but based on Dewey’s theory of experience.
Luckner and Nadler (1997:1) define experiential teaching approach as a type of teaching in which students participate in an activity, reflect upon the activity, use their analytical skills to derive some useful insight from the experience, and then incorporate their new understanding into their lives”. To Brookfield (1983:16), “it is a term used to describe the sort of learning undertaken by students who are given opportunity to acquire and apply knowledge, skills and feelings in immediate and relevant settings”. To Houle (1980:221), it is “education that occurs as a direct participation in the event of life”. Diem (2001:1) conceptualizes experiential teaching as “learn-by-doing approach”. Experiential learning which results from experiential teaching approach is defined by the Association for Experiential Education (1994:1) as “a process through which learners constructs knowledge, skill and value from direct experience”. Chickering (1976:63) views experiential teaching as “Learning which occurs when changes in judgments, feelings, knowledge or skills result for a particular person from living through an event or events”. Stenho (1986) pointed out that experiential teaching and learning involves (1) action (2) reflection (3) abstraction and 4 application. This means that experiential teaching if it is to be effective must be planned such that there will be a change in an individual which will be as a result of the individual reflecting on a direct experience which he/she must have been involved. This will lead to abstraction and application in either immediate or later environment. This shows that experiential teaching approach looks holistically at education and addresses education quality in terms of the process (i.e how does the teaching and learning take place)? Are the learners participating and the outcome, (what the learners are able to do as a result of their exposure to the learning experience). In line with the above view, Friere (1993:65), refers to traditional teaching approach as “banking approach to education”. According to him, “the banking approach encourages students to know the step only whereas, experiential teaching approach encourages the students to know the steps, understand the purpose and concluding the steps” (Friere, 1993).
Itin (1999) pointed out that experiential teaching approach encourages teachers to provide more opportunities for students to interact with the subject matter, the environment, other students, and the teacher. According to him, it is not sufficient that students master the content if they do not understand how to apply it in the real world. Experiential education is based on learners’ direct experiences. Experience on the other hand is the accumulation of knowledge or skills that result from direct participation in event of life or activities, that is, the content of direct observation or involvement in an event. Indeed, it could be viewed according to It in (1999:94) as “a learning method that focuses on the learning for the individual”. It is a meaningful discovery learning as the learner is active, completely involved, sometimes taking initiative, engaging in complexity and sometimes also dealing with ambiguity which is an important part of the learning process. The learning outcomes include; cognitive elements resulting in an increased awareness, emotional elements producing changed attitudes or feeling and behavioral elements which involves changed interpersonal competencies (Shien and Benis 1965).
The experiential teaching approach is most suitable for teaching science. Young (1989:52) identified science as a “doing subject”. Therefore the teaching approach must incorporate activities for pupils to be doing. It underscores the need for the use of practical approach to the teaching of science if it must be effective. To learn, people need to be deliberate experimenters in their own learning. They have to be guided to willingly engage in rigorous but conscious discovery of facts; after all, Lave (1988:89) asserted that knowing is interminably inventive and entwined with doing”.
Diem (2001:2) enumerated the following as the merits of experiential learning.
1. Multiple teaching (learning method) can be integrated. That is, the method is integrative.
2. It is very learner centred.
3. The teaching process involves discovery which build self-esteem in learners.
4. Learning is more fun for learners and teaching more fun for teachers
5. Other life skills can be learned instead of only science content.
Luckner and Nadler (1997:2) and Diem (2001:1) independently identified five experiential teaching processes as follows:
1. Experience the activity: “Perform-do-it’’. Classes are made up of several experiences. Children perform activities before they learn the theory. The activities act as prelude to class discussion of the theory.
2. Share the result, reactions and observations publicly. Here children discuss what they have done, what they observed and what they think led to what had happened.
3. Reflection: Reflection by itself is an awareness that leads to consideration of all available information in order to come to a conclusion. Process by discussing, looking at the experience, analyzing, review, reflecting. The reflective process is what transforms an experience into experiential learning. As a learner, they need to constantly reflect, analyze, and evaluate the activities carried out in the classroom, individually or in a group. This helps the learner to carry out self evaluation and makes abstractions. This is the first state of reflective learning. It basically constitute the act of engaging in self criticism, self-evaluation and using the feed back to adjust our way of thinking. During the reflecting stage, pupils take time to look back and examine what they saw, felt and thought about during the activity. Reflection stage is very crucial. The learner reflects on his/her experiences, then interprets and generalizes these experiences to form mental structure. These structures are knowledge stored in memory as concepts that can be represented, expressed and transferred to new situations. Fenwick (2000:4) noted that “a learner is believed to construct through reflection, a personal understanding of relevant structures of meaning derived from his or her action in the world”. To Piaget (1966:153) “this construction process oscillates between assimilation of new objects of knowledge into one’s network of internal constructs in response to new experiences which may contradict them”. For learners to effectively engage in reflection, they have to engage in:
- direct observation of the experience
- indirect observation
- personal recall of things that occurred during the period.
- documented recall of activities
use of audio/video(if possible and applicable)
The information emanating from these activities should help the learner to consider critically what was done before, during and after the activity. The learner should also think on what to do next in line with the information emanating from the activities carried out. They should also consider how to do it and they should also ask themselves self why it should be done (Ali:2011).
4. Generalizes to connect the Experience to Real-World Examples: Learners relate the experience to their own lives.
5. Apply: Learners apply what was learned to a similar or different situations practice what was learned in a bid to internalize the knowledge. This stage helps to transfer the knowledge acquired to other situations. Lackner and Nadler, (1997) had suggested some tips for maximizing learners learning using the experiential teaching approach.
- Plan time in all lessons for the processing of the experience
- Review and evaluate the orientation days curriculum
* Is it laying good foundation of understanding of the experience?
* Does it overwhelm or confuse the process.
- Provide reflection time in each lesson; Through:
* personal think time
* Introspection through writing
* Group discussion
- utilize some tools
* chart your future poster
* Questions built into the lessons
* simple thought questions
^ Did you like today’s activity? why? Or why not?
^ How did you feel as you complete your project for generalizations:
- Look for and point out to students patterns as
- their general likes and dislikes of activities, projects, assignment
^ what activities were easier for them to complete and why?
^ what general information from career futures seems to consistently describe the student?
^ Does your learning style fit certain career areas better than others?
For the application:
Make good use of the home link activities to help students bridge the learning gap from structured class room activities to actual life situations.
- Ask questions that indicate students understanding as it applies to real life such as
- What has been the students’ personal experience with the subject at hand?
* How do you see this learning affecting your life?
* How do you plan to use this new knowledge or understanding.
The current teaching method applied in basic schools does not involve the above sequences; hence Omotayo and Olaleye (2008:2) attributed the current low interest of pupils in science and technology to the “preponderance of teacher authoritarianism and theory-based didactic science classes”. This is what the method use in schools emphasizes. The 1997 UNICEF/UNESCO/FME MLA upheld the
above view as they reported that “teachers’ method of presenting the lesson is the contributory factor to the low pupils’ interest in the study of science”.
The above limitations are not the case with experiential teaching approach. Roger (1969:1) had noted that in experiential teaching, “teachers are facilitators”. He stated further that teachers only set positive climate for learning, clarify the purpose of learning, and organize and make available learning resources. The teacher balances emotional and intellectual components of learning and shares feelings and thought with learners but does not dominate. To Davis (1993:2) experiential teaching is an interaction between the student and a teacher over subject matters, Roger (1969:1) concluded by stating that “significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the personal interest of the learners”.
Experiential teaching/learning approach promotes active learning. Active learning makes powerful impact upon pupils’ learning Adeniran (2011) reported that researchers have shown that;
- students prefer strategies promoting active learning to lecture method.
- active learning strategy promotes mastery of content, development of students’ skills in thinking and writing than lecture method.
- A significant number of individuals have learning styles best served by pedagogical techniques other than lecturing.
To this effect, Azuka (2009) stated three benefits of active learning over lecture method. This includes;
- both teacher and student are active in the teaching and learning process.
- the students give the teacher the concept or formulae under the guidance of the teachers; and
- retention and recall of concepts are enhanced.
It seems there is need to promote experiential teaching method in teaching of science and technology in schools since it will help to produce pupils who will be active both in and outside the class room and above all promote the learners’ application of the knowledge gained in the course of study, as the learner was actively involved in the discovering of the knowledge. This will help to make the Nigerian Basic Education system, meaningful to learners themselves, government and the entire society. This has become necessary as government’s huge investment in education is a waste of resources if the people who pass through the Education system are unable to effectively utilize the knowledge transmitted to them in solving their personal problems both in the school and outside the school environment.
All proponents of learners-centred teaching approach such as Salami (2007), Ling and Boo (2007), Omotayo and Olaleye (2008) have stressed the need for teachers to engage the learner in the subject matter that is relevant to the personal interest, experiences and needs of the learner. This is in consonance with the principles of experiential teaching approach as conventionally, the teaching approach is learner centred. What is expected of a teacher in experiential teaching approach is to guide the learner to appreciate the learning materials and make sense out of it. This is crucial as all principles for science and teaching by themselves are abstract and they become concrete only in the consequences of their applications (Dewey 1938). The end product of this teaching method is in contrast with rote memorization which is the end product of the didactic lecture method presently dominant as science teaching method in schools. Experiential teaching approach is totally opposed to the total lack or insufficient participation of students in the learning process as was alleged to be the cause of poor performances in sciences (Omotayo and Olaleye, 2008). In the approach, emphasis is placed on the nature of participants’ subjective experiences. The role of the teacher here is to organize and facilitate direct experiences of the phenomena on the belief that this will bring about genuine (meaningful and long-lasting) learning.
Indeed, experiential teaching can be viewed as a deliberate and conscious effort by educators to fill the gap between theory and practice. This is so because learners have the opportunity to acquire theoretical knowledge through practical manipulation of concrete materials. This leads to discovery of facts about issues rather than merely being told by the teachers. Olaoye and Akinsola (2007) discovered that pupils learn faster when the teaching is skewed towards them, and this is when they are allowed to see and manipulate objects by themselves instead of being remote-controlled by the external person.
Although experiential teaching approach is a popular teaching method that has gained wide application in the developed countries such as United States of America (USA) and South Africa (Mable and Baker, 1996; Richardson, 1994), it has not been utilized as a teaching approach in Nigerian basic schools, especially for the teaching/studying of basic science and technology. Given the poor performance of pupils in basic science and technology as was revealed by the 1997, 2003 and 2007 Universal Basic Education (UBEC) MLA studies and coupled with the same poor performances of pupils/students in the junior and senior secondary schools, (as was reported by Salami 2007), if one considers the obvious benefits of this teaching approach in improving pupils’ performances, there is need for the teachers’ adoption of this dynamic method in a bid to remedy this present ugly situation in pupils’ achievements in basic science and technology. It is important to note that there is erroneous misconception in Nigeria that science and technology and allied course are not suitable for girls (Njoku, 2003) Okeke and Rufai, 2003). Therefore there is urgent need to correct this misconception by the adoption of a teaching approach such as the experiential teaching approach that will give equal opportunities to both the male and female pupils to effectively participate in the study of science and technology at the basic stage of education. This will enable them develop the needed science process skills to undertake further study of science at later stages of education. This teaching approach will invariably address the learning needs of both male and females not only in the study of basic science and technology but in all other subjects, especially those the society ascribes to males folks alone.
Moreover, with the paucity of research works in the use of this method as instructional delivery approach in basic schools in Nigeria, it is necessary to find out how pupils in Basic schools taught with experiential teaching method have improved in their academic achievement in basic science and technology.
Statement of the Problem
In Nigeria, most research works such as the Federal Ministry of Education’s 1997 Monitoring of Learning Achievement (MLA), the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) 2003 and 2006 Monitoring of learning achievement and UNICEF’s 2001 situation assessment and Analysis (SAA) studies indicate that there is a big gap between government’s desire or intention in introducing Basic Science and Technology in the Basic Education curriculum and pupils’ achievement rate in the subject area. Certain factors must be responsible for these poor or abysmal performances by pupils in basic science and technology. But the factors responsible for such poor achievements in the reports in those studies cited are teachers’ persistent use of didactic, teacher centred or traditional teaching approach. The traditional teaching approach does not give pupils opportunity to participate effectively in classroom instructional delivery. As such, pupils’ level of involvement in instructional delivery is very low. This culminates in low pupils’ achievement in Basic science and technology.
Indeed for basic science and technology to thrive and produce government’s desired result, a pragmatic teaching approach which will be participatory and learner-centred has to be adopted by teachers in teaching science and technology. Such method must provide opportunity for pupils to engage in several doing activities in order to find out facts about them, while the teacher only facilitates the learning. The teacher only stimulates the learners to find out facts by themselves.
The study has become imperative at this point in time as the poor performances in science and technology is worrisome. The teaching approach currently in use in our classroom to teach this subject is not facilitative. Indeed the teaching method currently in use in the classroom in teaching science and technology does not cater for the emotional/interest (affective) the Logical reasoning (cognitive) and the ability of children to use their hands (psychomotor) domains. The current teaching method does not consider children’s previous experiences.
Although Education researchers have recommended for adoption other teaching methods, this has been done, but the gap still persists. Such teaching methods suggested and tried out include cursenaire Rod Approach by Kurumeh and Achor (2009), affective science teaching approach by Omotayo and Olaleye (2008), personalized system of instruction by Salami (2007) and concept mapping approach by Ling and Boo (2007). In a bid to find solution to this perennial problem in teaching basic science and technology, this study was poised to determine the effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in Basic science and technology. Specifically, this study investigated the effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in Base science and technology.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in Basic science and technology. Specifically the researcher determined:
1. The effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in Basic science and technology
2. The effect of experiential teaching approach on male and female pupils’ achievement in Basic science and technology
3. The interaction effect of methods and gender on pupils’ achievement in Basic science and technology
Significance of the study
This study provided information to the following stakeholders in education: Education Researchers, Faculty of Education of Universities, School of Education of Colleges of Education, Curriculum planners, practicing Teachers, Development partners in Education such as UNESCO, UNICEF, USAID, DFID, UBEC, UBEB, NTI, LGEA, Ministry of Education, parents, and other philanthropic organizations in basic education.
The findings of the study provided information that will stimulate research interests in this teaching model. Currently there is paucity of research works in this area in Nigeria. Other researchers after reading this work will like to investigate the effect of the approach in other subject areas. Some may want to validate the findings of this current study, by so doing, teachers and school administrators will have several alternative teaching approaches that will be adopted in teaching Basic science and technology (BST). This will assist pupils to improve their performances in science and other subjects. The findings will be disseminated to researchers through publications in journals, internet, seminars, conferences and workshops.
The findings of this study provided information on the changing trend of instructional delivery. That is, the current drive for change from teacher centred to learner-centred and participatory approach to teaching of basic science and technology and technology (BST). Therefore, Faculty of Education of various universities and schools of education of colleges of education will find the work valuable, as they will redesign their courses to be in line with the current trend. This will enable their products/graduates to fit into the teaching profession properly. The information on this will be disseminated to them through journal publication and during seminar presentation.
The findings of this study provided information on the efficacy of the model over the conventional teaching model. It as well provided information on the appropriate time required for the model to work. Hence curriculum planners and school administrators will get information on the type of materials to recommend for a particular topic. They will also adjust the time in school timetables for different topics. They will organize for training and retraining of teachers on improvisation of teaching aids. These are in a bid to make the model to work. The curriculum planners will get information on this model through workshops, seminar and the publication in education journal. The findings of this study provided information on the capacity gap of practicing teachers in teaching Basic science and other subjects. These teachers currently teach basic science and technology using didactic or traditional teacher- centred approach, which is the only method known to them. They lack the knowledge or skills on participatory teaching approach which is the new trend in teaching basic science. Therefore, the teachers, some development partners such as USAID, DFID, UNESCO, UNICEF, who are stakeholders in education, even government agencies such as UBEC, UBEB, LGEA and NTI, will be made aware of this gap after reading this work. They will utilize the information on the gap to organize a retraining workshop for the teachers on experiential or participatory teaching approach. This is to remedy the gap. Information on experiential teaching approach will be disseminated to the development partners and government agencies through publication in educational journals, conferences, workshop. The findings of this study provided information on the type of instructional material and other teaching aids that are needed for effective application of experiential teaching method. Based on the information, a training workshop or advocacy visit will be organized for ministry of Education, State Universal Basic Education Board. During the training they will be exposed to the nature and type of instructional materials required in applying experiential teaching approach. This will change the orientation of these key stakeholders towards instructional material selection for basic science. They will focus attention on the procurement of instructional materials that are appropriate for the experiential teaching method. Information on experiential teaching will also be provided to these stakeholders through journal publications and in internet. The findings of this study provided information to parents. Parents will become aware and will assist their wards source indigenous or local materials that will be used in schools for the teaching of BST. The parents will be sensitized during an orientation workshop for them. Some parents who are literate will also get information about this teaching approach from journal publication and internet.
Scope of the Study
This study covered all the three hundred and seventeen (317) public basic schools in Onueke Education Zone (planning, research and statistics (PRS) SUBEB, 2009). The study investigated the effect of experiential teaching method on pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology in Onueke Education Zone.
The study covered the following topics in basic science and technology.
a) You and environment
b) Living and non-living things
c) You and energy
d) You and technology
The study was conducted with basic six pupils. Basic school is chosen because it is considered foundational to other levels in the teaching and learning of science and technology. Secondly, emphasis was on basic six because it is a transition class and as such a lot is taught to pupils to prepare them for the study of basic science and technology in the junior secondary school.
The following research questions guided the study:
1. What is the effect of experiential teaching method on the pupils’ mean achievements in basic science and technology?
2. What is the effect of experiential teaching method on male and female pupils’ mean achievements in basic science and technology?
3. What is the interaction effect of teaching methods and gender on pupils’ mean achievement in basic science and technology?
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
1. There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of pupils taught basic science using experiential teaching method and those taught basic science and technology using the conventional teaching method.
2. There is no significance difference in the mean achievement score of male and female pupils taught basic science using the experiential teaching method.
3. There will be no significant interaction between teaching method and gender on pupils mean achievements in basic science.